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THE ARTIZAN. 



% 3H0JttWg 30tirital LIBRARY 



OF 



U, S. PATENT OFFICE 



THE OPERATIVE ARTS 



YOL. XII. 



• 



LONDON: 

OFFICE OF "THE ABTIZAN" JOITBNAL, 20, PATEBNOSTEB BOW. 

1854. 



PLATE X> 



JOHN BARNES ENCINEER 




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TBS AK1IZAN JOTTEJU1 1654 



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IQNDOIT : 

g-ET-T.V AND CO., PWMTER3, OLD BCSWEIX COUET, 

TEMPLE BAB. 



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LIBRARY 



U. S, PATENT OFFICE 

INDEX TO VOL. XII. 

THE ABTIZAN JOUBNAL, 1854, 



Acids: Detection of picric acid in beer, 9; 
hydroferrocyanic,159; sulphuric, 161; fuming 
nitric acid, 177 ; action of certain acids upon 
iron, 275 

Agricultural Operations and Engineering: Irri- 
gation, 2, 198, 220, 242 ; Atkins' self-rak- 
ing reaper and mower, 3, 223 ; Allen's 
cutting gear for harvesting machines, 44; the 
steam-plough of Lord Willoughby de Eresby, 
105; Zink's improved thresher or grain sepa- 
rators, 141; Bard's patent mould-board for 
ploughs, 165; Bartlett's machine for making 
shovel-handles, 165; Green's grain and grass 
harvesters, 165; prize list of the Eoyal Agri- 
cultural Society, Lincoln, 1854, 182; agricul- 
tural implements in the United States, 191; 
Harrison's American flour-mill, 243 ; American 
post-auger, 244 ; Palmer's rotary threshing 
machine, 244; Carson's field-roller, 245; list 
of queries for judges at trials of reaping- 
machines, 249 ; Eambles among the Reapers, 
by B. S. Burn, 266 ; on road and land drain- 
age, 272 ; Yule's flour-mill, 285 ; manufacture 
of bricks and tiles -without firing, 285 

Air-pumps of marine engines, on the latest im- 
provements in — air-pumps of the Croesus and 
Candia, by G. Eennie and Co., 147 

Alkalies, organic, detection of, 158 ; electrolytic 
production of the alkaline and earthy metals, 
275 ; new alkalimetrical process, 275 

Alum, 178 

Aluminium, 81 

American ocean steamers, 73 

Ammonia, 178 

Amorphous phosphorus, 9 

Analysis, organic, by means of illuminating gas, 
Wetherill's apparatus for, 252 

Anchor, Roberts' spiral-shanked, 80; anchor- 
making for the French marine, 141 

Anemometer for registering the currents of air 
in mines, 238 

Annealing, American process of, 164 

Anthracite coal for locomotives, by A. Pardee, 
180 ; Whitty on the Silurian anthracite of 
Cavan, 283 

Anvils, improved, 67 

Arts, the influence of the Crystal Palace on, 149 

Auger for posts, American,. 244 

Australia, will screw steam-ships pay ? by J. P. 
Drake, 10 

Axles, railway, testing of, 19; hot, 19; oil appa- 
ratus for greasing, 142 ; W. B. Adams' im- 
provements in, 219 

B. 

Beams or girders, cast-iron, Eairbairn on, 56; 

wrought-iron, 83, 133 
Beer, detection of picric acid in, 9 
Beet sugar, manufacture of, 56, 143, 261 



Benzole vapour apparatus, 15 

Bismuth, influence of, upon the ductility of cop- 
per, 189 

Bitumen, manufacture of laminated, 190 

Blood-stains, detection of, on a rusty knife, 26; 
upon linen, &c, 177 

Blow-pipe, constant-action, 284 

Blowing machine, centrifugal, its application 
to high furnaces, by P. Marquardt, 205 ; by R. 
Roberts, C.E., 235; Woelckner's piston for 
horizontal cylinder blowing machines, 215 

Boilers : Rolinson's apparatus for preventing 
explosions, 5 ; Irving's steam-boilers, 1 5 ; Finch's 
seh-acting feed apparatus for, 27; Montgo- 
mery's patent boiler, 44; American tubular 
boiler, 67 ; proportions of locomotive boilers, 
by Zerah Colburn, 76; explosions and their 
remedy, 81; Bitten's self-acting water indica- 
tor and low-water alarm whistle, 81 ; Pearce's 
method of fixing and strengthening the tubes, 
137; Williams' improvements in controlling 
the pressure of steam, 140; Fairbairn on the 
strength of locomotive boilers, and the causes 
which lead to their explosion, 153; the bee- 
hive boiler of Lake Erie, by T. D. Stetson, 157 ; 
means of preventing incrustations in steam- 1 
boilers — to purify hard water for boilers, 189; 
furnaces of locomotive boilers, by Zerah 
Colburn, 204; T. A. Roebling, C.E., on marine 
boilers, 256; plan for the preservation of 
marine tubular boilers, by H. Ashton, 260 ; 
Forsyth on a new steam-boiler, 270 

Boring apparatus for mines, 29 

Boring machine, 117 

Brass, dull black colour for, 142 ; to clean, 284 

Brickmaking machine, Clayton's, 69; dry-clay 
brickmaking machine, 166 

Bricks, use of coals for burning, 166 ; manufac- 
ture of, without firing, 285 

Bridge, London, Wright's plan for widening, 
252 ; on the proposed Metropolitan bridges, 
265 

Bridge, suspension, Reed's, 239 

Bronze colours from Brazil logwood, 82, 176 

Bronze sheathing for ships, 45 

Buffer, Wright's registered railway," 196, 261 

Building improvements as suggested by W. B. 
Adams, C.E., 211 

Buildings, facing, with iron, 15 

Button manufacture, the, in America, 164 

Button-shanking machine, 92 



Cable-stopper, Hall's, 196 

Caisson, sliding, at Keyham Dockyard, by W. 

Fairbairn, C.E., 129 
Canals, inclined plane for, J. Leslie, C.E., on, 32; 

in Ireland, 76 
Cannon, rifled, Jeffrey's compound shot for, 262 
Caoutchouc, shining varnish for, 117 



Carlo Alberto, engines of the Sardinian steam- 
frigate, 51, 102 

Casks, metallic, Roberts' patent, 68 

Cast-steel, hardening of, for cutlery, 27;" the 
manufacture of, by Dr. Karsten, 33 : 

Castings, metal, cleansing, 141; pickling cast- 
ings, 163 

Charcoal as a disinfectant, 109; preparation of 
the purest, 126 

Charlemagne, French screw steamer -of- war, 
engines of the, 2, 218 

Chemicals, purity of, 26 

Cherry bird, yellow colour from the root bark of 
the, 109 

Clocks, the manufacture of, in the United 
States, 164 

Clod-crusher, Carson's improved, 244 

Coal in Ireland, 76; coal washing machine, 189 

Coal, anthracite, for locomotion, by A Pardee, 
180 ; the Silurian anthracite of Cavan, 283 ; 
essence of coal a substitute for oil of tur- 
pentine, 285 

Coal-mining on the Continent, 29 

Cobalt in mineral springs, 82; separation of, 
from nickel, 159 

Cog-weels, new method of casting, 190 

Collodion, new solvent for, 251 

Colours, bronze, 82, 176 ; yellow, 109, 126; 
application of, to stone, 141 

Combined vapour engine, 17, 26 

Compounds, chemical properties of, dependant 
upon the electrical character of their con- 
stituents, 208 

Copal varnish, 126 " 

Copper, [oxide^of, 110; determination of, in nuV 
nerals and alloys, 177; influence of bismuth 
upon its ductility, 189; electro-chemical treat- 
ment of ores of, 235 

Core-spindle, 67 

Corrugated iron for steam-boilers, 44 

Cotton seed, oil from the, 45 

Crane, coking, for supplying locomotives, by 
J. Ramsbottom, 6 

Creosote, examination of, 109 

Crossing, railway, Carr's, 129 

Crystal Palace, influence of, on the arts, 149 

Cutlery, hardening of cast-steel for, 27 

Cyanide of potassium, 26 

Cylinders, ornamental casting of, in relief, 261 

D. 

Dammara varnish, 158 

Decimal system, J. Yates, M.A., on, 78, 106 

Designs registered for articles of utility, 24, 48, 
72, 96, 120, 144, 167, 192, 216, 240, 264, 288 

Double-cylinder engines, Bosscha on the cal- 
culation of the power of, 121 

Drainage works on the river Lee, by N. Beard- 
more, C.E., 64 ; on road and land drainage, 
272 



IV 



Index. 



Drilling machines, stone, Wright's, 165 
Dry docks, Loveland's sectional, 165 

E. 

Enamel, sulphate of lead for, 142 

Engine-room telegraph, How's, 148 

Engraving, heliographic, on steel, 10; soap as a 
substitute for wood engraving, 43; Hansen's 
electro-magnetic engraving machine, 167 

Envelopes, Waterlow's registered, 191 

Etching liquid for lithographers, 143 

Ether engine, Du Trembley's, report on, 17; 
remarks on report, 26 

Exhauster, gas, Anderson's patent, 227 

Exhibition of 1855 at Paris, general regulations, 

■ 97, 166 

Explosions, boiler, Robinson's apparatus for 
preventing, 5; Bitten's self-acting water in- 
dicator and low- water alarm whistle, 81; 
Eairbairn on the strength of locomotive boilers, 
and the causes which lead to explosions, 153 

E. 

Eeed apparatus for steam-boilers, Finch's, 27 

Field-roller, Carson's improved, 245 

JTiles, improved, 15 

Filter for oil, 27 

Fire-places and grates, Dr. Arnott's smoke-con- 
suming, 138_, 160; Jeffrey's, 167; Dr. Arnott 
on the position of, 180 

Fire Queen, engines of, by Mr. E. Napier, 267 

Fire-proof record rooms, 116 

Fixing designs upon muslin, 27 

Flax, progress of the culture and manufacture 
of, in Ireland, 54 

Flour-mill, Harrison's, 243 ; Yule's, 285 

Fortifications, ball-proof, iron as a material for, 
179 

France, river steam navigationin,by J. Gaudry,49 

Fresh water apparatus for screw steam-ships, 
Gregory's, 36 

Furnaces, gas puddling, 143; zinc white, 165; 
Marquardt on the application of the centri- 
fugal blowing machine for smelting purposes 
to high furnaces, 205 ; Roberts on, 235 

JTurnaces, smoke-consuming, Inche's, Keymer's, 
Hazeldine's, and Hall's, 39; Prideaux's, 92; 
Witty 's, Jearrad's, Hume's, 167; Bristow and 
Attwood's, 196 ; Baker's American, 224 ; 
Witty's, 246 

Fusion, effects of pressure on the temperature 
of, of various substances, 283 

G. 

Gas : Wigston's purifying apparatus, 16; Hughes 
on the flow of, through pipes, 41, 90; Mayer's 
self -regulating gas nipple, 215; Anderson's 
patent gas exhauster, 227; Paterson's gas 
cooking apparatus, 237 ; Wetherill's apparatus 
for organic analysis by means of, 252, 278 ; 
description of gas-holder at Philadelphia 
works, 282 

Gazogene apparatus, Briet's, 189 

Gimlet screws, 92 

Girders, cast-iron, Fairbairn on, 56; wrought- 
iron, by Fairbairn, 83, 133 

Glass, decolorising action of manganese upon, 
204; soluble, use of, 261; preparation of rouge 
for polishing, 275 

Glue rendered impervious to water, 117 

Governors for marine engines, Waddeli's patent, 
277 

Graphite, purification of, for lead pencils, 27 

Grinding and levigating apparatus, Goodall's, 181 

Gum, pulverising machine for, Chase's, 124 ; 
bleaching of, 285 

Gun-boats, steam, conversion of mercantile 
steamers into, 52, 75; J. Scott Russell's, for 
the Prussian Government, 146; screw steam 
despatch gun-boats, 170 ; Commander Shuld- 
ham on, 171 ; screw gun-vessels and steam gun- 
boats for the navy, 189 ; letter from Wallachia 
on, 276 



Gunpowder, Chinese, 251 

Gutta percha, coating iron with, 15 

Gyroscope, Fe6sel's, 285 

H. 

Hammers, Noyes' machine, 44; Sykes' steam, 
172 ; Poirel's, for forming and dressing mill- 
stones, 190 

Heliographic engraving, 10 

Hemp, Russian, Indian substitutes for, 141 

Hubs, metallic, 140 

Hydraulic constructions, manufacture of artifi- 
cial blocks for, 143; action of sea-water on 
hydraulic lime, 252 

Hydrostatic percolator, Loysel's, 109 

I. 

Inclined plane for canals, 32 

Incrustation in steam-boilers, preventing, 176 

India, Will screw steam-ships to, pay? by J. P. 
Drake, 10 ; Indian substitutes for Russian 
hemp, 141; Lieut.-Col. Cotton on the public 
works of, 246, 268 

India-rubber, improvements in vulcanising, 141; 
liquid, Archer on, 283 

Indicator, water, for boilers, Bitten's, 81 ; for 
equalising the fares and checking the receipts 
of omnibuses, by R. Griffiths, 276 

Iodine, estimation of, 251 

Iodised manures for the vine disease, 10 

Ireland, its industrial and commercial prospects, 
54, 75 

Iron: Haematite iron ore, 10; coating iron with 
gutta percha, 15; facing buildings with, 15; 
structural conditions of, by T. R. V. Fuchs, 35 ; 
Whitworth and Wallis on the iron manufac- 
tures of the United States, 91, 163; roasting 
of iron ores, 117; soldering wrought and cast 
iron, 141; gas puddling furnaces, 143; iron as 
a material for ball-proof fortifications, 179 ; 
permanent expansion of cast-iron by succes- 
sive heatings, 215; improvements in the ma- 
nufacture of, Laugel on, 225 ; action of tannic 
and gallic acid on, 275 ; Nasmyth's improve- 
ments in puddling, 285 

Iron houses, Mettam's patent, 236 

Iron-rolling machinery, Reese's improvements 
in, 140 

Iron ships, variation of the compass in, 259, 
284 ; strength of, 261 

Iron, smoothing, rotary, 165 

Irrigation, 2, 198, 220 242 



Lac, bleaching, 285 

Lamps, safety, Chuard's improved, 117 
Last-making machine, 166 
Lathe-heads, improvements in, 260 
Lead, sulphate of, for making enamel, 142; 
preparation of peroxide of, 235 ; electro-che- 
mical treatment of ores of, 235 
Lead pencils, purification of graphite for, 27 
Leaden cisterns, means of rendering safe, 82 
Leather, Pigalle's printed, 238 ; Kohnstamm's 

imitation, 285 
Lightning-conductors, ships', R.B. Forbes on, 209 
Lightning-rods, J. L. Gatchell's, 207 
Lights, dipping and apparent, T. Stevenson, C.E., 

on, 64 
Lithography, etching liquid for, 143 
Lime, hydraulic action of sea-water upon, 252 
Locks, manufacture of, in the United States, 

164; Gibbon's patent, 191 
Locomotives, manufacture of, in America, 68 ; 
locomotive boilers, the proportions of, by Zerah 
Colburn, 76; Beattie's improved locomotive 
engine, 131; oil apparatus for greasing the 
axles of locomotives, &c, 142; moveable taper- 
ingnozzles to the exhaust-pipes of locomotives, 
165; anthracite coals for, by A. Pardee, 180; 
furnaces of locomotive boilers, by Z. Colburn, 
204 
Logwood, preparation of bronze colours from, 82 
Lucine, conversion of thialdine into, 235 



M. 

Machinery, notes on designing, 27, 101, 147, 194, 
246, 268 

Manganese, detection of, 82; decolorising action 
of, upon glass, 204 

Mantels, cast-iron, 91 

Manures, iodised, 10; British, by J. Thompson, 
60 

Maps, Schneiter's relievo, 117 

Mediterranean, the, steam navigation in, 25 

Messageries Nationales, 29 

Metal, machine to cut sheet, 15 

Metals, ornamentation of the surfaces of, by W. C. 
Aitken, 88 ; metal manufactures of the United 
States, 91 ; the reduction of Woehler's process, 
109; Braithwaite on the fatigue and conse- 
quent fracture of, 159; extraction of, by the 
battery, 203 

Metals, earthy, technical employment of, 275 

Meters, Taylor's, Chadwick and Hanson's, and 
Siemens' water-meters, 111 — 114, 137; D. 
Chadwick on water-meters, 127 

Metropolitan improvements, Mr. Pearson's 
scheme, 1 

Mines, boring apparatus for, 29 ; H. Mackworth , 
C.E., on the ventilation of, 228; chronometrical 
anemometer for currents of air in the galleries 
of mines, 238 

Mint, the Sydney Royal, 190 

Mould, Jobson's improved, for casting moulds, 
200 

Moulding process, Bernard's improved, 189 

Muslins, colouring material for fixing designs 
upon, 27 

N. 
Nail -making machine, 164 
Nature-printing, W. C. Aitken on, 88 
Navigation works on the river Lee, by N. Beard- 
more, C.E., 64 
Needles of iron or steel, process of whitening, 

190 t 

Nickel in mineral springs, 82; separation of, 

from cobalt, 159; separation of nickel and 

zinc, 176 
Nut-making machines, 67, 140 
Notes by a practical chemist, 9, 26, 58, 81, 109, 

126, 158, 176, 203, 251, 275 
Notes on designing steam machinery, 27, 101, 

147, 194, 246, 268 
Notes on the progress of naval engineering, 50, 

102, 144 

O. 

Oils, filter for, 27; from the cotton seed, 45; 
oh ve nut and poppy oils, 110; purification of 
fixed oils, 190; rosin oil for lubricating machi- 
nery, 190 

Omnibuses, Griffiths' indicator for equalising 
the fares and checking the receipts of, 276 

Oolite, discovery of three beds of, 167 

Ore, haematite iron, 10; roasting of iron, 117 

Ovens, Fitch's patent, 20 

Oxidised silver, 126 

P. 

Packing, metallic piston, Russell's, 44 
Paddle-wheel v. the parabolic propeller, 10; 

v. the screw, byR. Roberts, C.E., 61; ruinous 

effect of feathering wheels, 116; J. Symons on 

paddle-wheel propulsion, 209 
Panama railroad, report of the chief engineer, 

65 
Paper from turf, 161; from the dwarf palm, 162; 

new materials for, 283 
Paper, manufacture of, 65 
Paper-stainers, colours for, 82 
Paraffine, manufacture of, from bituminous 

shale, 141 
Patent law, new administration of the, 261 
Patents : — 

Provisional protections, 20, 45, 70, 94, 118, 
143, 167, 191, 215, 239, 263, 287 

List of patents sealed, 22, 46, 71,95, 119 



Index. 



Patents applied for with complete specifica- 
tions deposited, 24, 72, 96, 119, 144, 168, 
192, 216, 240, 264, 288 

Eecent American patents, notices of, 15, 44, 
140, 165 
Peat, wax from, 19 ; new plastic material from, 

285 
Pencils, lead, purification of lead for, 27 
Percolator, hydrostatic, Loysel's, 109 
Phosphorus, amorphous, 9 
Photometer, new, hy M. Bahinet, 261 
Picric acid, detection of, in heer, 9 
Pin-sorting and papering machine, 67 
Pile-driving, Stevelly on the limit of weight to be 

laid on a pile, 284 
Pins of iron or steel, process of whitening, 190 
Piston, steam-engine, Eamsbottom's improved, 

173 
Planing machine to cut both ways, 124 
Plough, steam, Lord Willoughby de Eresby's, 

105 ; snow-ploughs for railroads, 141 ; improved 

mould-board for ploughs, 165 
Potassium, cyanide of, 26; iodide of, 159 
Powder-magazine, Copeland's patent, 241 
Powhattan, TJ. S. screw-steamer, performance of 

the, 88 
Princeton, U. S. screw steam-ship, performance 

of, 16, 39 
Propellers, Mitchell's bomerang, 1; Hodgson's 

parabolic, 10, 60; Euthven's, D. K. Clark, 

C.E., on, 79, 107, 126; Griffiths' patent, 101; 

Fisher's Venetian, 212 
Euddling-furnaces, gas, 143 
Pulverising machine, Chase's patent, 124 
Pump, Wirtz's spiral, 114 
Pumping-engines, the new, at Birmingham, 30 
Pyroacetic spirit, 26 

Q. 

Quartz-crushing and amalgamating machinery, 
lizard's, 124 

E. 

Eailways: — 
Anthracite coal for locomotives, by A. Pardee, 

180 
Axles, testing of, 19; Sir E. Head on hot 

axles, 19; oil apparatus for greasing, 142 
Boilers, locomotive, their strength and the 

causes which lead to explosions, Eairbairn 

on, 153 
Buffer, Wright's registered, 196, 261 
City, railway for the, 1 

Coking crane for locomotives, Eamsbottom's, 6 
Collisions, experiments at Eeigate, 237 
Communication between guard and driver, 

Capt. "Wynne's report, 166 
Eurnaces of locomotive boilers, Z. Colburn 

on, 204 
High-level railway for Liverpool Docks, 

Grantham's plan, 261 
Irish railways, the, 76 
Locomotive boilers, the proportion of, by 

Zerah Colburn, 76 
Locomotives, manufacture of, in America, 

68; Beattie's improved locomotive, 130 
London and North Western, and Great West- 
ern, 1 
Metropolitan railway, extension of the, 238 
Moveable tapering nozzles for exhaust-pipes 

of locomotives, 165 
Panama railroad, report of the chief engineer, 

65 
Bails, Williston's machine for straightening 

and curving, 44 
Eailroad spikes, American, 164 
Eailway crossing, Carr's, 129 
Eailway wheels, mode of annealing, 164 
Snow-ploughs, 141 

The central station at Birmingham, 166 
Tunnelling, the casualties of, Peniston on, 159 
Turntables, Lloyd's improved, 52 
Wheels, their axles and boxes, improvements 

in, by W. B. Adams, C.E., 219 



Easps, Powers' improved, 15 
Eatchet-brace, Griffiths' patent, 32 
Eatchet-spanner, right or left handed, Bosustow's, 

236 
Eazors, Eicault's mode of making, 189 
Eeaping machines: Atkins' self-raking reaper 
and mower, 3, 223 ; Allen's cutting gear, 44; 
list of queries for judges at trials of, 249; 
Eambles among the Eeapers, by E. S. Burn, 
266 
Eecord-rooms, fire-proof, J. P. Drake on, 116 
Biver-steamers for shallow waters, American, 117 
Eivet-making machines, American, 164 
Eoads, macadamised, J. Pigott Smith, C.E., 

on, 63 
Eouge, for polishing glass, 275 
Eule-joints, Dixon's registered, 167 
Eeviews : — 
Beans — Manual for Practical Surveyors, 251 
Burel, E., C.E. — Excursion in England and 

Scotland, 14 
Cotton, Lieut.-Colonel — Eublic Works in India, 

their Importance, 246, 268 
Eairbairn — On the Application of Cast and 

Wrought Iron to Building Furposes, 202 
Hann and Gener — The Steam Engine for Prac- 
tical Men, 151 
Johnston — The Chemistry of Common Life, 

85, 135 
Lardner, Dr. — Handbook of Natural Philo- 
sophy, &c, 115; The Museum of Science 
and Art, 136 
Muspratt, Dr. — Chemistry as applied to the 

Arts and Manufactures, 136, 177, 249 
Observations on Col. Cotton's proposed System 

of cheap Eailroads for India, 246 
Orr's Circle of the Sciences, 251 
Schoedler — Book of Nature, 115 
Stuart, C. B. — Naval and Mail Steamers of the 

United States, 12; see also p. 208 
Timbs— The Year Book of Eacts, 114 
Wilson, Frof. — Special Eeport on New York 
Exhibition, 248 

S. 
Safety-lamps, Chuard's, 117 
Salt, common, solvent action of, at high tempe- 
ratures, 251 
Screw, thrust of the, Hick's mode of taking the, 
101 ; on the present mode of unshipping the 
screw, with Penn's mode, as in H.MS. Eoyal 
Albert, 194 
Screw v. paddle, by E, Eoberts, C.E., 61 
Screw-propeller, Mitchell's, 1 ; Ericsson's, 39 ; 
Hodgson's parabolic, 10,60; Griffiths' patent, 
101; American, for shallow waters, 166; 
Fisher's Venetian, 212 
Screws, gimlet, 92 
Sealing wax, coloured, 285 
Shale, bituminous, manufacture of paraffine 

from, 141 
Sheathing, bronze, for ships, 45, 188 
Shipbuilding : — 
The Great Bepublic, 18; ships' side-lights, 44; 
the new royal yacht, 45 ; bronze sheathing 
for ships, 45; conversion of mercantile 
steamers into steam gun-boats, 52, 75; wood 
and iron ships, Hodgson's estimate of the 
comparative annual cost of working, 52; 
Drake's diagonal system, 62; iron ship- 
building in Sweden, 68; trial of Peake's 
life-boats, 68; specification of the screw 
steam- vessel Emeu, 74; Stoake's apparatus 
for paying the seams of vessels, 165; 
modern American shipbuilding, by J. F. 
Drake, 178; Bobierre on the composition of 
the sheathing of ships, 188 ; shipbuilding 
on the Clyde, 237 ; J. Scott Eussell on the 
progress of naval architecture, 258 ; Cun- 
ningham on the ventilation of emigrant 
ships, 259; variation of the compass in iron 
ships, 259; launch of the Pacific, 261; new 
mode of constructing, 284 



Shipbuilding, progress of, at various ports — 
dimensions of steamers and sailing vessels 
building, 69, 183, 187, 190, 213, 237, 239, 
262, 286-7 

Ship-rigging, thimbles for, by machinery, 67 

Ships' side-lights, 44 

Shipwrecks, the late appalling, by J. P. Drake, 6 1 

Shot for rifled cannon, Jeffrey's compound, 262 

SiUcium, 81 

Silk manufacture, Chadwick and Dickins' im- 
provements in, 257 

Silver, oxidised, 126; electro-chemical treat- 
ment of ores of, 235; fulminate of, 251 

Size rendered impervious to water, 117 

Slide-valves, on removing steam-pressure from 
the backs of, 246. Equilibrium slide-valves, 
Penn's, 246; Waddell's, 277 

Smoke-consuming: Experience of Price's Patent 
Candle Company, 39; Keymer's patent, 39; 
Inche's, Hazeldine's, and Hall's patents, 39 ; 
Prideaux's smoke-consuming valve, 92; Dr. 
Arnott's smoke-consumingfire-place, 138, 160; 
Bristow and Attwood's apparatus, 196; 
Baker's American and Nasmyth's hollow- 
sided furnace, 225 ; Mr. Eairbairn on, 283 

Soap as a means of art, Dr. Branson on, 43 

Soapstone, or steatite, 239 

Societies, Proceedings of: — 
British Association, 2, 258, 283 
Chemical Society, 161, 182 
Civil Engineers, Institution of, 7, 32, 63, 76, 

106, 126, 159 
Mechanical Engineers, Institution of, 5, 30, 52, 

130, 173, 200, 269 
Eoyal Institution, 210 
Eoyal Society of Arts, 88, 137, 160 
Scottish Society of Arts, 64, 114 

Soda manufacture, statistics of, 261 ' 

Solder, to analyse, 27 ; soldering wrought and 
cast iron, 141; soldering cast-steel, 143 

Spanner, ratchet, Bosustow's right or left handed, 
236 

Specification of the screw steam- vesselEmeu, 74 

Stame, Frost's, 152 

Starch, potato and wheat, 235 ; bleaching of, 
285 

Steam, high pressure on the flow of, through a 
pipe open to the atmosphere, 63, 87; im- 
provements in controlling the pressure of, 140 

Steam Engines : — Engines of the French screw 
war-steamer Charlemagne, 2; new pumping 
engines at Birmingham, 30; engines of the 
Sardinian steam-frigate Carlo Alberto, 51, 
102; design for marine engines of 300-horse 
power for a second-class steamer, by John 
Gregory, 59 ; Can marine engines be improved 
and the engine-room space be reduced? by 
J. P. Drake, 86; Birkinbine's supplementary 
valve for Cornish engines, 93 ; log of the Emeu, 
104; calculation of the power of engines on 
the double- cylinder principle, by H. C.Bosscha, 
M.E., 121; Beattie's improved locomotive engine, 
130; the latest improvements in the air-pumps 
of marine engines — air-pumps of the Candia 
and Croesus, by G. Eennie and Co., 147 ; Eams- 
bottom's improved piston for, 173; Mr. Fair- 
bairn on a new description of winding engine, 
174; direct-acting engines for the screw-pro- 
peller — Stieler's, Watt's horizontal oscillating, 
Blyth's vertical oscillating, Maudslay's, Sea- 
ward's, Eennie's, Holm's, Penn's, Whitelaw's, 
Thompson's, Carlsund's, 193-4; on removing 
steam-pressure from off the backs of slide- 
valves; Fenn's equilibrium slide-valves, 246 — 
Waddell's, 277 ; governors for marine engines, 
277 

Steam gun-boats, conversion of mercantile 
steamers into, 52, 75; for the Baltic, 146; J. 
Scott Eussell's, for the Prussian Government, 
146; screw steam despatch gun-boats, 170; 
Commander Shuldham, EN., on, 171; screw 
gun- vessels and steam gun-boats for the navy, 
195 ; letter from Wallachia, 276 



VI 



Index. 



Steam-hammer, Sykes', 172 
Steam-jigger, M'Conochie's, 241 
Steam Navigation: — 
American ocean steamers, 73, 169, 217 
American screw-propeller for shallow waters, 

166 
Candia, trial of the, 145 
Charlemagne, French screw steamer-of-war, 

2,218 
Esk, launch of the, 145 
Eire Queen, engines of, by Mr. K. Napier, 

267 
France, river steam navigation in, by J. Gau- 

dry, 49 
Herman, Transatlantic steam-ship, by B. E. 

Isherwood, 280 
Log of the Emeu, 104 
Naval and mail steamers of United States, by 

C. B. Stuart, 12, 208 
Ocean steamers, 7 
Pacific, launch of the, 261 
Powhattan, U.S. screw steam-ship, performance 

of the, 88 
Princeton, U.S. screw steam-ship, 16, 39 
Report on combined vapour-engine in ship Du 

Trembley, 17, 26 
River-steamers for shallow waters, 117 
Screw steam-ships to India and Australia, will 

they pay? 10,36 
Steam-frigate Carlo Alberto, 51 
Steam navigation in the Mediterranean, 25 
Steamers for the Pacific and Australian Steam 

Navigation Company, 74 
Tasmanian Steam Navigation Company, 103 
Voyages and trial-trips of the Himalaya, 

Manilla, and Emeu, 50 
Dimensions of Hull and Machinery of 
Aquila, iron pd., M'Nabb and Clark, 188 
Atrato, iron pd., Caird and Co., 286 
Auguste Louise, iron sc, J. W. Hoby and Co., 

262 
Baron, iron pd., Hoby and Co., 262 
Canadian, iron sc, Tulloch and Denny, 214 
Chancellor, iron pd., Tulloch and Denny, 213 
City of Hobart, iron sc, Wingate and Co., 187 
Cottingham, iron sc, Tulloch and Denny, 214 
Curlew, iron sc, Tulloch and Denny, 69, 214 
Emeu, iron sc, Robert Napier, 69 
Gem, ironpd., M'Nabb and Clark, 213 
Gold Einder, iron sc, Lawrie and Co., 187 
Hannibal, H.M.S., wd. sc,Deptford Dockyard, 

69 
Hawk, iron sc, C. and W. Earle, 239 
Iron Age, iron sc, J. W. Hoby and Co., '262 
Mimosa, iron pd., J.W. Hoby and Co., 262 
Ocean Queen, iron sc, C. andW. Earle, 239 
Petrel, iron sc, C. and W. Earle, 239 
Ruby, iron pd., M'Nabb and Clark, 213 



Steam Navigation (continued) : — 

Samson, iron pd., Lawrie and Co., 187 
Tocantius, wd. pd., Miller, Ravenhill, and 

Co., 183 
Vulcan, iron sc, Hawks, Crawshay, and Co., 

213 
Ward Jackson, iron sc, Tulloch and Denny, 

214 
Wladimir, iron pd., Bury, Curtis, and Co., 187 
American Steamers : — 
Cuba, wd. pd., Pease and Murphy, 287 
Golden Age, 18 

Iturbide, wd. sc, T. H. and E. Earon, 287 
Orizaba, wd. pd., Morgan Iron Works, 94 
Santa Anna, wd. sc, T. H. andE. Earon, 287 
Sonora, wd. pd., Morgan Iron Works, 94 
Tennessee, wd. pd., C.Reeder, jun., 94 
Yankee Blade, wd. pd., Allaire Works, 69 

Steam navy, increase of pressure in the, 1 ; 
H.M. steam-ship Majestic, 104; launch of H.M. 
steam screw-corvette Esk, 145 ; Volcano's 
floating workshop, 146 ; Shuldham's sugges- 
tions for improving the equipment of the 
steam navy, 241 ; M'Conochie's steam-jigger, 
241 ; Copeland's powder-magazine, 241 

Steam-plough, Lord Willoughby de Eresby's, 
105 

Steamers, ocean, 7 ; American ocean steamers, 
73, 169, 217 

Steel, heliographic engraving on, 10; hardening 
of cast-steel fox cutler y, 27; manufacture of 
cast-steel, by Dr. Karsten, 33 ; soldering cast- 
steel, 143; Lougel on the manufacture of, 225 

Stone, application of colours to, 141 ; Wright's 
stone drilling machine, 165; stone planing 
works, American, 189 

Strychnia, detection of, in saccharine matter, 
126 

Sugar, manufacture of beet, 143; quantitative 
determination of sugar in solution, 161; its 
corrosive action on iron and other metals, 161 ; 
new test for, 204 

Sugar from the beet root, manufacture of, in 
Ireland, 55 ; in France, 261 

Sulphuric acid, 161 

Sweden, machine-making and iron ship-building 
in, 68 

T. 
Tannin, determination of, in substances used 

for tanning, 238 
Telegraph for engine-rooms, How's mechanical, 

148 
Thermography, 203 

Thialdine, conversion of, into lucine, 235 
Thimbles for ship-rigging by maohinery, 67 
Threshers and grain separators, improved, 141 
Threshing machine, 244 
Tiles, tubular, Norton and Borrie's patent, 110 



Tin, oxide of, substitution of sulphate of lead 
for, in making enamel, 142 

Tool-holders, improved, 140 

Travelling, crane, steam, Dunn's, 269 

Tubes of steam-boilers, Pearce's method of fix- 
ing and strengthening, 136 

Tunnelling, the casualties of, by W. M. Penis- 
ton, C.E., 159 

Turf -paper, 161 

Turpentine, 285 

Turntable, Lloyd's improved, 52 

Trip-hammer, Van Anden's, 15 

U. 
Uranium, yellow, 126 

V. 

Valve, Birkinbine's supplementary, for Cornish 
engines, 93; slide- valves, on removing steam- 
pressure from the backs of, 246 ; Waddell's 
slide-valve, 277 

Valve, smoke-consuming, Prideaux's, 92 

Valve-cocks, Griffiths', 140 

Valve-seating, Griffiths' patent, 268 

Varnish for heliographic engraving on steel, 10 ; 
shining varnish for caoutchouc, 117; copal 
varnish, 126; dammara, 158 

Vine disease, remedy for the, 10 

Volcano, conversion of, into a floating workshop 
for the steam navy, by Mr. Nasmyth, 146 

W. 

Water, electro-decomposition of, 109 
Water-cocks, Wilson's improved, 114 
Water-meters, papers on, by J. Glynn, F.R.S., 

and B. Fothergill, 111; Taylor's, Chadwick and 

Hanson's water-meters, 112, 137; Siemens* 

patent balance-meter, 113, 137; D. Chadwick 

on, 127 
Water-wheel, large, 261 
Wax from peat, 19 
Weights, measures, &c, J. Yates, M.A, on, 78; 

106 
Welding powder, 141 
Whalebone, artificial, 285 
Wheels, new method of casting, 190; short 

method of getting the circumference of, 285 
Wheels, railway, W. B. Adams' improvements 

in, 219 
Winding engine, new, Mr. Fairbairnon, 174 



Yacht, the new royal, 45 
Yellow, uranium, 126 

Z. 

Zinc white, furnaces, 165 

Zinc, separation of nickel and, 176 ; "presence 
of, in the vegetable organism, 204 



LIST OF PLATES. 



17. Engines of the French Steamer-of-war Charlemagne— Elevation. 

18. Do. do. do. • Transverse Section. 

19. Design for Marine Engines of 300 h.p., by J. Gregory, C.E.; 

Donna Maria H. 

20. The Australasian Pacific Company's Scfew Steam-vessel Emeu, 

by Messrs. R. Napier and Sons. 

20. The Screw Steamer European, showing her conversion into 'a 4 

68-pounder Gun-vessel. 

21. Mode of taking the Thrust of the Screw Shaft, by Messrs. Hick 

and Son. 

21. Griffiths' Patent Screw Propeller. 

22. Moberg's Planing Machine to plane both ways, having two 

cutters planing alternately. 

23. Engines of the French Steamer-of-War Charlemagne. 

24. Comparative View of Direct-acting Engines for the Screw Pro- 

peller (fifteen varieties). 



25. Mode of raising the Screw as in KM. Steam-ship Royal Albert, 

by Messrs. J. Penn and Son. 

26. Jobson's Improved Casting Moulds. 

27. Engine of Screw Steam-ship Barwon, by Messrs. J. Bourne 

and Co. 

28. Penn's Equilibrium Slide Valve. 

28. Witty's Patent Smoke-consuming Furnaces. 

28. Harrison's American Flour Mill. 

29. Engines of the Fire Queen of 80 h.p., by Mr. R. Napier. 



DIRECTIONS TO THE BINDER. 

The remainiflg Plates to 



Plate XXlll. to form the Frontispiece, 
be placed at the end of the Volume. 



THE AKTIZAN. 



No. CXXXIL— Vol. XII.— JANUARY 1st, 1854. 



EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 

To an attentive observer of the progress of our steam navy, it seems 
really providential, that we have had sufficient time allowed us to re- 
pair the blunders which have been committed in the hulls and machi- 
nery of a large proportion of our ships, before being called on to assume 
the responsibility of a naval war. Very few of our ships, indeed, were 
ever called upon to endure the twelve and twenty days' consecutive 
steaming, which is the usual performance of our mail boats ; and, with 
the exception of the old side-lever engines, there were very few in the 
service capable of doing it at all. From the performances, however, of 
such vessels as the Tribune, Agamemnon, and Royal George, we are 
inclined to think that we are emerging from the chaos in which our 
naval construction seemed plunged. Another satisfactory sign of the 
times is, the increased pressure permitted by the government engineers, 
viz., 20 lbs. on the square inch. We understand, that the valves are 
loaded to 20 lbs., and this will, probably, not give more than 17 lbs. 
initial pressure in the cylinder. There ought to be 20 lbs. in the cy- 
linder, which, cut off at one-third to a half stroke, makes a very pretty 
diagram ; and, with this view, the valves ought to be loaded to 25 lbs., 
so as to carry steam about 22 lbs. in the boiler, and avoid lifting the 
safety valve with every petty increase in the pressure. The Royal 
George, 120 guns, which has not been lengthened, but simply con- 
verted into a screw steamer, and fitted with Mr. Penn's trunk engine 
of 400 horse power, has attained the very respectable speed of 10 to 
10J knots, on a recent trial. The draught forward 22 feet 10 inches, aft 
23 feet 10 inches, the engines making 62 to 63 revolutions. 

We see, from the daily papers, that Sir Thomas Mitchell's boomerang 
propeller is about to be tried on the Fairy yacht ; and, as almost every 
other kind of screw has been tried on the same boat, we suppose that this 
may be taken as the experimenlum cruris. We have been waiting pa- 
tiently to see some such trial made before discussing the merits of the 
boomerang propeller, since the only other information obtainable on 
the subject is that contained in the pamphlet by the inventor, which 
has too much of what a French friend calls the " Macassar oil air," 
with it, to render it very palatable to an inquirer after the simple 
truth. 

Our railways do not appear to progress smoothly. The London and 
South Western proprietors are still in hot water on the subject of the. 
Western extensions. The question appears to be not, whether the 
railway will pay, but whether the company did or did not promise to 
make it — a curious way of putting the cart before the horse. The 



common-sense principle that no district is entitled to demand a railway 
which cannot afford to pay for it, seems now entirely lost sight of. If 
the landed proprietors in a certain district choose to make a railway to 
developethe resources of that district, all well and good ; but it is un- 
reasonable and unjust that the original proprietors of South Western 
stock should have their dividends diminished merely to benefit a very 
thinly populated and poor district, to the edge of which their line has 
the misfortune to run. We say have their dividend diminished ad- 
visedly, because all experience shows that that has been the invariable 
effect of making branch lines ; and if the promoters of this particular 
extension have reason to believe that their case is an exception to the 
general rule, the onus probandi lies upon them, and not upon the 
original proprietors. 

Rumour has it, that a truce (permanent peace we are afraid to call it) 
has been arranged between the London and North Western and the 
Great Western Railway Companies ; and certainly both stand in need 
of it, for it might be said of them, as it has been said of England, that 
" they cannot have a little war." Railway directors dare not tell their 
shareholders how much money has been spent, directly and indirectly, 
in struggles of this kind, because they would then be condemned out 
of their owu mouths. A railway parliament, with a president at the 
head, seems to be the point to which things are tending, although it is 
not probable that the Lords and Commons would permit, without a 
severe struggle, such a powerful body to exercise jurisdiction in rail- 
way matters. 

Every session some abortive attempt is made to carry a railway into 
the City, but the Corporation is apparently so exhausted by the attempt 
to finish New Cannon-street, begun some three years ago, that they can 
do nothing but jam up the passage of improvement, like the stout in- 
dividual in the Pyramid, who was only made to " move on " by the 
threat of being cut in morsels by his companions, whose exit he pre 
vented. The Corporation seems likely to meet the fate which only 
threatened its prototype, and a tablet to its memory might be appro- 
priately placed in that open sewer, with a cesspool at each end — 
Gresham-street. 

Much as we regretted at the time that Mr. Pearson's scheme for the 
improvement of London was stifled, it may eventually prove fortunate, 
if a still more comprehensive plan be adopted. Petty improvements 
can no longer be tolerated, whilst our main streets are impassable be- 
tween ten and five every day, whilst the Holborn Valley exists unim- 
proved, and whilst two of our bridges are useless. 



Agricultural Engineering. 



[January, 



ENGINES OF THE FRENCH SCREW STEAMER OF WAR 
" CHARLEMAGNE." 

(Illustrated by Plate i.) 

We have already presented our readers with an elaborate report on 
the experimental trials of the Charlemagne, the engines of which were 
constructed for the French government, from the designs and under 
the superintendence of the late Mr. Barnes, at La Ciotat, near .Mar- 
seilles ; and we have since been favoured by Mr. Robert Walker (who 
was for many years acting engineer under Mr. Barnes) with details of 
the machinery, the first plate of which accompanies the present number. 

The admirable manner in which these engines have performed, fully 
bears out the high reputation which Mr. Barnes enjoyed. A due meed 
of approbation will be conceded to them, when it is remembered that 
they were commenced at a time when very little bad been done in ap- 
plying steam engines directly to the screw propeller, and when scarcely 
any experience on the subject had been acquired. The long catalogue 
which might be made of the disasters which have attended direct-acting 
screw-engines in this country, shows that even yet many of our engine- 
makers are not sufficiently acquainted with the conditions of solidity 
and distribution of material required to make an efficient screw engine. 

The engines of the Charlemagne consist of four steam cylinders, 
lying horizontally, and arranged on each side of the crank shaft. 
Each piston has two piston rods in the same horizontal line, the cross 
head being guided at either end by rollers running in slots in the 
framing. A third piston rod, in the centre of the piston, is carried 
through the cylinder bottom, to carry the weight of the piston. Each 
cylinder has a separate connecting rod taking on to the crank pin, and 
the two cylinders, being arranged in the same line, one of each pair of 
connecting rods is forked where it embraces the crank pin. To give 
greater solidity, the crank pin is forged in the same piece with the 
crank, and the shaft in a separate piece, which renders the forging of 
the shaft much less difficult than when they are all forged together, 
like a locomotive crank axle. There are two horizontal double-acting 
air-pumps placed between the cylinders, and worked by a crank on the 
intermediate shaft. These pumps are not worked by ordinary con- 
necting rods, but by means of a slotted frame, in which slides a brass 
on the crank pin. To this frame are keyed the air-pump rods, and at 
bottom the rods of the bilge pumps, which are placed horizontally below 
the engines. The same kind of movement is employed to give motion 
to the feed and brine pumps, worked off a small crank at the forward 
end of the engines. The slide valves are placed on the tops of the 
cylinders, and rather out of the line of centre, so as to give more ex- 
haust passage on the side nearest the condenser. The expansive valve 
is a piston valve working close to the slide jacket. Motion is commu- 
nicated to these valves by means of a shaft, parallel with the crank 
shaft, and raised above it, so as to bring it level with the centre of the 
valve rods. This shaft is driven by a pair of spur wheels off the crank 
shaft, with the motion of which its own is identical. A framed sole- 
plate extends the whole length of the engines, and the framing to which 
the cylinders are attached is bolted together in a very secure and sub- 
stantial manner. These details, however, can be better explained with 
the aid of the plan, which will be given next month. 



AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING. 



Irrigation. 

(Continued from p. 242, vol xi.) 

. We now come to the consideration of the plans adopted for the dis- 
tribution of liquid manure through pipes. This has been effected by 
two methods — "gravitation" and " steam power." 



The first we shall notice is the Port Kerry Farm, Glamorganshire, 
on the estate of Mr. Romilly. The nature of the soil is a heavy cold 
subsoil ; the average rental of the land in the neighbourhood is only 
from 7s. to 15s. per acre. In 1850, 27 acres were under irrigation ; the 
storage for the manure is, however, calculated for a more extensive 
application. The storage tanks comprise, first, an open fresh-water 
tank, supplied by land drainage, containing about 5G,000 gallons, three 
collecting tanks, and one for mixing. The following are the dimen- 
sions : — 

No. 1. — 13 feet 3 inches by 7 feet, by 6 feet 6 inches. . 3,855 gals. 
No. 2. — 31 feet 3 inches by 7 feet, by 6 feet inches. . 8,703 gals. 
No. 3. — 46 feet 6 inches by 7 feet, by 6 feet inches. 12,171 gals. 
No. 4. — 22 feet 1 inch by 7 feet, by 6 feet inches. . 6,781 gals. 



Total contents of tanks 31,510 gals. 

The tanks are provided with sluices, and, when these are drawn in the 
fresh-water tank, and one of the collecting tanks, the combined fluids 
flow into the mixing tank. From this the manure is conveyed by iron 
pipes to the fields to be irrigated. The fall from the tanks to the fields is 
very trifling, so much so, that the manure is projected from the hose-pipe 
about 15 feet only. The distributing pipes in the field are provided with 
Guest and Chrime's patent firecocks as hydrants, at the distance of 120, 
feet from each other, and the manure is distributed by 60 feet of gutta 
percha hose, with a jet pipe having a flattened orifice, to discharge the 
liquid in the form of a thin sheet. The liquid manure is derived entirely 
from the cattle standings, stables, piggeries and other farm buildings, 
as also the percolations from the solid manure heap. The stock upon 
the farm producing the liquid manure is, upon an average, 36 dry and 
feeding cattle, 210 sheep, 9 working horses, I hack, 4 or 5 young 
horses, and 20 or 30 pigs. The whole expense of the apparatus, 
including tanks, pipes for 50 acres, hose, &c, was about ,£300. This 
gives an amount of £6 per acre, which, at a yearly charge of 74 P er 
cent., gives 9s. per acre as the cost of irrigation. A man whose wages 
were 2s. a day could empty the mixing tank twice a day, the quantity 
discharged being equal to irrigating 4 acres. At this rate the 
quantity laid on per day would be near 8,000 gallons, equal to 3d. 
per 1,000. At 2s. per day, with 4 acres irrigated, the expense would 
be 6d. per acre. Eight applications per annum would be 4s., which, 
added to 9s. on the per-centage charge on the outlay, will give a gross 
charge of 13s. an acre as the cost of irrigation. The depth of the soil 
is only about 12 inches deep on an average, and is under-drained 
with stone-filled drains 2\ feet deep and 12 feet apart. With reference 
to the fertilising powers of the manure, the reporter, Mr. Lee, has the 
following : — " In the month of December, and with a hazy atmosphere, 
the journey from Cardiff to Port Kerry is dreary to any one travelling 
alone — the roads narrow and heavy, the woods leafless and gloomy, 
and the general aspect of vegetation in the fields barren and inactive. 
After a drive of neaily two hours, I saw, at the distance of nearly a 
mile, a large grass field of a most beautiful green colour. The con- 
trast to everything upon which the eye had rested for many miles con- 
veyed more pleasure than I had previously conceived possible from so 
simple a fact. I knew at once that, at this season of the year, no- 
thing but irrigation could clothe the surface with such verdure, and 
needed nothing else to direct me to Mr. Romilly's farm. I afterwards 
walked over that field, and saw the fertiliser — the jet — in operation, j 
Observing that the blades of grass had been cropped off, I asked if 
sheep had been turned on, and was surprised to learn that it was only 
sown with Italian rye -grass in September last. Game is preserved in 
the neighbourhood, and this field is a centre of attraction now for the 
hares, who come from considerable distances all round to feed upon its ; 



1854] 



Atkins's Self-Raking Reaper and Mower. 



delicate and nutritious herbage. They had done ample justice to the 
productive powers of the liquid manure." In 1850, Mr. Romilly 
applied the manure to twenty-five acres of turnips, mixing it with about 
2 cwt. of guano to the. acre, twelve loads of solid dung per acre 
having been previously ploughed in ; without the liquid manure, from 
twenty-five to thirty loads of the solid manure would have been re- 
quired. Mr. Romilly says that, " whether it was owing to the liquid 
manure or not, I cannot say, but I never saw a heavy crop of turnips 
with so little tops. The tops were small and the roots were large and 
good. It was the first instance in which I had seen liquid manures 
applied to turnips, and the result is such as to induce me to do it again 
where it can be done by pipes and hose. We found that, by applying 
it after the turnips had been sown, the growth of the plants was so 
accelerated, as to carry them out of the reach of the fly." As an ex- 
periment, two or three ridges of grass were sown with about 3 cwt. 
of guano to the acre ; the bailiff stated that the guano showed more 
distinctly than the liquid manure, but he could not say that the differ- 
ence in the crop was much. The manure was also applied to a crop of 
mangel wurzels with success. The remainder of the land irrigated 
was under Italian rye-grass. From some unexplained cause, this crop 
did not succeed well the second year, however manured. The first crop 
was about 30 inches thick, the second 30 to 36 inches, the third was 
chiefly seeded, and in thickness equal to the second. The part not 
seeded and cut a fourth time, would be about 14 inches. In the 
autumn, after all these crops were obtained, sheep were turned into it. 
It shows greatly in favour of the system of cropping with the aid of 
liquid manure, as pointed out by Mr. Lee, that to those accustomed to 
its systematic use, the production of only nine and ten feet of grass, in 
the course of a few months, " with a residue of a tolerable after-matter 
for sheep," should be looked upon as a partial failure. Mr. Romilly 
thus writes to Mr. Chadwick as to the remunerative powers of the sys- 
tem — " The annual charge will be diminished nearly one-half when the 
additional number of acres are brought under the system. My bailiff 
has estimated the value of a field of Italian rye-grass, to which the 
liquid is now being applied, at ^230. This estimate is probably too high, 
and the works may be considered more substantial and therefore more 
costly than was necessary ; but, when it is considered that how large a 
quantity of the most valuable manure will now be saved and applied to 
the land in the most productive form, instead of running to waste in 
the ditches, there can be no doubt of the return, under proper manage- 
ment, being most ample." On the same property, the liquid manure 
from the house, stables and laundry is conveyed by 6-inch earthenware 
tubes to a tank (at the bottom of the area in which the house stands) 
capable of containing 6,280 gallons. The liquid is raised by a hand 
pump, and distributed by a gutta-percha hose and jet pipe over a small 
extent of meadow. After the lapse of a short time, the cattle select 
and prefer the herbage on the part irrigated. 

We now come to notice the plans by which liquid manure is distri- 
buted, partly by steam power and partly by gravitation. Before doing 
so, however, we shall present some useful and interesting notes as to 
the availability of steam power in pumping liquid manure through 
lengths of pipes. Apprehensions have been entertained that the 
extraneous matter contained in the manure would clog the pipes, and 
could not be pumped ; this, however, is not the case. In the first ex- 
periments, " says the report of the distribution of manure by the hose," 
in several instances, what was called liquid manure was in fact only semi- 
fluid manure, but even this was delivered of the consistency of thick 
mud, with much fibrous matter, through a hose 800 yards long. In 
the potteries, what is called " slip," that is to say, clay mixed with 
powdered flint and granite, with about one and a half ton of water to 
one ton of solid matter, is pumped and distributed ; and there is no 
doubt that, where water is available, and where the operation required is 



on a sufficiently large scale, lands might be " clayed " and earths dis- 
tributed much more effectually and cheaply by this than by any other 
plan. 

(To be continued.) 



ATKINS'S SELF-RAKING REAPER AND MOWER. 

We have already illustrated the principal details of the various reap- 
ing machines (vols. 1851, p. 248; 1852, p. 167), and pointed out that 
a further adjustment was necessary to make them useful to English 
farmers. The self-raking movement of which we showed the urgent 
necessity has now been supplied through the ingenuity of an American 
mechanic, Mr. J. Atkins, of Chicago. We are indebted for the follow- 
ing description to our valued contemporary the Scientific American .• — ■ 

The rake, q, in the engraving, is operated so as to draw the grain, 
when cut and laid on the platform, from the left to the right-hand side, 
then take a half-rotary turn, lift out the gathered wheat, and lay it on 
the ground, behind the machine, move over to the left-hand side of the 
platform again, and perform the same operations. 

Description of Frame. — a a are two long wooden hounds, joined 
together at their forward ends, and attached by an iron bolt to a pair 
of front wheels, like those of a common waggon, to the tongue of 
which the horses are attached, for working the machine. To the under 
side of these hounds the sills are secured, to support the platform, 
made of boards and sheeted with zinc, on the upper side of which the 
grain falls, and remains until a suitable quantity is collected for a 
bundle, c c are two posts, framed into a a; these posts are well 
braced, and support the machinery, d is a long iron bar, secured to 
the posts by iron straps; this cross bar extends over the whole plat- 
form, and is united to the brace o, which stands upon the platform, and 
is supported by another brace, the foot of which is framed into one of 
the sills, ri is a brace secured to o; it is adjustable at different heights. 
n is a bar in which the axis, m, of the reel works. 1 1 are the arms of 
the reel. Owing to the bar, n\ being adjustable, the reel can be 
elevated or lowered, for grain of different heights. 

Sickle Gearing. — The large wooden wheel, a, is secured on a strong 
axle, protruding from post, c ; it supports one end of the machine. 
There is a small wheel, not seen, on the other end, under the platform. 
b is a spur wheel, bored and keyed on the hub of a, and turns with it 
by the forward motion of the machine. This wheel gears into a spur 
pinion on the shaft on which is the bevel wheel, e, which gears into 
the bevel pinion on the same shaft, c. On the lower end of this rod 
is a crank, which is united to the connecting rod of the sickle, and gives 
it a reciprocating motion, h is a small fly wheel on the shaft, c, for 
giving a steady motion to the crank. 

Raking Apparatus. — Behind the post, c, opposite wheel a, is a bevel 
wheel, k, on a stud pin, l ; it receives motion by gearing into a bevel 
pinion (not shown) on the shaft of b. In the same vertical plane with 
the centre of the stud, l, and at a distance from wheel k, of one-half 
its diameter, is a vibrating iron post, n, which turns in a foot-step 
bearing, and is secured in a pillow block at the top ; this post has a 
large slot through the centre. Through this opening there passes a 
lever, mm', pivoted in the post, n, and attached at one end to wheel 
k, by a socket on its rim, into which the end of said lever is fitted, and 
turns freely as the wheel revolves. In the forked end, m', is a roller, 
f, which turns upon a pin, and rolls freely through the slot in the 
lower end of lever p. There are two short bars, o, framed to post, n, 
and connected at their outer ends. The lever p, is suspended between 
these bars, on a short axis. To the top end of lever p, the rake, q, 
is attached by an iron clasp, in which is a pin on which it turns. The 
rod, b, connects the upper ends of the rake bar with the upper end 
of the arm of post, n. To the cross bars of o is suspended, by 
hinges, a broad plate, s, furnished with long teeth on its lower edge, 



4 



Atkins's Self-Baking Reaper and Mower. 



[January, 



which extend down nearly to the bed of the machine. On the back of 
this plate is a small staple into which a link is inserted, and its upper 
end fastened by a pin screwed into the side of lever m'. The plate is 
prevented from turning loosely on its hinges by a spring, t, fastened 
to the bar, and pressing on the back of s, to keep the link spoken of 
tight, i is a spring united to the round upper part of post, n, to steady 
the connection rod, r, as it approaches the lower point of its descent. 

Operation. — The end, m, of the bent lever, which is inserted in a 
socket in wheel k, moves in a true circle, and has a uniform velocity ; 
this lever, from its fulcrum in post, n, to wheel k, describes the sur- 
face of a cone, whose depth is equal to one- half of its base, and whose 
apex is its pivot in n. Supposing the bed of the machine to be covered 
with cut grain, and the raking apparatus to set in motion by turning 
wheel k, while said wheel makes about one-sixth of a revolution, the 
action of the lever p, and m', will have operated the rake, q, and made 



tions are continuous as the machine moves forward. For different 
fields of grain, light and heavy, the plate, s, is so arranged as to be 
pressed forward by the spring, T, to make the rake, a, press a small 
as well as a large bundle. The velocity of the rake is greatest when 
sweeping across the platform to close the bundle of grain. The parts 
of this raking apparatus can easily be taken out, and the machine 
altered to mow grass as well as reap grain. This self-raking reaper 
is certainly a grand desideratum ; we have seen a number of certificates 
from respectable parties, certifying to its good qualities, and it has been 
awarded premiums by the Ohio, Michigan and Wisconsin Agricultural 
Societies. The cutting arrangement is similar to others in use. In 
the Crystal Palace (New York) we have noticed that it attracts the atten- 
tion of our agricultural friends from the country more than any other 
reaper on exhibition. 

The general construction of this machine — something which every 




ATKINS'S SELF-KAKING REAPER AND 110WEB. 



it sweep from the left to the right side of the platform, collecting the 
grain in a compact bundle against plate, s. While this operation has 
been going on, the position of post, n, has sensibly changed, and, as the 
wheel k, continues to revolve, the lever p, is carried through the 
upper part of its circumference, and the post, n, and its connecting 
arms are made, to vibrate through a quarter of the circle. The rake, Q, 
js then swung off from the bed entirely, carrying off the grain, when, by 
the continued motion of wheel k, a reverse action to that described 
for gathering up the grain causes it to open out its full length behind 
the machine, and deposit the grain on the ground. As the lever m, 
is carried through the lower circumference of wheel k, the post, n, is 
turned back a quarter of a circle, and the rake, q, made to swing 
around over the bed of the machine into a position at the left of the 
platform for collecting a succeeding bundle of cut grain. These opera- 



farmer should carefully regard, independent of its nature and principle 
of operation — is good. The main driving wheel is large (4 feet 
diameter, and 4 inch felloe), and gives steadiness of movements in pass- 
ing over rough ground, and a good support in the soft. The frame- 
work is well braced and stiff, and properly banded with iron. The 
gearing is compact and well boxed in. The team is released of side 
draft, by the hounds, a a, resting upon a pair of front wheels, and these 
enable the machine to be turned with great ease. The economy of the 
raking apparatus, considering the parts to be well made and on a cor- 
rect principle, is just as great for saving the expense of rakers, as cut- 
ting the grain by horse-power is in saving the expense of mowing by 
manual labour. — This machine is about to be introduced into England 
through the joint agency of the eminent engineers Messrs. Ransomeg 
and Sims and Messrs. Garrett and Son. 



1854.] 



Institution of Mechanical Engineers* 



5 



INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 

October 26th, 1853. 

The following paper, by Mr. John Rolinson, of Brierley Hill, was 
read: — "On an improved Apparatus for preventing Explosions of 
Steam Boilers." 

■ The object of this apparatus is to provide a self-acting means of 
closing the stop valve, and opening the safety valve, when a boiler is 
getting short of water, thereby cutting off all communication with the 
other boilers until the boiler is again properly supplied with water, and 
causing an alarm, to call the attention of the engineman, before the 
water has got so low as to risk any injury of the boiler, preventing 
at the same time any increase of the pressure in the boiler from taking 
place. 

Fig. 1, is a longitudinal section, and fig. 2 a transverse section, ofthe 
apparatus. 

The float, a, falls, when the water gets low in the boiler, and closes 



pressure. The piston lifts these weights in succession, as the pressure 
rises, and at last lifts the lever of the escape valve, d ; a space is left 
between the different weights, so that the piston has to move nearly to 
the top of the cylinder before it comes to the full pressure ; and by the 
continual movement ofthe piston in the cylinder, from the variations of 
pressure in the boiler, the piston is prevented from sticking fast, and js 
kept always ready for action-. 

The escape-valve lever is held by the spring catch, i, if it continues to 
be lifted beyond a certain point, and then the escape of steam cannot be 
stopped, and the alarm will continue sounding until the engineman, re- 
turning to his duty, releases the valve lever from the catch, by pulling 
the handle, k. 

The whole apparatus is locked up in one cast-iron box, so that the 
engineman is unable to increase the steam pressure or to prevent the 
sounding ofthe alarm and the escape ofthe steam, whenever the water 
level is suffered to get too low, from any cause, or the steam pressure 





Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 



the stop valve, b, by the tappet c, and opens the safety valve, d, by the 
tappet e, causing an alarm by the rush of steam through the escape 
pipe, f, as soon as the water gets down to the level to which the appara- 
tus is adjusted. 

In a range of boilers working in connection, it sometimes occurs, 
from various accidental causes, that one of them becomes low in the 
water, causing danger of explosion, but with this apparatus such an 
accident is prevented ; and, by closing the stop valve and opening the 
escape valve, the boiler is cut off, and prevented from causing accident 
until properly filled with water again, when it resumes its former posi- 
tion, as the stop valve then opens again and the escape valve closes. 

The pressure of steam is prevented from ever getting too high in the 
boiler, by the small cylinder, G, with a piston one square inch area, 
which is open to the boiler on the underside, and is loaded on the top 
of the piston rod, at h, with as many pounds weight as the number of 
pounds pressure per square inch intended for the limit of the steam 



gets too high, j The apparatus is connected to the ordinary stop valve 
fixed usually on boilers, and requiring only an alteration of the lever. 

This apparatus has been at work for about two months, at Mr. Ben- 
jamin Gibbons', Corbyn's Hall, New Furnaces, near Dudley, and has 
proved quite satisfactory. It has been tried fully, by blowing off the 
water from the hoiler down to the level to which the apparatus was 
adjusted, when it was always found to act completely, and also when 
the pressure of the steam was raised too high. 

Mr. Benjamin Gibbons said, that the apparatus described in the paper 
was applied to one of a set of three boilers at his works, and proved 
quite satisfactory; it was found to act completely, either whenever 
the water was tor) low in the boiler, or the pressure of steam too 
high, and effectually prevented accident, and it appeared not liable to 
derangement. 

Mr. Downing inquired whether there was the common safety-valve 
in addition, and what was the size of the escape valve? 



3 



Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 



[Jahuary, 



Mr. Rolinson replied, that an extra 5-inch valve was used, besides 
the ordinary safety-valve ; the boiler that the apparatus had been ap- 
plied to was 6 feet diameter, and 30 feet long. 

Mr. Downing thought the safety valves were generally too small, and 
they would be better larger than 4 inches, by giving speedier relief to 
the boiler. 

Mr. Gibbons observed, that the size of safety valves might be too 
much increased, as large valves would be more liable to stick fast ; and 
he had never found the usual 4-inch valves not large enough. 

Mr. Ramsbottom remarked, that a heavy float would be required to 
insure the action of the apparatus, and it would have to close the stop 
valve against the pressure of steam in the boiler. 

Mr. Rolinson said the float was made large and heavy, to insure cer- 
tainty of action ; but the steam from the other boilers would be always 
pressing on the top side of the stop valve, and the pressure in the boiler 
on the under side of the valve was lowered by the steam being let off 
directly the apparatus acted. 

The Chairman asked whether it was intended to apply a whistle to 
the escape steam-pipe, to make a more distinct signal? 

Mr. Rolinson replied, that the steam was found to make sufficient 
noise in escaping without the use of a whistle, and there was the ad- 
vantage of having no obstructions to its discharge. 

Mr. Gibbons remarked, that the whole apparatus might be locked up 
in a case of moderate size, about 3 feet high, including the float- 
chain and wheel, which would put it entirely out of the control of the 
men. He added, that the whole cost of the apparatus was about £\b 

or ^20. 

The Chairman proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. Rolinson for his 
paper, which was passed. 

The following paper, by Mr. John Ramsbottom, of Manchester, was 
then read :— " Description of an improved Coking Crane, for supplying 
Locomotive Engines." 




Fig. 1. 

This coking crane was designed by the writer about two years 
ago, in consequence of the great wear and tear of coke skips used 
for coking engines at the Manchester station of the London and 
North-Western Railway, and the necessity that then more particularly 
existed for coking the engines in the least possible time, owing to the 



limited, space there was then for the traffic. The crane is shown 
in Fig. 1, and consists . essentially of a large wheel or circular rim 
20 feet in diameter, made of iron segments, aaa, having arms, 
twenty in number, which may be considered the jibs of so many 
small cranes. These are mounted upon one common post or pillar, cc, 
which revolves upon bearings at top and bottom, and each arm or jib is 
tied by a rod, dd, to a hollow cast-iron cone, which is fastened upon 
the top of the pillar, and is ^adjusted by means of a screw and nuts. 
In fact, the whole may be considered, so to speak, as twenty small 
cranes working from one common centre. Around the circumference 
of the rim are suspended, at equal distances, twenty wrougbt-iron 
cylindrical buckets, eee, 2 feet 6 inches diameter, and 2 feet 8 
inches deep. Each bucket is fitted with bow handle and swivels, 
so as to be readily turned over, when its load is to be discharged. 
The segments, aaa, are also provided with teeth upon the lower 
edge, which gear into a pinion, g, and the movement is carried 
forward to the handle, H, by means of the two pairs of bevel 
wheels, and in such proportion as to give 115 revolutions of the 
handle for one of the crane. The chief peculiarity, however, consists 
in the main post being fixed in an inclined position. This is done to 
such an extent as to throw one side of the rim 6 feet higher than the 
other ; and it will be seen, from the drawing, that the buckets on one 
side are sufficiently low to be filled direct from the waggon, l, and on 
the other, sufficiently high to deliver their loads upon the tender, M. 
The buckets hold, in the aggregate, three tons of coke; so that the crane 
will carry, ready for delivery at a moment's notice, sufficient coke to 
supply three passenger or two goods engines at least. Of course, 
when the crane is fully loaded, the whole is in equilibrium, and it can 
be moved by a force sufficient to overcome the friction only ; on the 
other hand, the greatest power is required, when the buckets are empty 
on the descending side, and full on the other. The proportion given, 
however, will enable one man to work it under the worst circumstances. 
In using this crane, the practice is to keep the buckets full, as far as 
circumstances will allow, and any engine requir- 
ing coke has the tender backed under the higher 
edge of the crane ; the cokeman then turns 
the crane round by the handle, previously de- 
scribed, and continues to do so until the fireman 
or other person has turned over as many buckets 
of coke as are required. The time rarely ex- 
ceeds two minutes for the delivery of 21 cwt. of 
coke, and is often less. 

As respects the saving of labour, it may be 
mentioned, that four men were formerly re- 
quired to deliver coke at this station, and it is 
now delivered by two, and the skips are now 
dispensed with. 

The fact, that this little machine has worked 
very satisfactorily, during the last two years, has 
induced the writer to bring it before this meet- 
ing; it evidently possesses the advantage of 
carrying a considerable quantity of coke ready 
for immediate delivery, and of elevating, ad- 
vancing, discharging, returning, and lowering 
the buckets by one simple movement. 

There is one slight drawback, however, 

namely, that an engine cannot run past it, owing 

to the chimney; but where this is considered 

necessary, the crane may readily be fixed about 3 feet further from the 

rails, and the coke delivered by a movable shoot. 

The Chairman observed, that he had seen the coking crane described 
in the paper, and thought it a very simple and efficient plan ; the one 



1854.] 



■Institution of Civil Engineers. 



objection that had been named, of not leaving space for passing along the 
line by the side of the crane, might probably be remedied in several 
ways, if required in another situation. 

Mr. Ramsbottom said, that object had not been thought of at all, in 
the present case, as it was at the termination of the line, where it 
could not be extended beyond the crane, and that was the only one on 
the plan at present tried. The crane had been found very convenient for 
use, as it required very little power to work it, and held a large store of 
coke always ready for loading the tenders; it had been in constant 
work for more than two years, with scarcely any expense for repairs. 

Mr. Cowper thought the crane was well contrived for the purpose, 
and suggested, that it might readily be made applicable to a situation 
where a clear passage was required on the line past the crane, by omit- 
ting a portion of the buckets on one side, perhaps one-third, which 
would always allow the r passage of a train, when the blank side was 
turned towards the line; the same quantity of coke might be carried 
by increasing the size of the buckets or the diameter of the crane. 
He thought, that a perfect coking crane should, if possible, be balanced 
in all positions, for the engineman to be able to pull it round by 
band, and take in a supply of coke without requiring a second man to 
help, on the same principle as the present large 8-inch water cranes, 
which supplied the water with great rapidity without help. This might 
be accomplished by working the crane round on a level instead of in- 
clined, so as to be always balanced, and lifting the coke up previously to 
the level by other means. 

Mr. Woodhouse thought there would be a difficulty in raising the 
coke by other means, and the oblique crane which he had frequently 
seen at work was a very convenient mode of gradually raising the coke 
by the same movement as changing the buckets. In some places the 
coke was raised up at once from the waggons to a high platform, and 
then loaded into the tenders by a shoot ; but the plan was not so con- 
venient for measuring the coke as the crane with the buckets holding 
exactly 3 cwt. each. 

Mr. Ramsbottom observed, that the average height the coke had to 
be lifted, in loading the tenders, was only 3 feet, as the coke was already 
lifted an average of 3 feet, or half the total height, 6 feet, in the process 
of filling the buckets all round. 

Mr. Cowper suggested, that each bucket, when loaded on the platform, 
might be slung up or raised by a small windlass, and then hooked on to 
the crane at the upper level. 

Mr. Ramsbottom observed, it would certainly store up more power 
ready for coking the tenders, if all the coke were previously lifted up to 
the full height of 6 feet, instead of an average of only half the height; 
but the simplicity of the machine would be somewhat interfered 
with. 

: Mr. Downing remarked, that there might be room to pass the crane, 
by fixing it a little farther from the line, and tipping the buckets over 
the side of the tender, there being no necessity, he supposed, to empty 
over the centre of the tender. 

Mr. Lloyd suggested an octagon form for the purpose, instead of a 
circle; he thought the same plan of crane would suit well for filling 
blast furnaces, where, as in Wales, there was not more than 6 feet to 
lift the materials in many cases. 

Mr. Gibbons thought the plan might be very applicable in several 
parts of iron works, such as raising small coal and rubbish, and remov- 
ing the cinder froin the furnaces ; he thought it a very good contrivance, 
involving the least possible expenditure of labour, where a large quantity 
of material was required to be lifted a small height. 
s ,A vote of thanks was passed to Mr. Ramsbottom for his paper. 



INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. 

November 29, 1853. 
James Meai>ows Rendel, Esq., President, in the Chair. 

The discussion being resumed on " Ocean Steamers," it was contended 
that the statement of a supposed wave pressure of 85,000 tons of water 
or even of 40,000 tons, to which it had since been reduced, by a modified, 
estimate, was inadmissible ; it would be manifestly impossible for any 
vessel to withstand such impact from a body of water ; and if the 
position was admitted, it must be evident, that any of the ordinary 
coasting steamers would constantly be liable to a pressure of 1,000 to. 
1,500 tons, which would suffice to utterly destroy them. 

The comparison of the qualities for safe riding, when lying-to, be- 
tween a line-of-battle ship and a privateer, was not to the point, as the 
former was encumbered by the enormous weight of her armament, and 
by her top-hamper ; in short, the whole misconception had arisen from 
confounding the wave of oscillation with that of translation : this was 
exemplified by the case of a disabled vessel ; as long as she remained afloat 
she was comparatively safe, but, as soon as she touched the ground, and 
the wave of oscillation became one of translation, she was immediately 
knocked to pieces by the impact of the waves. 

Next, as to the proportions of 6 to 1 , which had been derived from 
as ancient a type as Noah's Ark — now, as far as was known, as that 
construction had not been designed either for sailing or steaming, but 
only to float with a very large cargo, it afforded no analogy for vessels 
built for speed, however propelled ; and, in fact, modern fast-sailing 
vessels had abandoned those proportions, which had only been per- 
petuated by the old tonnage laws, under which merchant vessels were 
enabled to be constructed to carry enormous cargoes, but they were 
unable to attain any considerable speed. It was further argued that, as 
steam propulsion was employed, the analogy became still less apparent ;. 
and, as an instance of the advantage of lengthening ships, the case of 
the vessels belonging to the North of Europe Steam Navigation Com- 
pany was mentioned. The City of Norwich,\S3 feet long, 26 feet beam, 
471 tons burthen, and 200 horsepower, could carry, as cargo, 220 head 
of cattle, at a speed of 10 knots per hour, but she rolled considerably 
with a beam sea ; whilst the Tonning, 222 feet long, 2/ feet beam, 734 
tons burthen, and 200 horse power, carried 360 head of cattle, at a speed 
of 12 knots per hour : she was a remarkably easy vessel, and had proved 
her sea-worthy qualities by coming safely round the coast of Scotland, 
during the late gale in September. Thus, with the same engine power, 
by merely altering the proportions from 7 to 1 to 8 to 1, nearly 60 per 
cent, more cargo space w as obtained, and 2 knots per hour were gained 
in speed, with improved sea-going qualities. It must be remarked, 
also, that the relative proportions of the Tonning were almost identical 
with those of the proposed iron vessel for the Eastern Steam Naviga- 
tion Company. 

Taking the Wave Queen as an extreme case — her length being 213 
feet, with 15 feet beam, and proportions of 13 tp 1, with a draught of 
water of only 5 feet, and comparing her performances with those of the 
Christiana, a good vessel, about 170 feet long, and with about the pro- 
portion of 6 to 1 — it was found that, whilst the latter, in a moderate 
head-sea, continually shipped the waves, the former, in a similar sea, 
was perfectly dry. This evidence was given from the personal experi- 
ence of the speaker. 

The Wave Queen had since been running between Newhaven and 
Dieppe, and it was to be expected — indeed, it had been predicted — that, 
from local circumstances connected with the entrance of the harbour at 
Newhaven, she would meet with some casualty. She was not stranded 
in consequence of any inefficiency in the power of the rudder, but, after 
a very bad passage across the Channel, in the trough of the sea, which 
was running very high, she arrived off Newhaven when there was 



8 



Institution of Civil Engineers. 



[January,; 



scarcely depth of water over the bar for her to cross ; she touched the 
ground heavily, and hung by her " heel ;" a beam sea catching her at 
the same moment, swung her round and threw her broadside on the 
beach, where all the passengers were safely landed. It was a good 
proof of the strength that could be given to iron ships, that, though 
she was thrown broadside on the shore by the waves of translation, she 
was safely got Off and brought round to the Thames without material 
damage. 

As to the elaborate calculations entered into, with respect to the 
three great navigation projects — before admitting the correctness of 
those results, it must be clearly understood, that the Rattler, which had 
been used as the type, was built during the most pressing period (scien- 
tifically) of construction in U. M. Dockyard. Her dimensions were 
176 feet long, by 32 feet 6-inches beam — a proportion of about 5f to 
1 ; and, from what had been published, it must be evident, that she had 
just performed what might have been anticipated from such pro- 
portions. At the time of the construction of the engines of the Rat- 
tler, marine engineers had scarcely adopted, and rarely practised, the 
use of the steam at a certain amount of pressure, and expanding in the 
cylinder, whereby such a vast economy in the consumption of fuel is 
now realised. Now, if the calculations of fuel required for long voy- 
ages were based upon the old scale of consumption, instead of the 
present rate, which, in good ships, did not exceed 3§ pounds per real 
horse power, the deductions from the calculations must be still more 
unexceptionable. 

It was then contended, that all arguments based upon calculations of 
the speed and other qualities of such type, must be utterly fallacious. 
It had been shown what increase of speed and of carrying qualities had 
been produced by lengthening the Tanning without increasing her 
power, and, by analogy, it was only reasonable to presume, that if the 
proportions of the Rattler had been altered from 5J to 1 to nearly 8 
to 1, there would have been a still more striking amelioration, and she 
would have been a more trustworthy type for the calculations and argu- 
ments as to the practicability of constructing and of commercially 
working large ships. It was argued that, with all these and many 
other examples to the contrary, it was evidently incorrect to attempt to 
assume that 6 to 1 was the best proportion for vessels of any kind. 

It was assumed, that when it was stated a large steamer was in- 
tended to run to India or Australia, and back, without recoaling, it 
was only meant that she would carry enough coal to avoid detention at 
the intermediate ports, as (unless it was ascertained that she could not 
procure a more profitable cargo) it would, evidently, be more econo- 
mical to send coals to the ultimate and distant port by sailing vessels, 
who would convey them cheaper than she could do. 

It must not be supposed, that the meeting received for granted the 
results of calculations based on such a type as the Rattler, nor that the 
institution could pretend to do more than offer a field for the investi- 
gation of the scientific portion of the magnificent commercial experi- 
ments about to be tried, and for the success of which all must unite in 
offering their best wishes. Engineers, unless especially called upon to 
give opinions on the prospects of commercial success offered by 
undertakings, were only expected to consider the best means of exe- 
cuting given works at the cheapest rates, compatible with security and 
durability, but the ultimate remuneration for the outlay must be mainly 
a subject for the consideration of the speculators. 

The advantages of employing a smaller number of large ships, 
rather than a greater number of small ships, for a given trade, espe- 
cially for long voyages, was beginning to be generally admitted by 
ship owners. A return was published in the Times of November 22nd, 
1853, copied from the Liverpool Albion of November 21st, which 
presented the results of that experience in a remarkable form. 

" The following table shows the average number of days occupied on 



the passage by the vessels of different tonnage, ranging from 200 tons 
upwards, dispatched from Liverpool to Australia, in the years 1852 and 
1853:— 





1852. 


1853. 


TONNAGE. 


Average number 


Average number 




of days. 


of days. 


Under 200 tons 


137 


133 


From 200 to 300 tons 


122 


122 


„ 300 to 400 „ 


123 


113 


„ 400 to 50o „ 


118 


112 


„ 500 to 600 „ 


113 


112 


„ 600 to 700 „ 


107 


103 


„ 700 to 800 „ 


108 


101 


„ 800 to 900 ., 


103 


100 


„ 900 to 1000 „ 


102 


95 


„ 1000 to 1200 „ 


96 


91 


„ 1200 and upwards 


91 


90 



" From the above table, it will be seen that, in almost every^instance, 
the average is in favour of the largest ships, the 600-ton ships having 
an advantage of 24 days, on the average, in 1852, over the 200-ton 
ships, and the 1,200-ton ships having an advantage of 22 days over 
the 600-ton ships. In 1853, also, it will be seen that the results are 
much the same." 

But even with this evidence, it would not be wise to rush to the 
conclusion, that vessels of enormous size would be applicable in all 
circumstances ; in fact, that whieh determined the expediency of using 
a large ship was the coincidence of a great amount of traffic and great 
length of voyage. For example, it might be questioned, except for 
some special branches of commerce, which appeared now about to be 
greatly developed, whether a very large ship would be likely to be com- 
mercially beneficial, between any two ports of Great Britain. 

It must be evident that, for each length of voyage and description of 
trade, thtre was a particular size of vessel, that would be most suitable ; 
and, indeed, as in most other engineering works, the circumstances of 
the traffic would of themselves mainly determine the proportions of 
the structure. Take, for example, the trade between England and 
America, as originally opened by the Great Western; that vessel, as. 
first designed, although much the , largest ship of her day, was of the 
smallest size by which such a trade could be conducted, and her length 
was actually increased, during her construction, to a point then gene- 
rally considered dangerous. 

Since that period, all vessels on that station had been successively 
augmented in dimensions, as the trade increased; but even those 
vessels were too small for the Australian voyage of 25,000 miles, and 
the necessity of increasing the length was shown, [by calculating how 
much coal would require to be carried, beyond that needed for an 
American voyage, in order to do the Australian or the. Indian voyage 
equally well. Such calculation demonstrated, that a vessel similar to 
the Great Western would require to be lengthened to 520 feet to ac- 
complish that voyage. This argument showed, that the conditions of 
the case compelled the adoption of vessels of extraordinary length for 
steam voyages of extraordinary distance. 

Then, as to the commercial question, the merchants engaged in the 
Indian and Australian trade had calculated, from the data afforded by 
their own business, what amount of freight and passengers would re- 
quire accommodation, and it was found, that the quantity was greater 
than could be received by the ship just calculated. The dimensions, 
therefore, required to he enlarged, to meet the demand of the existing 
trade. Thus the traffic itself did actually fix the dimensions of the pro- 
posed large class of vessels. 

As to the mechanical strength of such vessels, there was no difference 



1854] 



Notes by a Practical Chemist. 



of opinion on that point, among engineers, provided the structure 
was of iron. Ships of wood, on the contrary, were limited in size, 
by the nature of the material, which was grown, and not manufac- 
tured, and therefore the produce was of limited size ; whereas, plates of 
iron could, on the other hand, be rolled of any required dimensions. 
It must be observed, also, that the strength of wood across the fibre 
was so small, that two planks could not be so united as to be equally 
strong in all directions, whilst two plates of iron, riveted together, were 
of nearly uniform strength. ; 

' Further, as to the resistance of large vessels to waves, it was evident 
that the waves of the Atlantic, being of the same size, whether the 
vessel was small or large, their proportional magnitude would'be de- 
creased as the size of the vessel was increased, so that the large ship 
in a gale would merely encounter waves of' the same proportional size 
as a ship of half the dimensions in half a gale; and it should be 
remarked, that the largest ships which had been proposed were only 
double the lineal dimensions of existing vessels. 

As to the impact of waves upon ships, it should be remembered, that 
a vessel riding on a wave became, virtually, a part of that wave, and 
moved along with it, as the mass of water, displaced by its bulk, had 
previously moved. The large, Atlantic waves observed by Dr. Scoresby 
did not strike the ship, but made her rise and fall in a gentle oscilla- 
tion, each of which lasted 16 seconds, a period of too long duration to 
admit of any approximation to violent collision between bodies. 

It was only the small wind waves, or crests, which moved at a 
different velocity from that of the ship ; and the proposed vessels were 
so much higher out of the water than the observed altitude of these 
waves, that the decks would probably never be more than wetted by 
tbe spray. 

It was explained, that H. M. Ship Rattler had been assumed as a 
type, or good example of locomotive^efficiency, because the formula 

( Y V — D 5 ) gave the highest result of any steamer examined bv that 

indicated HP. 

rule. It would be seen, that the formula merely embraced the rel- 
ations of velocity, displacement, and working power. 

It was stated, that a vessel which, from any fault of construction, or 
from imperfect steering power, was liable to fall into the trough of the 
sea, would, in that position, be liable to fearful accidents ; and instances 
were cited of two vessels, of 800 tons and 1,200 tons respectively, being 
struck by waves which had carried away all the upper works and swept 
the decks clear. These practical facts were given to show that the 
gentle oscillation of heavy waves must be received with some qualifi- 
cation. In answer to this, it was explained that,, in a storm there were 
generally two sets of waves, the long low oscillating wave, and the 
smaller waves, which were much shorter, rising under the action of the 
wind. It was these short waves which struck the smaller vessels with 
so much force, when they got on the crest of a large one, but the deck 
of a very large ship would be too high for such wind waves to break 
upon it, except as spray. 

( Returns were presented of the performances of a number of paddle- 
wheel ocean-steamers for a period of twenty-two years, tending to prove 
how greatly the velocity had been increased. This was shown to have 
arisen from the augmented size and better build of the vessels, with 
greater power of engines and other engineering improvements. These 
tables showed the necessity of a careful selection of the period from 
which a mean average of velocity was deduced; for example, the 
Hugh Lindsay, H. E. I. Co's. steamer, gave, in 1830, a mean average of 
5§ knots per hour ; whereas, the best of the Cunard and of the Collins' 
lines of steamers gave a mean average of 12£ knots per hour for the 
last three years. 

. It was explained that the average of 7^ knots per hour had been 
derived from Admiralty returns, extending from 1848 to 1851, 
2 



which were the only reliable documents of the kind hitherto published. 
— Members were urged to supply the present evident want of informa- 
tion on this subject. 

As to the question of measurement for tonnage, after discussing the 
present method, describing that proposed by the parliamentary com- 
mittee, and those by the practical men who had been consulted, the 
system indicated by the author of the paper was examined with care, 
and was admitted to possess novel features worthy of consideration, in 
fixing a legal standard of measurement. It was, however, contended that, 
for scientific purposes, the displacement to the load line was required, 
and for fiscal purposes it was submitted, that the light and other dues 
would be more equitably imposed by an ad valorem duty on the cargo, 
rather than on the bulk or form of the vessel. 

In winding up the discussion, the dimensions were given of a great 
raft ship called the Baron of Renfrew, which was built at Quebec in 
the year 1825, by the late Mr. Charles Wood, of Port Glasgow. Her 
extreme length was 304 feet, extreme breadth 61 feet, clear depth 34 
feet, registered tonnage 5,294J tons, and cargo of timber 8,500 tons. 
The draught of water, at the end of the voyage, when waterlogged, was 
31 feet. She had four masts, and the sail of a 36-gun frigate. Her 
greatest inclination, under press of sail, was about 20 degrees. Her 
greatest speed, before she became water-logged, but with 19 feet of water 
in the hold, was 8| knots, which was reduced to 6 knots when she was 
quite full of water. She made the passage from Quebec to the Isle of 
Wight in 48 days. It was due to Mr. Charles Wood to mention this 
daring innovation at so early a period. 

It appeared, that if the dimensions of vessels had been increased, it 
was evident that there had not been any increase of danger, nor was 
any to be anticipated. The hesitation in receiving new propositions of 
startling projects was very natural, and, therefore, their discussion was 
valuable and really useful in eliciting opinions which might otherwise 
probably not have been given. The feasibility of the Britannia Bridge 
had been quite as much doubted as that of very large iron ships, and 
yet it had been executed, and the result was before the world. It ap- 
peared evident that, in future, engineers must look even further forward 
than they had done, and, in their maritime constructions, must adopt 
dimensions for their docks and harbours to accommodate the increased 
sizes of the vessels they were destined to receive, but which some years 
since would have been deemed visionary. 

NOTES BY A PRACTICAL CHEMIST. 



Amorphous Phosphorus. — Considerable attention has been drawn, 
of late to a variety of phosphorus bearing the above name, which has 
been recommended for the manufacture of lucifer matches, &c, both 
as being less injurious to the health of the workmen, and less apt to 
ignite on being handled. From the researches of Puttfarcken, how- 
ever, it appears that the substance in question, although undoubtedly 
possessing the above valuable properties, is merely a low oxide of ordi- 
nary phosphorus, and not, as was supposed, an allotropic modification. 

Detection of Picric Acid in Beer. — Amongst the numerous 
drugs used in the adulteration of beer, picric or carbazotic acid, an 
intensely bitter compound, obtained by the action of nitric acid upon 
indigo, aloes, silk, &c., is beginning to take a prominent place. It 
serves, doubtless, to impart colour as well as flavour. Its detection, if 
employed in any considerable quantity, is by no means difficult. Sub- 
acetate of lead removes both the bitter taste and the colouring matter 
from unadulterated beer, as does also animal charcoal to a very con- 
siderable extent. Upon picric acid, on the other hand, these two 
re-agents have little or no effect. If, then, after two portions of a sus- 
pected sample of beer have been treated, the one with animal charcoal, 
and the other with subacetate of lead, the bitter flavour and the yellow 



10 



Will hereto Steam- Ships to India "Pay ? 



[January, 



colour still remain little diminished, we are warranted in assuming the 
presence of picric acid. By comparative experiment with pure and 
adulterated samples of beer, the -,^5 part of picric acid may in this 
manner be detected. We are not aware that picric acid possesses 
any poisonous properties. 

Varnish for Heliographic Engraving on Steel. — This 
Tarnish is fluid as albumen, and spreads and dries as easily as collodion, 
so that the operation may begin 10 minutes after the steel plate has 
been covered. Benzine, 100 parts; pure Indian bitumen, 5 parts; pure 
yellow wax, 1 part. M. St. Victor has found this varnish sensitive 
enough to be able to operate in 10 or 15 minutes, in the camera, and 
a few minutes suffice, when direct sunlight is employed. The varnish 
is rendered sensitive by pouring on the plate anhydrous sulphuric ether, 
containing a few drops of essence of lavender. After the plate is dry, it 
is exposed to the light. It is essential that the plate be thoroughly 
cleaned before applying the varnish. For this purpose an oil of 
naphtha is used, then alcohol, and tripoli with cotton for drying it com- 
pletely. Moisture must be avoided by every possible means. 

Iodized Manures as a Remedy for the Vine Disease. — 
It is doubtless well known to most of our readers, that the vineyards 
of Southern Europe and the Madeiras have been blighted by a micro- 
scopic acarus, the O'idium Tuckeri, and that the price of wines, raisins, 
&c, has been considerably raised. It has, however, been ascertained 
that the use of manures, rich in iodine, enable the vine to resist these 
destroyers. In certain districts of Spain, decomposed seaweeds are 
^ordinarily used as manure. In those parts in which the amount of 
iodine in the soil may average ^j\ m the vines have entirely escaped. 

S. 
answers to correspondents. 

" P.," Rotherham. — Haematite iron ore occurs in Elba, Styria, 
Austrian Silesia, Sweden, and the north of Lancashire. It contains a 
larger per-centage of metal, and in consequence a larger amount of 
oxygen, than the ordinary iron ores; hence its use in annealing iron. 
The oxygen contained in the haematite seizes on the excess of carbon 
present in iron, on which its brittleness depends. 

" Plus Ultra." — Your process is highly ingenious, and the principles 
upon which you work are theoretically correct. We should, however, 
have great doubts of your success upon a larger scale, not merely from 
the difficulty of the manipulation required, but from the ignorance or 
wilful neglect of workmen, who would be sure to omit some important 
detail as soon as your back was turned. Not until a scientific educa- 
tion shall have reached the working classes can such a beautiful proce- 
dure as yours assume its real practical value. 

"A Solicitor," Coventry. — The practice of fraudulent erasures in 
deeds and other legal documents is now to a great extent within the 
reach of science. If the erasure has been effected mechanically, the 
microscope will always discover more or less roughness upon the sur- 
face of the tissue, and sometimes even the very words which have been 
obliterated. If the ink has been removed by chemical reagents, acids, 
alkalies, or saline solutions, it may be restored, or at least the presence 
of the liquid employed to effect the erasure may be made known. A 
very simple and efficacious method is to submit the suspected docu- 
ment to the action of iodine for a few minutes. This will produce a 
uniform yellowish stain over the whole surface ; but if any part has 
been subjected to soaking or washing in any liquid whatsoever, a well- 
defined stain will appear. Thus, at all events, the place where the 
erasure has been made is shown, its extent can be measured, and 
re-agents necessary for restoring the expunged characters may be 
applied with much greater precision. If an attempt has been made to 
resize the obliterated portion by means of gum, gelatine, or starch, the 
vapour of iodine at once detects the spot. 
■ "Index." — Creosote is prepared by a long and tedious process from 



the tar obtained on the destructive distillation of beech and oak wood. 
It has powerful antiseptic properties, whence its name. The use of 
the smoke of a wood fire in preserving various kinds of provisions, such 
as hams, sausages, &c, depends on the presence of this substance. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 



THE PADDLE WHEEL v. THE PARABOLIC PROPELLER. 

To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir, — It is frequently remarked, that an over-zealous friend is worse than 
an open enemy ; and it may be that an over-zeal carries people into an in- 
discretion of jumping to conclusions which ultimately damage the cause 
they advocate. 

I have read the remarks of Mr. Drake on the subject of "Paddle Wheels 
versus the Screw," and, without knowing whether he is interested or not as 
respects the paddle wheel, Pbeg to say that I am in respect of the screw, or 
submarine propulsion, and will make a few observations on that part of his 
correspondence which affects myself, embodied in a postscript to his letter, 
published in your number for October last, p. 232, and leave the rest to 
those who are more intimately concerned in the matter. 

Mr. Drake states, in the postscript referred to, that " any appreciable im- 
provement in the speed of screw vessels, in future, more must depend on the 
construction of the vessel than on the form ©f the screw; but it will never 
produce the speed of the paddle wheel." Probably so, if Mr. Drake's asser- 
tion is confined to the helical propeller; but if it extends to all propellers, 
then I am at issue with him, and would respectfully ask if he has heard of 
or seen anything of the performances of the parabolic propeller ? If not, for 
its principles and properties I beg to refer him to the letter of your corre- 
spondent "Navalis," in your number for November, vol. xi., p. 253, where 
they are clearly and truly enunciated, and certainly without any communi- 
cation with me on the subject, for I have not the honour of knowing who the 
talented writer is. 

I will now add a fact or two, to show how far the soundness of the theory 
is developed in the practice, and when Mr. Drake has well considered the 
results, I appeal to him to draw his conclusions, " irrespective of every other 
consideration than that of public good." In one instance, a vessel was fitted 
with my propeller in place of the screw, and her speed was increased from 
9 to 9| knots per hour, with a reduction in the speed of the engines from 
34 to 27 revolutions per minute. Now, taking the compounded ratio, the 
fraction will stand $], and I fancy Mr. Drake will find it to be very nearly 
33 per cent, in favour of the parabolic propeller. In another instance, the 
speed of the vessel was increased a knot an hour, the engines working " ex- 
pansively at the half-stroke, with not more than two-thirds of the previous 
consumption of steam;" and in several instances similar results have been 
obtained. 

I think, sir, enough has been adduced to satisfy Mr. Drake that he has 
arrived at a conclusion unadvisedly; should he still entertain the same views, 
let him select two sister ships, one to be fitted with paddle wheels of the best 
construction, and the other with the parabolic propeller, and then, cateris 
paribus, the propeller will beat the paddle wheel; for this simple reason, that 
the propeller, in its action, embodies the principle of the paddle wheel without 
its drawbacks. It operates on a cylindrical column of water in the direct 
plane of its axis, and, when the fluid has performed its function of resistance 
to the impact, it has done with it for ever, and cannot, by possibility, exer- 
cise a disturbing influence on the regular and steady progress of the pro- 
peller. 

Begging the favour of a space for the above in your next number, 
I remain, sir, your very obedient servant, 
. R. Hodgson, 

Ewell, Nov. 22nd, 1853. Patentee of the Parabolic Propeller. 

WILL SCREW STEAM-SHIPS TO INDIA AND AUSTRALIA PAY? 
To the Editor of The Artizan. 
Sir, — If we compare England's maritime influence, in a commercial point 
of view, with that of the rising Republic of the West, I fear we must admit 



1854.] 



Will Screw Steam- Ships to India IP ay ? 



11 



it is on the wane, and that it is high time for our government to take some 
steps to relieve it from irresponsible speculation — or, at least, lend a helping 
hand to its legitimate improvement. Without entering into the various causes 
which impede our progress, we know enough to see the necessity of a change, 
and my humble efforts have been long directed to that object on a broader 
basis than that of tracing the merits of the screw in the Great Britain, or 
the abandoned Melbourne, Adelaide and other screw ships of the Australian 
Royal Mail Steam Navigation Company, or those of its more successful 
rival the General Screw Navigation Company, whose ships, on the whole, 
have obtained a slight chance advantage over its less-favoured competitor. 

Nor is it because I have had occasion to notice the favourable results of the 
Marco Polo, that I single her out as superior to every other ship of the sail- 
ing class ; nor do I, in speaking of the proposed paddle-wheel vessels of the 
Australian Direct Steam Navigation Company, presume that they will be 
so superior to all paddle-wheel vessels at present afloat, as to bid defiance to 
future improvement, as it may so happen that this, like all other public com- 
panies, may be more inclined to pursue a course calculated to exclude im- 
provements than to secure the best possible means at command to make 
their vessels what they may be made ; and I beg again to repeat, that "Look 
before you leap" is full of valuable meaning, and which, it is to be hoped, they 
have not quite lost sight of. 

It was not my intention to have intruded upon the readers of The Artizan 
further remarks on the subject of ocean screw steaming, but to have left it 
to work its own cure, knowing, as I do, that it is a difficult task to make im- 
prudent speculators on public money give up, or even alter, their course, while 
they have the means at hand to " keep the thing moving ;" and I have no 
doubt many of your readers will recollect the ruinous results attending the 
South Devon Atmospheric speculation, by attempting to keep the scheme 
moving, in the face of experience, which solved its mechanical inefficiency 
before one-tenth of the money lost had been expended. 

This is English, and not American, practice ; in fact, the citizens of the 
United States, although the most enterprising speculators of the age, never 
obstinately pursue a course, when they find it drawing money from, instead of 
putting it into, their pockets; and ocean screw steaming was never sanc- 
tioned beyond the proof of its inutility by the people of this " go-a-head " 
country. 

Subjects of this character are strongly conducted in England, and nationally 
we are made to feel its effects as we do individually; and therefore I hope to 
see the government more inclined than it ever has been to take cognisance of 
public speculations with the ostensible object of supporting improvement; 
and it was never more needed, so far as our shipping interest is concerned, 
than it is at this moment. 

Your anonymous correspondent "Engineer" is wrong in supposing, that 
I had passed, unheeded, his presumed advantages, in reference to the Great 
Britain. 

It was not my intention then, nor is it now, to enter into the merits of 
those engines which we have made to supersede those with which she was 
originally fitted; and, if he wishes to prove, that the 500 horse power, as so 
called, " are giving out as much, if ?iot more, power," than the 1,000 horse 
engines placed in her with so much confidence by the engineer of that day, that 
gentleman may be better prepared and inclined to question the validity of 
the assertion than I am in any way disposed to do. My comparisons 
affected, as I have already observed, the business transacted, and not what it 
might have been, had she taken a larger cargo than what she actually did 
take, and which her advertisement stated to be "limited." The quantity 
of coal not being named, was, probably, very great, to enable her to sustain 
the presumption of making the voyage in 65 days. In default, she is 
pledged to return £2 per ton on the cargo shipped; and which it appears 
she will have to do, as she was spoken with on the 7th September, having 
taken 27 days to steam and sail 3,540 miles; at which rate, if not improved, 
she will not reach the port to which she is consigned in less than 110 days. 
This, in my opinion, does not speak very favourably of the new engines, if they 
have been duly employed; however, I take it for granted they have not, as 
she was seen progressing " under canvas and no steam," as mentioned in my 
last. 

In the September number of the Artizan I have shown that, if the Great 



Britain makes the voyage in 70 days, at £150 per diem expenses, she will 
net, out of the gross business, which, by their own showing, amounts to 
£20,354, £9,850; but, if fitted with paddle wheels, and her expenses did 
not exceed £180 per diem, she would clear £10,454 in 55 days. 

As a screw vessel, she is not presumed to be able to make more than three 
crossings out and home inclusive, in 12 months; and it is by no means 
likely she will average more than two. But, supposing it to be three, two 
out and one home, at the same high rate — which cannot possibly be main- 
tained, as clipper-sailing ships make four voyages in the same time, at half 
the rate of freight charges— the net amount of business, in 12 months, would 
be 30,562, while that of the paddle wheel, at the rate of five crossings to three 
of the screw, which can be readily accomplished, as the transit time is certain, 
would be £52,270; to which, if the mails be added at the present rate given, 
and no more, and which the Golden Age refused to take, it would amount 
to £57,270, or £26,708 in favour of the paddle wheel in one year — nearly 
double. 

The Marco Polo has proved the fact, that a sailing vessel can make two 
voyages to Australia and back in less than 12 months, which would make 
the gross amount of business, in one year, at the rate given, £81,416. 
Taking it at three instead of four crossings, the gross amount would be 
£61,062, the same as the screw; and her expenses, at £80 per diem, for the 
three passages of £75 days' averagers £18,000, making the net return, in 12 
months, £43,062, or £12,500 more than the screw. 

The comparative net returns of the three classes stand as follows, at the 
rate of business given in these calculations: — 

Paddle wheel, at 5 crossings per year ... ... .£57,270 

Ditto 4 ditto 45,816 

Sailing vessel 4 ditto 57,416 

Ditto 3 ditto 43,062 

Screw, 4 ditto , 39,416 

Ditto 3 ditto 30,562 

It is very probable, that a paddle-wheel vessel which can average 16 or 
18 days less than the screw, in the passage to Aastralia, will be enabled to 
command the same high terms throughout as that obtained by the Great 
Britain, or even a higher rate; but what is to become of the screw, when 
reduced to the same terms as are now asked by the better class of sailing 
vessels? They may all possibly share the same fate as the Great Britain did 
some few years since— be sold for less than their weight in old iron, in- 
cluding their engines and the so-much-admired, but unprofitable, screw. 

I am not of that class who could witness such a painful sacrifice with 
indifference, as I have been a personal witness of the baneful consequences 
which have attended party delusive speculations in other instances than that 
of the South Devon Atmospheric scheme; and, in a national point of view, 
its effects will be serious, as it will leave the sea too open for our future 
independence. 

Respecting the 400 tons to which "Engineer" again calls my attention, 
I have already remarked, in a former number, that it was cancelled by the 
new fittings of the Great Britain, as a "clipper sailing-ship." The 900 
horse engines, which I proposed to give her, as a paddle-wheel vessel, with 
its consequent fittings, were about the same in weight, and occupied less, or 
nearly the same, space as her original engines of 1000 horses, &c, and, so 
far as I could compare the weight of her "nominal" 500-horse power 
engines with those removed, and the space gained, the additions of weight 
and room required to provide for the extra number of hands and stores for 
their immediate use, left the 400 tons imaginative; but on this I am not 
disposed to quibble, as it is too clear to be refuted, that the limited space 
which may have been gained would go but a very little way, if filled, in 
making up the sum of £26,708, required to place the screw on a par with 
the paddle wheel. 

"Engineer" seems content to allow the £150 per diem expenses of the 
screw to remain unaltered, while he undertakes to increase the daily expenses 
of the paddle wheel from £180 to £200, making a difference of £50 per 
diem in the working expenses of the paddle wheel, instead of £30. Now, 
I had no wish to underrate the daily expenses of the paddle wheel, and I 
have been since assured, by gentlemen of the highest experience in paddle- 
wheel and screw propulsion, that I was literally correct in all I had stated in 



m 



Reviews. 



[January, 



this respect; but, supposing I was not, and that a clear difference of £50 per 
i diem did exist, it would add to the working expenses of the paddle wheel, 
. in 12 months, £5,500, still leaving a difference of £21,208 in favour of the 
paddle wheel, in one year's business. 

Anxious to obtain a correct account of the daily expenses of the Atlantic 
: paddle-wheel steamers, a very worthy and honourable friend of mine, who 
■ I had known from a boy up, a captain, who had commanded paddle-wheel 
steam -ships in the royal navy for 11 years, and who had also crossed the 
Atlantic in-Cunard's line, undertook to make some inquiry for me; and it 
appeared, the average daily expenses then was about £140 per diem, which 
has since increased to or above £150; therefore, I was not underrating in- 
tentionally, the expenses of, the Great Britain, in stating it at £180. 

I mention this merely to show, that I have taken no steps to " mislead" 
the readers of The Artizan or the public in this important national ques- 
tion, therefore "Engineer" can have no grounds for "regret" but on his 
own side. That the public have been misled there is not a shadow of a 
doubt, and I am quite willing to put the most favourable construction as to 
the way they have been misled; and I sincerely hope such misleading as 
that which I have ventured to indulge in, will ultimately prove to their 
advantage, and help to dispel the delusive influence which have drawn so 
much money out of their pockets — never to be returned. 

The advised marine speculations have, it is well known, most seriously 
affected the feeling of the British public, and they hang back with fearful 
mistrust from what they call "engineer ships;" and some short time since, 
a gentleman of considerable property, who held rather a large interest in 
the "mammoth" ships of the Eastern Steam Navigation Company, sold 
out his interest at a loss; and, to show me what lie thought of such kind of 
speculations, he sent me Herapath's Railway and Commercial Journal, of 
Saturday, September 18th, 1852, with a request that I would read the 
editor's remarks, and which I did, and which I consider should be read by 
every director interested in the success of the undertakings in which he is 
engaged. 

I have been lately favoured with letters assuring me that I need not take 
any further trouble to explain the merit of ocean screw steamers, as it is 
gradually sinking under its own weight, and would be shortly brought to a 
close, as parties of influence had lately withdrawn their money from screw 
companies, to invest it in support of the paddle wheel. 

That a strong feeling in favour of paddle-wheel vessels will be soon made 
manifest, I have every reason to believe; at the same time, I feel assured 
great caution will be used by those who may be inclined to invest their money 
in this class of steam ships for ocean purposes, as paddle-wheel vessels as 
yet have not been made very tempting, the several abortive attempts to im- 
prove the action of the wheels, when vessels are deeply laden, having created 
an unnecessary prejudice against this mode of propulsion. On this subject 
I hope to have the opportunity of placing before your readers sufficient data 
to prove that it may be made a safe and profitable investment for British 
capital. We have enough to show that speed and certainty belongs to the 
paddle wheel, and that the screw must fall before its influence, when properly 
developed; but too much care cannot be taken to prevent its improvement 
being kept back by ill-advised management. 

Public companies are too frequently inclined to take a high hand, regard- 
less of the consequences; and this is the rock on which they often get 
wrecked, before they can be made sensible of the reality of the dangerous 
position into which they have been drawn for the want of that attention 
necessary to secure success. A good principle may be ruined by mis- 
management; and, however good the principle of paddle-wheel propulsion 
may be, more than ordinary caution is required to prevent its revival from 
sharing the fate of the screw, and thus put an end to English steam naviga- 
tion to Australia, as an unprofitable undertaking. 

That the screw cannot be made a profitable investment for capital is self- 
evident, as the little use made of it, at the sacrifice of so much room for cargo, 
merely to show that the vessel is provided with a screw, deprives it of all 
chance of profitably competing with the improved class of sailing vessels which 
the requirements of the age are daily calling into use. Our transatlantic rivals 
have not been blind to our defects, and they know well how to profit by it; 
and no reasonable man can regret to see maritime improvements carried out 
to the world's advantage by America, whatever reflection it may cast upon 



England for neglecting it; and that we have neglected it most culpably, for 
the last thirty years at least, I hold the most astounding proofs to show, 
whenever it shall please Her Majesty's government to institute an open and 
honourable inquiry. 

I remain, sir, your obedient humble servant, 

John Poad Drake, 

Naval Architect. 
London, December \<Sth, 1853., 

P.S. — My attention was called to the Devonshire Atmospheric ruinous de- 
lusion by parties once disposed to embark largely in Eastern steam naviga-. 
tion; and I mention it to show that its influence, in keeping back profitable 
speculation, is attended with a greater disadvantage than a cursory observer 
might suppose. How is it to be overcome? It is a question worthy of con- 
sideration, and we cannot nationally afford to permit its effects to pass un- 
heeded, so far at least as our future maritime prosperity is concerned. 

J. P. D. 



KEVIEWS. 

'Hie Naval and Mail Steamers of the United States. By Charles 

B. Stuart, Engineer-in-Chief of the United States Navy. New 

York : C. B. Norton. 

(Second Notice.) 

The Collins' line naturally takes the precedence, in a notice of the 
mail steamers of the United States, not from priority of date so much 
as on account of the circumstances under which the line was projected 
and carried out. These are so graphically described by Mr. Stuart, that 
we cannot do better than transcribe his remarks. 

"It will be remembered, that the keels of the first two vessels of this 
line of transatlantic steam-ships were laid soon after the appearance of 
the four justly celebrated steamers Europa, Canada, Niagara, and 
America, of the Cunard line, and were intended to surpass them in size 
and speed. To do the first was of easy accomplishment, but the last, 
and by far the most important, was a more difficult task ; indeed, it 
was almost hopeless, and, to many experienced and able minds, appeared 
presumptuous, if not impossible. 

" This feeling was not singular when we reflect that, although 
American genius and enterprise were the first to solve the problem of 
crossing the Atlantic by steam, by sending a steam ship to Liverpool in 
eighteen days (a messenger of those which were to follow in later years 
with unsurpassed speed and beauty), the experiment was not renewed, 
after the Savannah returned home, until revived by the English steamers 
Sirius and Great Western. Many difficulties seemed to cluster around 
such a project as this, until the remarkable success of these steamers 
drew the attention of English capital and skill to the subject of steam 
navigation, and very soon thereafter they were followed by the far-famed 
steamers of Cunard. 

" The Washington and the Hermann were the next American steam- 
ships that crossed the ocean, and, at the time of their construction, were 
undoubtedly the best specimens of sea steamers our constructors and 
engineers had produced ; but they proved entirely unequal to the early 
vessels of the English line, and far behind, in point of speed, the later 
Cunarders. 

" Under these circumstances, it is no surprising that American capi- 
talists, constructors andjengineers should hesitate to compete with the 
enlarged experience of the English nation, sustained by the immense 
capital of that country, and fostered by the aid of the government. 

" History will record the name of E. K. Collins, who, in my humble 
judgment, has, under Providence, done more to advance the name and 
interests of his country than any American since the immortal Fulton 
— for the one proved the possibility of applying the steam engine -to 
the useful navigation of our rivers and lakes, which has caused, in a 



,1854] 



sMebietcs. 



13 



.great degree, the unprecedented growth of our inland andWestern States; 
the other, the scarcely less important practical lesson of narrowing the 
broad and boisterous Atlantic to a pleasure trip of ten days. To those 
who, from study or experience, know the vast difficulty there is in con- 
structing a steamer capable *of crossing the ocean at all seasons of the 
.year, not only with safety and wonderful regularity, but to do so in ten 
days, instead of even twelve or fourteen, this encomium will, it is 
believed, be deemed just and deserved. A reference to the steam logs 
given herein will fully illustrate the labours and cost necessary to ac- 
complish " the quickest passages on record" across the Atlantic. 
, "Under these circumstances, Mr. Collins determined that, if assiduity 
in seeking information could insure him success, it should be attained ; 
for, up to that time, as before observed, our country had done nothing 
in constructing sea steamers that would justify him in taking any of 
them, either in their models, engines, or boilers, for his guide, with the 
least hope of success in distancing his competitor. 

" He relied upon the experiance gained in his successful efforts in the 
establishment of the Collins line of sailing packets between the same 
ports that these steamers were intended to connect, for perfecting the 
models of the vessels, and resorted to the most able engineers he could 
find, who had not only the proper knowledge for building marine engines 
and boilers, but who had also seen their operations at sea, thereby avoid- 
ing many previous errors, and succeeded in building vessels and ma- 
chinery that were acknowledged over the ocean to be equal at least to 
any constructed in England. 

" Before giving out the contracts for the machinery, Mr. Collins 
obtained from Messrs. Sewell and Faron, chief engineers of the 
U. S. navy, full specifications of the engines, wheels, and boilers, the 
latter designed by Mr. Faron himself, who was afterwards appointed the 
chief engineer of the line, and subsequently made the original specifi- 
cations for the steamers Arctic and Baltic. 

" At that time it was believed, from the best information that could 
be obtained, that the Cunard steamers carried an average boiler pressure 
not exceeding ten pounds to the square inch, and that, to equal them, it 
would only be necessary to have for the Collins' models cylinders of 90 
inches diameter and 9 feet stroke, with the same boiler pressure, although 
Mr. Sewell, it is understood, originally advocated 95-inch cylinders. 
After the contracts were given out to the Novelty and Allaire Works, 
of New York, Mr. Collins procured permission of the government to 
allow Mr. Faron to visit England, and examine the marine engines and 
boilers in use there. On his return in the Niagara, he discovered that 
the safety valves of that steamer had 13 one-pound weights on them, 
and that with every plunge of the vessel the valve would open slightly, 
indicating at once the pressure of steam carried. 

" The moment this was communicated to Mr. Collins, he addressed a 
note to each of the able engineers (Faron, Sewell, and Copeland), giving 
the cross section of the Niagara, and the dimensions of her cylinder, 
with 13 lbs. of boiler pressure, together with the cross section of the 
Atlantic and Pacific, then building, and asked, what dimensions of 
cylinder would be required, with the same boiler pressure, to equal the 
other vessel ; and the answer of each, without concert of action, was, 
95 inches diameter, and 9 feet stroke, the size immediately substituted 
by Mr. Collins against the advice of many, who thought the change 
unnecessary, and the expenditure uncalled for. And yet how impor- 
tant does this comparatively small change become in the sequel ! for, 
without it, even with the superior models of the ships, and the unpre- 
cedented evaporative power of the boilers, which are so important in 
their results, the steamers of this line could not perform the voyages in 
the time they now do, and might possibly have been beaten by the two 
last of the Cunarders; for, upon examination, it will be seen, that the 
Asia has cylinders of 96 inches diameter, and the same length of stroke, 
with an immersed midship section of 85 square feet less than the Atlan- 



tic, and 80 square feet less than the Pacific. Estimating the nominal 

horse power by rules established in England, the power of the Asia 

equals 116 horse power, and the Atlantic and Pacific only 800 each. 

On further comparing these steamers, it will be found that, for each 

square foot of immersed section, the 

Atlantic has 1*10 horse power, 
Pacific „ 1*12 „ 

Asia, „ 1.-28 „ 

thus giving the latter an important advantage over, the others. 

"In this view, the question naturally occurs, by what means the 

Atlantic and Pacific surpass the Asia in speed at all seasons of the year. 

In my judgment, it is undoubtedly due to their unequalled models, 

effective boilers, and the management of their officers." 

(The specification for building the Arctic and Baltic has already been 

given in The Artizan, yol.,xi.,p.. 154,) , . 

" The other two vessels of the line (Atlantic and Pacific) have the 

same general dimensions, with the" exception that they have 2 feet 
less length on deck, and 5. feet less length on keek and have 1 foot 
less stroke of piston, with, some minor differences in the engines, boilers 
and wheels ; not enough, however, to warrant separate descriptions in 
thjs work, 

"The hull of the Arctic was built by the experienced naval' con- 
structor W. H. Brown., of. New York City, under the immediate super- 
intendence of- George .Steers, the modeller of the yacht America. She 
was launched 28th January, 1850, and was placed on the line in that 
year. The finish of her, cabins, and all the internal arrangements for 
heating and ventilating and rendering, the passengers comfortable 
during a voyage^ have never been surpassed." 

The main peculiarities of these engines consists in the use of double? 
beat valves (worked by eccentrics and lifters), and in the method in 
which the wrought-iron framing is stayed. Each engine has a separate, 
cast-iron entablature, the two pieces being bolted together by long 
bolts, Each entablature is supported by four wrought-iron columns, 
as in the City of London* and others of Mr. R. Napier's boats. On- 
each side of the cylinder are two diagonal stays, one c.ottered into a 
cast-iron frame, joining the cylinder and the condenser, and the other 
cottered into a boss cast in the sole-plate a little in advance of the 
centre of the cylinder. We must confess, that, we think better of the 
plan of stiffening the columns, fore and aft ; whilst the strength of the 
cylinder and, its connection with the condenser ought to render the 
lower diagonal stay on the sole-plate a superfluity. 

The boilers have been already described in The Artizan, and are 
really the most interesting part of the machinery. They are tubular 
boilers, but the water is contained in the tubes, which are placed 
vertically in a large flue behind the furnaces. The furnaces are in two 
tiers, one above the other, and the products of combustion pass round 
the tubes, on their way to the chimney at the back of the boiler. A 
hanging damper is placed behind the tubes, which compels the heated 
air to descend before it can escape into the take-up. An interesting 
paper by Mr. Isberwood, on the performance of these boilers, will be 
found at p. 273, vol. 1852. Considering that the system is really an 
English one (the latest improvements by the Earl of Dundonald), we 
regret that no English engineer has. been courageous enough to follow 
those which have succeeded so well in the Collins' steamers. 

The diameters of the wheels are as follows : — Arctic, 35 feet 6 inches; 
Baltic, 36 feet ; Atlantic and Pacific, 35 feet. Those of the Arctic 
and Aliunde have 36 floats, the Baltic 32, and the Pacific 28. 

The general dimensions have been already given. Those of the 
Atlantic, Arctic and Baltic were originally fitted with single floats of 
26 inches face, which have since been reduced to 21 inches. The 



* Vide plate in Artizan Treatise on the Steam-engine. 



14 



Reviews. 



[January, 



Arctic, owing to the large number of floats (36) in her wheel, carried a 
heavy sea in front of them, especially when leaving port. To remedy 
this, every intermediate float was cut off 8 inches from the centre row 
of arms, which left a space at each third float, alternately making what 
is called a " step paddle." This change made the engines work easier 
and much more regular in a sea way. The Pacific had originally 35 
feet diameter of wheel, with 28 floats of 11 feet 6 inches face, arranged 
as split paddles, each paddle being 16 inches wide. After her fourth 
voyage, they were altered to single floats of 26 inches. This width 
producing a jar on the engines in a racing or following sea, on the fifth 
voyage they were reduced to 23 inches, and subsequently further reduced 
to 21 inches with advantage. 

The following are the proportions of the Arctic : — 

Area of greatest transverse section . . . . 772 square feet. 

Launching draught, aft 10 feet. 

Launching draught, forward 9 feet 4 ins. 

Average displacement per inch from launching 

to load line 20| tons. 

Area of load line 9369"10 square feet. 

Whole displacement in proportion to its cir- 
cumscribing parallelopipedon 601 per cent. 

Weight of hull 1525 tons. 

Weight of spars and rigging 34 tons. 

Ordinary load line, aft 20 feet. 

Ordinary load line, forward . .. 19 feet 6 ins. 

Difference of draught on entering New York 

with usual passage 3 feet 3 ins. 

Scale of displacement, taken 61 feet forward, and 40 feet abaft the 
centre of hull, at 19 feet 8 inches draught, 22£ tons per inch; at 17 
feet 9 inches, 21 tons; at 15 feet 9 inches, 20g tons; at 13 feet 
9 inches, 20£ tons; at 11 feet 9 inches, 19| tons; at 9 feet 9 inches, 
19^ tons. 

During the first 11 months of 1852, the Collins' line had an advan- 
tage of the Cunard line of .5 hours 51 minutes to Liverpool, and 
1 day, 6 hours, 18 minutes to New York. This difference, in the out- 
Ward and homeward passages, we attribute partly to the fact, that the 
Cunard boats have always heavy cargoes outwards. During the same 
period, the number of passengers conveyed was, by the Collins' line, 
4306; and by the Cunard line, 2951. 

The performances of the Arabia have redeemed the credit of the 
Cunard line, but that point, and some others suggested by Mr. Stuart's 
work, we must reserve to another occasion. 



Excursion in England and Scotland (Excursion en Angleterre et en 
Ecosse), by Eugene Burel, Civil Engineer. Rouen, 1853. 

To write a " to-day history " of the industry of England in 38 octavo 
pages, is a feat which none but a Frenchman would dare to undertake, 
and which, certainly, none but a Frenchman would have accomplished 
so gracefully. With an excellent knowledge of the English language, 
M. Burel combined the advantage of possessing good powers of ob- 
servation, so that he has seized the cream, as it were, of our science, 
and served it up for the information and delectation of his compatriots, 
in an " express- train style," highly characteristic and not less amusing. 
The author, we ought to premise, was sent on a mission of scientific 
inquiry, by the Chamber of Commerce of Rouen, and, duly armed with 
introductions, arrived in London, a city with which all his readers are sup- 
posed to be familiar. The effects of the penny post and third-class railway 
fares are hit off for the statistician, and a natural regret expressed that the 
trial of low-postage rates in France should have been so hastily given up. 
The magnificent station at Birmingham, with its 96 trains arriving, and a 
similar number going out, daily, does not fail to strike the traveller, 



whose mechanical eye regards with approbation the lightness and sym- 
metry of the iron roofs. A pilgrimage to Soho affords M. Burel the 
opportunity of giving his readers a correct appreciation of the cha- 
racter of that great man James Watt, whose only fault in modern 
eyes is, that he has left too little for posterity to accomplish. 

The making of lap-welded iron tubes, Condie's steam hammer (in 
which the piston is fixed, and the cylinder forms the hammer), are only 
glanced at, for Manchester is ahead, and, to a Rouennais, has peculiar 
interest, since he finds in it the counterpart of his native town. 

The name of William Fairbairn is so well known on the continent 
(where he has acted, not only as constructor, but as consulting en- 
gineer, to several of the largest works), that M. Burel naturally takes 
a pride in having been employed in carrying out his plans for the 
immense establishment of La Foudre, near Rouen. We remember to 
have seen this factory, which has an engine room containing five steam 
engines and the foundation for a sixth, and a boiler room containing 
sixteen boilers. Mr. Calvert's invention for the purification of coke, 
by the admixture of sea salt with the coal in the coke oven, is hopefully 
spoken of, and we believe it has a beneficial effect in neutralising the 
sulphur ; but we are also informed that the use of salt for this purpose 
is not by any means of recent date, but has been practised for many 
years. The desulphuration is said to increase the tenacity of the iron 
20 percent., at a cost of only a penny a ton. 

Amongst the prizes in the lottery of patented inventions, M. Burel 
speaks of a French wool-combing machine, introduced by Mr. Bour- 
cart, for the exclusive use of which six firms at Manchester are said 
to have paid ^5,000 each. 

The most beautiful example of a cotton mill M. Burel pronounces 
to be that of Sir E. Armitage and Son, at Pendleton. It contains 
36,000 spindles, and 1,200 looms, and the whole is driven by four 
engines of 60 horse power each, on M'Naught's patent principle. 
The spinning-machine factory of Messrs. Higgins and Son needs but 
to be mentioned to those at all conversant with the manufacture of 
textile fabrics. 

Liverpool and its docks form a sight of which an Englishman may 
well be proud, and it never fails to extort the wonder of foreigners. 
Our guide quotes for us the details of the exports and imports for the last 
year, not forgetting to mention that astounding fact, that, in the two 
first months of this year, eighty vessels left Liverpool for Australia — a 
not less remarkable feature being, that our " depressed shipping in- 
terest " had found it necessary to seek twenty of this number in foreign 
ports, in order to meet the overwhelming demand. 

The steam crane of Messrs. M'Nicoll and Vernon {vide plans in 
Artizan, 1851) seems to have roused the traveller's enthusiasm to the 
highest pitch of mechanical excitement, and we should deem his praise 
extravagant, if we had not ourselves witnessed its manoeuvres. 

The establishments of Peter Fairbairn, Lavvson, and E. B. Wilson 
and Co., at Leeds, detain our indefatigable sightseer a short time on 
his road to Newcastle, the river scene of which is well hit off. The 
magnificent self-acting tools of Stephenson and Hawthorne lead M. 
Burel to express his doubt whether the result of such a system is not 
to render a workman " a machine attending a machine." Unques- 
tionably, a man who is always repeating a given task is not so likely 
to have his intellect sharpened as a man whose work is varied within 
certain limits. The effect of the minute subdivision of labour can only 
be counteracted by the spread of education. 

Apt to mix the dulce with the utile, the author makes a pilgrimage 
at Edinburgh to Holyrood House, and some spots associated with the 
memory of Sir Walter Scott, only, however, to hurry us, with profes- 
sional zeal, to accompany him to see " la plus grande dragueuse," "the 
biggest dredger" that he has ever seen, constructed by Mr. Morten, of 
Leith. Space would fail us to follow his march through " Bonnie 



1854.] 



Recent American Patents. 



15 



Dundee," Glasgow, anil Greenock. Suffice it to say, that we find him 
always intelligent and amusing, and never uncharitable in his remarks. 
We doubt if there are many professional men in England who could 
lay aside their cast iron, or bricks and mortar, and make so amusing a 
sketch of a foreign country with the same facility with which M. 
Burel appears to have done it. 

RECENT AMERICAN PATENTS. 

For Improvements in Files and Rasps ; Hiram Powers,* Florence, Italy. 

Claim. — " I claim forming perforations or throats to the cutting edges of 
files or rasps, for allowing the particles cut away to pass through, and to 
prevent the instrument from clogging or choking." 
For Covering Iron with Gutta Percha ; Charles Goodyear, Newhaven, Conn. 

Claim. — " I claim the art or method of coating articles composed wholly 
or partly of metal, with compounds of caoutchouc or gutta percha, and sub- 
jecting the same to a high degree of artificial heat, or the process of vul- 
canisation, as specified." 
For an Improvement in Facing Buildings ; Michael B. Dyott, Philadelphia, 

Penn. 

" The nature of my invention consists in an improved mode of uniting, 
fastening and supporting cast-iron or other plates to the external walls of 
buildings, whereby the said plates form an ornamental facing thereto, are 
protected against external injury, and secured from the injurious and dis- 
figuring effects of moisture from .the interior." 

Claim. — " I do not claim the facing or securing of stone to the surface of 
buildings in any manner, or by any means whatever, nor imbedding any 
other substance, in mortar or cement, upon the surface of walls; neither do I 
claim the facing of brick walls with iron or other plates, by building them in 
mortar with the wall, and fastening them by bolts or ties, as I am aware 
that these things have before been done; but what I do claim is, the method 
herein described, of supporting a veneering or facing of thin cast-iron, or 
other plates, upon their inside, and uniting the same firmly with the external 
surface of the building, by so fixing the plates in relation to the wall as to 
leave a sufficient space between them to allow a cement in a liquid form to 
be poured in to fill the space and all the interstices of the plate, perfectly 
solidify around and upon the hooks and other fastenings, exclude the air 
and all dampness, whereby the veneering is strengthened, protected and 
preserved, as fully set forth." 
For an Improved Trip Hammer; William Van Anden, Poughkeepsie, N.Y, 

Claim. — "I do not claim elevating the hammer shaft by means of cams; 
neither do I claim the friction rollers, irrespective of the particular manner 
of arranging or attaching them to the hammer shaft, as herein shown; but 
what I do claim is, 1st, attaching a collar to one end of the hammer shaft, 
said collar working loosely over a shaft which has a spring attached to it, 
for the purpose of forcing down the hammer shaft. The shaft being pro- 
vided with a set screw, or its equivalent, and lever, arranged as described, 
by which, upon properly adjusting said set screw, or its equivalent, the 
hammer may be made to descend upon the block or anvil with greater or 
less force, as desired. 2nd, I claim the employment or use of the friction 
rollers attached to a vibrating frame, and arranged substantially in the man- 
ner as herein shown, for the purpose of relieving, instantaneously, the cams 
from the pressure of the rollers, when the highest points of the cams have 
passed the lowest centres of the rollers, thus preventing the wearing of the 
cams at their highest points, as set forth." 

For an Improvement in Benzole Vapour Apparatus ; Oliver P. Drake, Boston, 

Mass. 

" An apparatus made in the above-mentioned manner will not only be 
found very efficient, in the production of benzole vapour mixed with air, but 
will produce such a regular pressure and flow of such aeriform mixture 
through its gas burner or burners as will cause an unsurpassed steadiness in 
the height of the flame ; besides, the luminosity of the flame is far greater 
than that of the coal gas." 

* The eminent American sculptor. 



Claim. — "I claim, as my invention, the combination of the heater and gas 
burner, with the water vessel and vaporising chamber, substantially as spe- 
cified, so that, by means of the said heater and gas burner, and the pipes 
connecting them with the water vessel and the chamber, the whole or part of 
the mixture of air and benzole vapour produced by the apparatus may not 
only be used in any convenient place for the purpose of illumination, but 
also for heating the water of the vessel, as specified. I am aware that, for 
the purposes of evaporating saccharine fluids, a hollow shaft, surrounded by 
plates and having perforations, has been made to revolve over an open 
cistern (containing the saccharine liquor), while air has been blown into such 
such shaft, and made to pass against the plates partially immersed in the 
liquid and put in revolution; I therefore do not claim such. But what I 
do claim as my invention, and for the purpose of vaporising benzole, or other 
suitable volatile hydro-carbon, and mixing it with air, is the combination of 
the closed vaporising chamber, the rotary vaporiser or disseminator (placed 
therein), and the rotary meter-wheel and its closed case, or an air-forcing 
apparatus, as made to force a stream of air into the hollow shaft of the vapo- 
riser, and through or against the saturated portions of the disseminator, 
and into the vaporising chamber and regenerator, so as to vaporise the 
benzole or hydro-carbon, and mix it with air, substantially as above specified. 
And, in combination with the rotating meter-wheel and its case, and the 
hot-water vessel, I claim the coiled induction air-pipe, as made to pass 
through the water in the vessel, and thereby receive heat therefrom, so as to 
warm the air as it passes through the pipe, and to supply oxygen to the 
volatilised vapor, and for the purpose of facilitating the evaporation of the 
same. And, in combination with the induction air-pipe, I claim the chamber 
and its regulator slide and orifice, applied for the purpose of supplying cold 
air to the warmed air, or to the meter wheel, in order to diminish or regulate 
the temperature of the air passing into the said wheel, and forced into the 
vaporising chamber. I also claim the peculiar mode of making the rotary 
disseminator or vaporiser, viz., of two perforated heads or discs, a hollow 
perforated shaft, and strands of lamp wicking, or other absorbent material, 
stretched from one head to the other, as specified. And, for the purpose of 
an air-blast apparatus, I claim the application and use of the meter wheel, 
its closed case and liquid therein, substantially in the manner as above 
specified, not meaning to claim the method of using the meter for the ad- 
measurement of gas, and wherein the wheel of the meter is turned by the 
gas itself, but meaning to claim it as having its wheel operated by a separate 
power, and applied in conjunction with the water and closed case, and 
induction and eduction pipes, for the purpose of blowing air, as specified." 
For an Improvement in Steam Boilers; Benjamin Irving-, Green Point, New 

York; patented in France, May 12th, 1853. 

"The improvements which are comprehended in this invention have in 
view, chiefly, to secure a more perfect combustion of the gases generated by 
the consumption of fuel, and to present a large extent of heating surface 
without subjecting any part of it, when working properly, to a very intense 
heat; to guard against explosions of the boiler; to gain more compactness 
and strength in structure, and to diminish the necessary weight of metal and 
quantity of water. The results claimed for these improvements are, 
economy in amount of fuel and in expense of construction, safety from 
explosions, increased strength and durability, and adaptedness for the use of 
coal or wood to propel engines on railroads, and for all other purposes." 

Claim. — "What I claim is, 1st, A boiler composed of an external water- 
jacket, of cylindrical or other form, with a steam chamber at the top, and 
with or without one or more inner water jackets connected with the outer 
water jackets, substantially as described, when either water jacket contains 
one or more vertical coils of steam pipe, whose lower ends connect with one 
of the water jackets, and whose upper ends discharge into the steam cham- 
ber, substantially as set forth. 2nd, drying the steam by passing it through 
a coil within or between the water jackets, substantially as set forth." 
For an Improved Machine for Cutting Sheet Metal; Stephen P. RuggleS 

Boston, Mass. 

" The nature of my invention consists in so hanging the shear or separating 
blades, as that their cutting edges shall be in the same line, and one so 
placed above the other, as not even to come in contact, much less overlap 
each other, by which means, I can cut a perfectly straight, square and smooth 



16 



Performance of the XT, S. Screw Steam-Ship "Princeton" 



[January, 



(edge, without the least warping or twisting of them, and with great dirainu. 
tion of power, from the fact that the cutting edges need not pass into the 
sheet or plate more than from one-half to two-thirds of its thickness, and yet 
it shall be entirely separated, and with smooth edges ; and also, in hanging 
the cutting blades, or stocks on which they are supported, upon eccentric 
pins or bolts, for the purpose of giving them the most accurate adjustment 
which they require with the varied thickness of metal sheets to be cut." 

• Claim.—" Having thus fully described the nature of my invention, what I 
claim is, the so hanging of a traversing and a fixed cutting blade, one or 
both, as that their cutting edges shall not overlap or come in contact with 
each other, by which means I am enabled to divide sheets of metal without 
twisting or warping their edges, and at great saving of power, substantially as 
described. I also claim the connecting of the upper and lower portions of 
the frame, when each carries one of the gutters, on eccentric bolts, suitably 
provided with screw and nut, or their equivalent, for giving the blades on 
the said two parts of the frame a perfect adjustment, one above the other, 
substantially as described." 

For an Improvemennt in Apparatus for Purifying Gas; William Wigston, 
■'• City of New York. 

• " The nature of the invention consists in what I term a scrubber, which is 
k float of wood or other material, of circular or other form, of sufficient 
buoyancy to float in the purifying liquor, with an interior cavity above 
the surface of the liquor, and with passages leading from the said cavity 
through its sides, and the gas enters through the inlet pipe which rises 
through the liquor, and opens into the cavity above its surface, escaping 
through the passages through the sides. These passages are so arranged, 
that they are almost or entirely submerged, when there is no pressure of gas; 
but that, when there is a pressure, the float will be raised so as to bring a 
small portion above the surface, to allow the escape of the gas in very thin 
streams, and thereby bring every portion of it in contact with the liquor." 

' Claim. — " What I claim is, constructing the scrubber or float with a cavity 
to receive the gas above the surface of the fluid, and partly submerged pas- 
sages leading from the said cavity through the sides of the float, to allow the 
escape of the gas from the cavity and cause its distribution over the surface 
■of the fluid in thin streams, to produce a diffused contact with the fluid, as 
described." 

PERFORMANCE OF. THE U. S. SCREW STEAM-SHIP 
"PRINCETON." 

(Continued from p. 234, vol. xi.) 

Taking the average speed of the vessel under sail alone, at 5-125 knots 
per hour, the revolutions of the Ericsson screw would be 10 - 0963 per minute, 
making its speed 3 - 486 knots per hour, at which rate the speed of the vessel 
would exceed it by 1-639 knots per hour, or the speed of the vessel would 
■be greater than that of the screw by 47-00 per centum of the latter. 

Taking the speed of the vessel at the same 5'125 knots per hour, the 
revolutions of the Stevens screw would be 11-7537 per minute, making its 
speed 3761 knots per hour, at which rate the speed of the vessel would 
exceed it by 1-364 knots per hour, or the speed of the vessel would be 
greater than that of the screw by 36 - 27 per centum of the latter. 

It must, however, be considered that, by the passage of the vessel through 
the water, there is generated a following current of considerable speed, and 
that the speed of the screw under the above circumstances must be compared, 
not with the speed of the vessel through the water, but with that speed less 
the speed of the following current. The speed of this following current it 
is impossible to determine; but with hulls of good model at medium speeds, 
it may be estimated at about one-fifth the speed of vessel. If, therefore, we 
make a deduction of one knot from the speed of vessel (5'125 knots per 
hour), it leaves a speed of 4M25 knots of vessel to be compared with a speed 
of Ericsson's screw of 3-486 knots per hour; and of Stevens' screw of 3-761 
knots per hour; on which assumption the retardation of the vessel's speed 
would be equal to the effect of a power required to drag the Ericsson screw 
(not revolving) through the water at a rate of 0'639 knots per hour, and the 
Stevens' screw at a rate of 0-364 knots per hour. The resistance of the 
screw thus dragged would not equal that of a disc of the same area, inas- 
much as the screw surface is not placed at right angles, but obliquely to the 
direction of motion; and as the effect of power on speed is as the cube root 
of that power, it will be perceived that the drag of the screw, or the retarda- 
tion of the vessel's speed by it, must be very little indeed, probably in the 
majority of cases not sensible to the log. In confirmation of this result, I 
find, in Bourne's Treatise on the Screw Propeller, p. 142, where the con- 



clusions of the French experimenters on the screw-vessel Pelican are cited, 
the following recommendations, viz.: — "But in the case of merchant vessels 
with auxiliary power, they recommend that the screw shall be made merely 
capable of revolving freely when disengaged from the engine, in the manner 
of a patent log. A screw thus fitted will, they say, offer scarcely any 
obstruction to the progress of the vessel under sail, while it will possess 
advantages, in strength and simplicity, such as would not be otherwise 
obtained." In the last and most perfect serew vessels of the French navy, 
as the Napoleon, for instance, a screw of four blades is used, incapable of 
being hoisted out, as in the British navy, where two-bladed screws are 
wholly used; this number of blades being imperative where the screw is to 
be hoisted out. In' the Napoleon the screw is simply uncoupled, as in the 
Princeton, when it is desired to navigate the vessel with sails alone. 

In addition to the mere drag of the screw just stated, there is a further 
retardation of the vessel's speed due to what is usually termed the screw's 
friction on the water; this is probably greater than the former. In the 
absence of all exact experiment, it is impossible to determine the value of 
these retardations, but I am persuaded it docs not exceed one-tenth the 
vessel's speed ; that is to say, a vessel which, disencumbered from the screw, 
would make 10 knots under sail, would make 9 knots dragging it. 

In the following tables of the performance of the Princeton, there will 
frequently be found what is called the negative slip of the screw. This, 
however, only occurs when the vessel is under soil and steam ; it never occurs 
under steam alone. When it has place it is indicated by the minus ( — ) sign 
prefixed. By negative slip of the screw is meant the excess of the vessel's 
speed over the forward speed of the screw (revolutions multiplied by pitch) 
in per centums of the latter. Under these circumstances it might be supposed, 
the screw, so far from assisting, was retarding the vessel's speed. Such, 
however, is not the case, owing to the facts of the screw being located at the 
stern, and the generation of a following current of considerable velocity by 
the advance of the vessel; this current flowing in behind the stern, supplies 
chiefly the water on which the screw acts, and it may be slipping considerably 
in this water and yet apparently have less speed than the vessel. 

Boilers. — The Princeton had two sets of iron boilers. The first set was 
designed by Ericsson; the second set by Charles H. Haswell, at the time 
engineer in chief, U. S. N. Both sets corroded out very rapidly. The 
first set underwent very extensive repairs in December, 1846, 2 years and 
10 months after they were built, and they were taken out in April, 1847, 
3 years and 7 months after they were built, so completely corroded out as to 
be impossible to repair. The last set, on their return to the United States, 
after two years' service, were found to be greatly corroded. 

The corrosion of the first set of boilers was greatest on the semi-circular 
top of the shell above the water line, though the whole water surface was 
severely acted on. The top of the shell was not acted on in particular 
places, nor did the metal present honeycombed or pitted appearance, but 
the wasting seemed uniform over the whole extent. The reason was at the 
time a subject of general speculation, but none of the causes offered met the 
case. After the breaking up of the vessel, and the removal of the machinery, 
I had occasion to minutely examine the latter, and I found the brass feed 
pump of the port engine, its valves, valve seats, and valve chests, also of 
brass, in a completely corro.ded condition; the whole surface being honey- 
combed or pitted very thickly and very deeply, extending in many places 
nearly through the |-inch thick metal. On examining the corresponding 
feed pump of the starboard engine, made of the same material, similarly 
situated and performing the same office, I was surprised to find it in excel- 
lent order, with no marks of corrosion. At first I was at a loss to account 
for this difference, but, upon reflection, recollected the Princeton's engines 
had no independent bilge pump, and that when under way, the bilge water, 
which made very fast (owing to a steady stream being admitted through the 
pipe surrounding the propeller shaft where it passed through the dead wood 
of the vessel, for the purpose of keeping cool and lubricating the stern bear- 
ing of the same shaft), was taken out of the ship by a bilge injection, com- 
municating with only the port engine, .air pumps, and reservoir; the star- 
board engine having no bilge injection. Of course, the water fed to the 
boilers by the port engine-pump, and the pump of each engine fed to all 
three boilers, was greatly mixed with bilge water, composed of sea water 
strongly impregnated with the acids and soluble matters of the green white 
oak of which the chief part of the vessel was made; and, as these acids ap- 
peared to have had sufficient strength to attack and destroy the brass of the 
pump, it is highly probable they were also the cause of the far more rapid 
destruction of the iron of the boilers. In connection with the foregoing, I 
will also state, that no scale was made upon the fire surface of the boilers 
during the year I was attached to the vessel in the capacity of engineer, 
while steaming in the Gulf of Mexico, although the water in the boilers was 
never carried at less than twice the natural concentration, and frequently for 
days at two and a half times the natural concentration, the steam pressure 
ranging from 10 to 12 lbs. per square inch. Although every part of the fire 
surface of the first boilers could be reached, and the scale jarred off, had 
there been any there, yet there never was found enough to make the opera- 
tion of scaling necessary. The United States steam-ship Mississippi, steam- 
ing at the same time in the same waters with copper boilers, made scale to 
a very inconvenient extent, with the water in the boilers carried at only one 
and three-quarters the natural concentration, with about the same pressure 



1854.] 



Du Tremblers Ether Engine. 



17 



of steam. The Mississippi made scarcely any water, was built of seasoned 
live oak, and had independent bilge pumps. I ascribe the remarkable clean- 
ness of the Princeton's boilers to the dissolving of the scale by the acid of 
the bilge water, and also to the continual falling off of the scale by the con- 
tinual removal of impalpably thin layers of the iron by the action of these 
acids. In the engine room of the Princeton, the stench from the bilge water 
was overpowering. 

Both sets of boilers were utterly inadequate to supply the engines with 
the steam of proper pressure they could work off, cutting off at £rd the 
stroke from the commencement. By proper pressure, I mean 20 pounds in 
the boilers per square inch with wide throttles. The most violent forcing 
with the fan blast could not effect a reasonable approach to this; nor could 
there be maintained, for twenty-four or thirty-six consecutive hours, by any 
practicable amount of forcing the fires with the blast, over 10 pounds of 
steam, with the throttle half open, and cutting off at ^rd. Much smaller 
engines could have worked off all the steam the boilers could supply, and of 
course could have developed the same power. 

In calculating the evaporation of the boilers, I have confined myself to the 
steaming done after Commodore Stockton resigned the command, both be- 
cause the data was sufficiently large, and because for that time only were 
the steam logs complete in all the elements; also, because the selection of 
the fuel was made with greater care while the vessel was making experi- 
mental trials. In calculating evaporation, Regnault's data for the latent 
heats of steam is used. In order to burn from 1,200 to 1,400 pounds of coal 
in either set of boilers, the steam pistons of the blowing engines were re- 
quired to make about 30 double strokes per minute. These engines were 
two in number, with cylinders of 12 inches diameter, and 14 inches stroke of 
piston, the exhaust communicating with the condensers of the large engines. 
Worked by each blowing engine was a centrifugal blower of 4 feet diameter, 
composed of six fans 22^ inches long by 12 inches deep; the blower was 
geared up with a belt, to make six revolutions for each double stroke of the 
steam pistons, the average being 180 revolutions per minute. With wide 
throttles, the pistons of the blowing engines would make 200 double strokes 
per minute. These engines were much larger than was required or could be 
used. The natural draught of both sets of boilers was very defective; the 
utmost of anthracite that could be burned with it was 6 pounds per hour per 
square foot of grate surface, or about 800 pounds per hour. 

The economical evaporation of these boilers was only up to the ordinary 
itandard. There was in both much too little heating surface for the fuel 
consumed ; and the heated gases, especially with the first boilers, were deli- 
vered into the smoke chimney at a very high temperature. I have witnessed, 
on a dark night, when using soft anthracite, and forcing the blowers strongly, 
a mass of dense red flame driven out from the top of the chimney, of its full 
diameter, and rapidly. On one occasion, when forcing the vessel, this mass 
of red flame was of sufficient volume to stream over the taffrail, and brightly 
light up the decks around, alarming the officers of the ship, and requiring 
the cessation of the blowers. 

The last boilers were superior in type to the first. They contain a consi- 
derably greater amount of heating surface in the same-sized shells, and gave 
much higher economical results; but they were inaccessible for cleaning or 
repairs, while every part of the first boilers could be reached. 

First Boilers. — Three iron boilers, with one tier of deep return flues. 
The boilers are placed side by side, with one smoke chimney in common. 



Length of each boiler 

Breadth „ ... 

Height „ 

Area of the total heating surface in the three boilers 

„ gi'ate 
Aggregate cross area of the direct flues „ 

„ „ return „ 

Cross area of the smoke chimney ... 

Height of the smoke chimney above the grates 
Capacity of steam room in the three boilers 

„ „ „ steam pipe, &c. 

Weight of sea water in the three boilers (12 inches 

above top of flues, weighed) 76,160 pounds. 

Weight of the three boilers, &c, complete 128,128 „ 

Proportions. — Proportion of heating to grate surface 18-060 to 1*000 
Proportion of grate surface to aggregate cross area 

of the direct flues ... 
Proportion of grate surface to aggregate cross area 

of the return flues 

Proportion of grate surface to cross area of smoke 

chimney ... 

Square feet of heating surface per cubic foot of 

space displacement of piston per stroke ... 
Square feet of grate surface per cubic foot of space 

displacement of piston per stroke... 

Cubic feet of steam room per cubic feet of steam 

used per stroke of piston 

Last Boilers. — Three iron boilers, with double return, drop, circular 
flues. The boilers are placed side by side, with one smoke chimney in 
common. 



26 feet. 
7 „ 

9 „ 4 inches. 
2420 sq. feet. 
134 „ 
27,120 „ 
15,708 „ 
13,635 
32 feet. 
1222 cubic feet. 
1297 „ 



4-941 



8-531 



9-828 



22-368 



1-239 



24-050 



Length of each boiler ... ... 

Breadth „ ... ... ... 

Height 

Area of the total heating surface in the three boilers 

grate „ „ 

Aggregate cross area of the upper row of flues in 

the three boilers 
Aggregate cross area of the middle row of flues in 

the three boilers 
Aggregate cross area of the lower row of flues in 

the three boilers 
Cross area of the smoke chimney ... 
Height of the smoke chimney above the grates 
Capacity of steam room in the three boilers 

„ „ „ steam 

pipes, &c. ... 
Weight of sea water in the three boilers (calculated) 
Proportions. — Proportion of heating to grate surface 
Proportion of grate surface to aggregate surface of 

upper row of flues ... 

Proportion of grate surface to aggregate cross area 

of middle row of flues ... ... 

Proportion of grate surface to aggregate cross area 

of lower row of flues 
Proportion of grate surface to aggregate cross area 

of smoke chimney ... 
Square feet of heating surface per cubic foot of space 

displacement of piston per stroke... 
Square feet of grate surface per cubic foot of space 

displacement of piston per stroke 
Cubic feet of steam room per cubic feet of steam 

used per stroke of piston 

(To be continued.) 



26 feet. 

7 



4 ins. 
feet. 



9 
3000 sq, 
136 

18-363 

16763 

16-762 
13635 

40 feet. 
949 cubic feet 

1024 „ 
88,860 pounds. 
22-059 to 1-000 

7-046 

8-114 „ 

8-114 

9-974 
27-729 

1-257 
18-990 



DU TREMBLEY'S ETHER ENGINE. 
Analysis of a Report by a Government Commission on Experiments made 

on board the Ship Du Trembler/, upon the Use of the combined Vapours 

of Water, Ether, and Chloroform : — 

The ship Du Trembley is of iron, arranged for carrying both passengers 
and freight, and to run both by sails and by steam. 

It can accommodate 100 travellers, and carry 230 tons of freight; an ele- 
gant schooner rig, and a screw moved by machines of 70-horse power, are so 
arranged as to be used either together or separately. 

The peculiarity of the Du Trembley, whicli is the motive for the report 
upon its first trip by the undersigned members of the Committee of Su- 
perintendence of Marseilles and Algiers, is, that its machines are arranged 
to work by the combined vapours of water and ether. 

The employment of these two vapours to give motion simultaneously to 
the same machine, is a new system, due to M. du Trembley, whose name has 
been given to the ship of MM. Arnaud and Touache, the first to which it 
has been applied. 

Struck by the loss of heat by steam in ordinary machines, after its ex- 
pansive force has been exhausted, M. du Trembley determined to retain and 
utilise it. Eor this purpose he proposed to employ it in forming a second 
vapour, whose force should be added to that of the steam. 

Sulphuric ether requiring but a feeble heat to volatilise it, appeared to 
him fitted to realise his idea; he made the experiment, and the result ful- 
filled all his hopes. As soon as the vapour of water was in contact with the 
ether, it fell instantly in the liquid state, and the ether evaporated. On the- 
one hand, a new expansive force was created; on the other, a vacuum,, 
which is also a force, was formed. 

The problem which M. du T. had proposed to himself was theoretically 
and successfully resolved; it still remained for him to devise the mechanical 
apparatus by which he might apply in practice the result which he had 
obtained; he has been not less fortunate in this second part of his work than 
the first. 

He receives the expanded steam, that is, after its force is expended, at 
its issue from the cylinder, in a closed apparatus, traversed vertically by a 
considerable number of small cylinders, close together, but isolated. The 
feet of these small cylinders plunge into a reservoir of ether placed under 
the apparatus which receives the steam; the ether rises in the tubes, and 
partially fills them. 

As soon as the steam has penetrated into the apparatus traversed by the 



18 



Novelties. 



[January, 



tubes, and has surrounded them entirely, the phenomenon of which we have 
spoken takes place; the water condenses, the ether evaporises. The water, 
in condensing produces a vacuum, which adds to the expansive force of the 
steam, by suppressing the resistance which it would have encountered; and 
the vapour of ether, collected in a separate compartment above the vapor- 
ising apparatus into which the tubes open, developes a new force, which is 
added to that of the steam. 

The condensed water is pumped back into the boiler, carrying back with 
it all the heat which the ether has not taken from it. 

The vapour of ether is led into a separate cylinder used for it alone, but 
not differing in any respect from the steam cylinder; in this cylinder its 
force is utilised. The piston of this second cylinder may act either inde- 
pendently, or may be connected to the same shaft as that of the steam cylin- 
der; in this latter case the two vapours unite in the same work. This is the 
case in the Du Trembley, and ought to be the case in the applications of the 
new system to navigation. 

The vapour of ether, which, for many reasons, it is very important not to 
lose, or to suffer to escape, is treated as the steam was. It is introduced into 
the tubes [of an apparatus, like the vaporiser, whence comes a continuous 
jet of cold water, which fills the apparatus and surrounds the tubes as the 
steam does in the vaporiser. 

Tho ether restored to the liquid state is pumped back into the vaporiser, 
as the condensed water was in the boiler, to recommence the circulation we 
have described. 

Suehis the system of combined vapours due to M. du Trembley; suc- 
cinct as is the description of it which we have given, it will be sufficient to 
explain the principle upon which the system rests, and to show that there 
may result from its application a notable diminution of combustible com- 
pared with that required for steam alone. 

In the course of our trips, we made experiments on the quantity of fuel 
consumed. They lasted, altogether, 36 hours and 50 minutes, and took 
place very nearly in all kinds of weather, and under all conditions; besides, 
whatever was the state of the weather and of the wind, whether the machines 
alone drove the vessel, or whether they were assisted by the sails, the force 
which they expended was nearly constant, and about 70-horse power, as 
was indicated by the very slightly changeable position of the indexes of the 
manometers which measured the pressures and vacuums. 

The quantity of fuel consumed in the 36 hours 50 minutes, during which 
our experiments lasted, was 2860-9 kil., regularly and carefully weighed; 
that is, as a mean, 77-67 kil. per hour, or 1*11 kil. per horse power, admitting 
that the power of the machines was 70-horse, or 1*16 kil., if we count them 
but as 67-horse power (1-11 kil. = 2-5 lbs.) 

Before working with the combined vapours, the engines of the Du Trem- 
bley were worked under the same pressure, and, consequently, with the same 
force, with steam alone acting in the two cylinders. They consumed, ac- 
cording to the ship's log and the books of the furnishers, for 2,818 hours 
of heating, 851-95 kil. of fuel; per hour, 302 kil.; per horsepower 4-31— 
4-51 kil. (9-5 — 9-9 lbs.) 

According to this calculation, there will have been obtained, by the in- 
troduction of the vapour of ether, an economy of fuel, on that expended 
when the two cylinders were driven by steam alone, of 3'2 to 335 kil. per 
hour, or per horse power 74-26 per cent., a result so good, that we scarcely 
dare believe it, notwithstanding that the exactness of the numbers on which 
our calculations are based has been again affirmed to us, and differs little 
from that which our own experiments give. 

We found the consumption of charcoal 1-11 kil., or 1*16 kil. per hour 
per horse power. The best constructors do not go below 4 kil., as that stipu- 
lated in their contracts as the minimum consumption of their engines, which 
shows an economy of 2 - 89 kil., or 2-84 per horse power per hour, or from 
71 to 72-25 per cent., a result but little below the preceding. 

Besides, whether this calculation and its results be more or less rigorously 
exact, which further experiments will show, we consider it as settled and in- 
contestible that, in reference to the consumption of fuel, the system of M. du 
Trembley presents a notable economy; and that the expense of the ether, 
far from counterbalancing the advantages of this economy, scarcely changes 
the result. 



270 feet. 

43 „ 
24 
92 
14 



4 inches. 



9 inches. 



552 square feet. 



17 feet. 



As to the dangers inherent in the use of ether, they are the same, neither 
less nor greater than those belonging to lighting by carburetted hydrogen 
gas. The same arguments may be used against the employment of ether in 
steam engines, as were presented when the lighting by gas was discussed. 
These arguments will avail no more now than they did then, against real 
advantages and a remarkable economy. 

One of the greatest difficulties which the inventor had to overcome was 
the exact and sufficient closure of the joints, for the subtlety of ether, and the 
ease with which it inflames, are known; but M. du Trembley has suc- 
ceeded in closing the joints of his apparatus with such accuracy, that he can 
affirm, say the committee, that if a slight odour announces the presence of 
the ether when the engines, already heated, are at rest, this odour entirely 
disappears when the ship is in motion. — Journal of the Franklin Institute. 



PARTICULARS OF THE STEAMER " GOLDEN AGE." 

Hull built by Wm. H. Brown ; machinery by the Morgan Iron Works, 
intended service, Australia. 
Hull. — Length on deck 

Breadth of beam, at midship section above the 
main wales . ... ... 

Depth of hold 

Length of engine and boiler space 

Draught of water at below pressure and revolutions 

Area of immersed midship section at this draught 

Capacity of coal in bunkers, in tons of coal... 600 

Draught of water at load line ... 

Floor timbers at throats, moulded ... 

Do. do. sided 

Frames, distance apart at centres 

Masts and rig 

Tonnage ... 

Engine. — One vertical beam. 

Diameter of cylinder 

Length of stroke ... 

Maximum revolutions per minute ... 
Boilers. — Two double boilers, drop flue, with furnace at each end, and 
one connection in the centre. 

Length of boilers ... ... 

Breadth do. 

Height do. exclusive of steam chimney 

Number of furnaces in both boilers ... 16 

Length of grate bars 

Number of flues (main flue) 8 

Internal dfameter of flues 

Diameter of smoke pipe 

Height of smoke pipe 

Maximum pressure of steam in pounds ... 25 

Description of coal ... bituminous. 

Consumption of coal per hour 

Area of flue and fire surface in boilers 
Water Wheels — 

Diameter ... 

Length of blades 

Depth of blades 

Number of blades 



18 inches. 
12 „ 
36 „ 



barque. 
.. 2,376 tons. 



83 inches. 



16 



12 feet. 



38 feet. 

14 „ 9 inches. 

12 „ 



8 feet 4 inches. 
41 „ 



If tons. 
5854 feet. 



34 feet 6 inches. 
9 „ 6 „ 
1 „H „ 



28 



Remar/ts.- 
coppered. 



-Strapped with diagonal and double laid braces, 5 by § inch; 



M0VEITIES. 

The Largest Clipper in the World. — Under this name the New York 
Herald describes the new clipper ship Great Republic. She is 325 feet lflng, 
has 53 feet extreme breadth of beam, 39 feet depth of hold, including 7 feet 
between the spar and upper deck, and 8 feet between the two decks below, 
and registers 4,555 j|§ tons. She has four complete decks, but no bul- 



1854. 



Novelties. 



19 



warks, for the outline of the spar deck is protected by a rail upon turned 
oak stanchions. Her lines are slightly concave fore and aft, and her ends 
are very long and very sharp, particularly the bow, which preserves its angu- 
lar form to the rail. The whole fore body of the vessel is raised about 2 feet 
from a straight line at the forefoot ; but this rise is gradual for 60 feet, 
and forms an arch where the stem and keel are united. In other 
words, the gripe of her forefoot, instead of being angular, is the complete 
arc of a circle. For a head she has the representation of an eagle, as if 
emerging from below the bowsprit ; and her stern, which is semi-elliptical 
in form, is spanned by an eagle, with the American shield in his talons. 
The ship has a waist of nine narrow strakes, defined between mouldings, is 
sheathed with yellow metal up to 25 feet, and is painted black above it. The 
rails and other work on deck are nearly white, and the gangway boards are 
of mahogany, mounted with brass. She has five houses on the spar deck 
amidships. The first forward is a workshop for the crew, and answers for a 
shelter in stormy weather, as she has no bulwarks. Its after part contains 
a sick bay or hospital. The second house contains the galley, a blacksmith's 
shop, and an engine-room, for she has a steam engine of 15 horsepower, de- 
signed to do all the heavy work, such as taking in and discharging cargo, 
hoisting topsails, setting up rigging, working the fire-engine, pumping ship, 
&c. It is also fitted to work a propeller in one of her longboats, and is so 
arranged, that it can hoist itself out and in when it is required for use in the 
boat. Fitted as this boat is, it is calculated to tow the ship in a calm at the 
rate of three knots an hour. The houses on the quarter-deck include a mess 
room for the officers; they protect the entrances to the deck below, and con- 
tain signal lockers, &c. Such is her vast size, that all these houses appear 
to occupy very little space. Indeed^ she has more room on her spar deck 
for working ship than a line-of-battle ship. Her crew have spacious quar- 
ters in the upper between-decks forward, and the entrances to them are pro- 
tected by companions. Aft, on the same deck, she has sail rooms, accommo- 
dation for her petty officers, berths for 30 boys, workshops and store rooms. 
The forward cabin or dining saloon, is tastefully wainscoted, painted pure 
white, relieved with gilding and other ornamental work, and its state rooms 
are large, and well designed for comfort. Abaft the saloon is a vestibule, 
which contains the captain's cabin on the starboard side, and the chief mate's 
opposite. The after cabin, though not large, is most elegantly finished. It 
has sofa recesses on each side, mirrors, ottomans, elliptical panels with pic- 
tures on them, and a variety of other work, all finished in the best style. 
The pantry is large and well arranged, and she has a choice library for the 
use of her crew. The space between her forecastle and store room aft con- 
tains her spare spars, cordage, blocks, &c, and still leaves room for 400 or 
500 tons of light cargo. The ship herself is a wonder of strength. Her 
frame is of the best seasoned white oak, and is coaged, or doweled together 
and bolted through the coaging. Her frame before ceiling was diagonally 
cross-braced with iron, the braces 4 inches wide, 1 inch thick, and ex- 
tending from the floor heads to the top timbers. These were let into the 
frames and ceiling, were bolted through every timber, and rivetted together 
at every intersection between the frames. There are 90 of these on each side. 
She is built of 2,056 tons of white oak, 1,500,000 feet of yellow pine, has 1,650 
knees, 230 beams, 336| tons of iron, and 56 tons of copper. She is thoroughly 
ventilated, has four hold pumps, a fire-engine for wetting sails, or, in case of 
accident, for extinguishing fire. She is very snugly and very strongly 
sparred, and, like a ship of war, has nothing above the royals. She has 
four masts, named the fore, main, mizen, and spanker masts. The last is 
fore-and-aft rigged; the others are square rigged. Her sails are made of 
cotton duck, and she will spread about 16,000 yards in a single suite. This 
vessel was designed, modeled, and built by her owner, Donald M'Kay, and 
it is confidently believed that she will prove the swiftest ship in the world. 
Although she registers over 4,500 tons, she will stow at least 6,000 tons, and 
such is the buoyancy of the floor, that she will not draw more than 23 feet 
water when fully laden with a general cargo. 

Wax from Peat. — Mr. E. Were Fox made some observations on speci- 
mens of wax on the table, produced from peat. A company had lately been 
formed in Irelandforthe purpose of extracting wax and oily matters from peat. 
He was recently in the manufactory in the county ofKildare, near the bog of 
Allen. Mr. Fox exhibited two specimens of the peat, taken from different 
depths, and also a specimen of moss, evidently in course of gradual formation 
into peat. The wax obtained from peat, and which was intended as a substi- 
tute or auxiliary for other wax, was called paraphine. The quantity produced 
was about 3 lbs. from a ton of dried peat ; but there were also some other 
products obtained — about half a gallon of naphtha, and one gallon and half 
of oil, and some other residuary products. Altogether it was estimated that 
the value of the products from a ton of peat was about Is. or 8s. Mr. Fox 
then described the mode in which the tar, naphtha, oil, and wax were 
severally obtained; and, exhibiting a specimen of the beautiful substance 
paraphine, and a small candle of the same material, he said the company in 
Ireland were hopeful that it would become of considerable value commer- 
cially. Large excavations were now being made in the bog of Allen, and 
the manager of the works informed him, that the company intend to lay out 
a considerable sum of money in additional works. If the company should 
succeed, it would be interesting to see so beautiful a substance obtained from 
what was so useless as the peat earth in Ireland. In reply to a question, 



Mr. E. W. Fox stated, that there was, of course, no charcoal, as the para- 
phine and other products were obtained by means of a blast furnace; but 
the slag, containing a great deal of potass, might be used for manure. In 
answer to several questions from the Hon. G. M. Fortescue, Mr. K. W. Fox 
said he was not prepared to state what was the cost of producing the wax, 
because hitherto the process had been merely experimental; but it appeared 
to him that the expense, in proportion to the quantity produced, must be 
very considerable: the works were rather extensive, and a number of hands 
were employed. But the value of the produce obtained from a ton of peat, 
which was valued at Is. Id. or Is. 8c?. dry, was about 8s.; and, though the 
cost of production had not been ascertained, the opinion of the company was, 
that they could produce it with considerable advantage to themselves. 
The person who had the management of the concern stated, that the com- 
pany were about to lay out £30,000 in additional works, which was at any 
rate a proof of their good opinion of it. — Report of Royal Cornwall Polytech- 
nic Institute. 

Testing of Eailwat Axles. — In order to discover the cause and a 
remedy for the breaking of axles, now unfortunately so common, the 
manager of the Caledonian Eailway instructed the locomotive superintendent 
to put to a severe test the axles supplied by the two principal makers in 
Scotland. This has been done in the works of Messrs. Craig, Fullerton and 
Co., engineers, Paisley, who have at present in their works a quantity of 
axles supplied by the Monkland Iron and Steel Company, and by Messrs. 
George Allan and Sons, Clyde Forge, Greenock. The following gentlemen 
were present to witness the operation of testing, viz. : — Mr. Eobert Faulds, 
contractor and waggon builder, Glasgow; Mr. Cooper, superintendent of 
plant to the Caledonian ; Mr. Yarrow, locomotive superintendent at Gree- 
nock; Mr. George Allan, of Clyde Forge, Greenock; and Messrs. Craig and 
Fullerton, with their manager. The test was applied to one axle at a time. 
The axle was placed on blocks, which raised it 6 inches from the ground, 
and a large cast-iron ball, weighing 12 cwt., was allowed to drop on the 
middle of the axle, from heights varying from 12 to 23 feet. The following 
are the results: — 

Messrs. George Allan and Sons' Axles. 
Height of tall when dropped. Result. 

First axle 12 feet. . Bent without fracture. 

Do. reversed 12<J feet. . Straightened without fracture. 

Second axle 15 feet. , Bent without fracture. 

Third axle 15 feet.. Bent without fracture. 

Do. reversed 15 feet.. Straightened without fracture. 

Do. again reversed 16 feet.. Bent without fracture. 

Do. do. block 6 in. higher 23 feet... Broke in two at, the fourth trial. 

Fourth axle 15 feet. . Bent without fracture. 

Fifth axle 20 feet'. . Bent without fracture. 

Monkland Iron and Steel Company's Axles. 

First axle 12 feet. .Broke without bending. 

Second axle 15 feet. . Bent without fracture. 

Do. do. 6 inches higher .... 23 feet. . Bent farther without fracture. 

Third axle 15 feet. . Bent without fracture. 

Do. do 23 feet . .Bent farther without fracture. 

Fourth axle 12 feet . . Broke without bending. 

Fifth axle 12 feet . . Broke without bending. 

Sixth axle 12 feet. . Broke without bending. 

This is the first public test by authorised parties that has been made of the 
quality of railway axles, and is most creditable to the quality of the material 
employed in the Greenock manufactory. It will be observed, that the axle 
made at the Clyde Forge, which was broken after being struck by the ball 
four'times, bad to be subjected to an amount of violence such as, in the- 
ordinary course of business, it never could encounter; and the inference 
that might be drawn from the experiments has been verified in practice, as- 
there is no case on record, out of the thousands of axles manufactured by 
them for all parts of the world, of any of Messrs. Allan and Sons' manufac- 
ture giving way. It would be well were the axles supplied by contractors, 
in England equally tested before use. 

Hot Axles. — In Sir F. Head's chapter on the Paris and Lyons, he 
observes, " On all our railways in England the respective companies, as 
well as the public, very constantly suffer expensive and very troublesome 
delays from what are professionally called 'hot axles,' which sufficiently 
proves that the nice-looking yellow mixture which at almost every stoppage 
endeavours to prevent the evil is inadequate for the object for which it has 
been concocted. Now, the French Government, invoking the aid of 
chemistry, have scientifically ordained on the Paris and Lyons the use of 
three descriptions of anti-attritive ointment — namely, one for hot, one for 
frosty, and one for wet weather. I was assured by the engineer, that the 
result has been most successful; and, as everybody who travels by rail in 
England would deprecate the idea of a human being using one sort of dress 
for every description of weather, so it sounds only reasonable that railway 
axles should not be ignorantly restricted to one single medicine, to be ' taken 
when shaken,' as a cure for the innumerable ills to which, under various 
temperatures, they are exposed." 



20 



IAst of Patents. 



[January, 



Fitch's Patent Ovens. — A large amount of ingenuity is continually- 
being expended in the invention of cooking and warming stoves, but with- 
out making any decided step in advance. In the case before us, a bold 
attempt is made at economy, by distributing the heat over every portion 
of the stove. Fig. 1 is an external view, and fig. 2 a skeleton view, of Mr. 
Fitch's cooking stove. The fire is contained in a cast-iron cylinder at the 
bottom of the stove, which can readily be changed when burnt out. The 
heat escaping from this firebox heats the bottom of the bread oven, which is 



lined with stone (suggested by Mr. de la Haye, p. 48, Artizan, 1849), which 
is much better adapted for that purpose than iron. The flame then rises 
through a vertical flue in each front corner, and heats the upper oven above 
and below, before it escapes by the chimney. The heat is then so perfectly 
used up, that, in an oven on this plan, arranged as fig. 3, where a roasting 
chamber is placed under the firebox, 147 lbs. of meat were cooked with 14 lbs. 
wood and 25 lbs. coke; total value 4c?. These stoves are made by the Eco- 
nomic Oven Company, Chelmsford, where the above trial took place. 



fitch's patent ovens. 







Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 



Fig. 3. 






LIST OP PATENTS. 






APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTION 
ALLOWED. 

Dated 9lh Avgust, 1853. 
1853'. H. des Montis, Paris, and 16, Castle-street, Holborn— 
Improved system of publicity. 

Dated 5th September, 1853. 
2042. J. Clare, jun., Lirei-pool— Construction of iron houses, 
vessels, &e. 

Dated bth October, 1853. 
2272. A. Turiff, Paisley— Retarding apparatus for preventing 

accidents on railways. 
2278. H. Stevens, Trafalgar-square— Preserving vegetable 

substances. 

Dated Uth October, 1853. 
2328. J. C. Sharp, Paisley— Preventing accidents on railways. 

Dated 12th October, 1853. 
2344. E. W. Waithman, Bentham House, Yorkshire— Appa- 
ratus for applying paint, &c, and for cleaning car- 
riages, &c. 

Dated Uth October. 1853. 
2364. W. Jones, Porchester-street, Hyde-park-square— Com- 
pound for curing cuts, burns, &c. 

Dated 19th October, 1853. 
2407. P. A. le Comte de Fontainemoreau, 4, South-street, 
Finsbury— Composition in lieu of bone and horn. 
(A communication.) 

Dated 20th October, 1853. 
2428. J. Woofenden, Belfast— Power looms. 



Dated 21st October, 1853. 
2432. J. G. Marshall and P. Fairbairn, Leeds— Combing 
machinery. 

Dated 22nd October, 1853. 
2443. J. F. Mermet, 23, Red Lion-street, Holborn— Elastic 
spring in a tube, the lid of which moves down and 
up, according to the pressure. 

Dated 24th October, 1853. 
2454. C. F. Blunt, 19, Montague-place, Russell-square— 
Blunt's diamond coal fuel. 

Dated 21th October, 1853. 

2490. W. McNaughton, Manchester — Printing yarns for 

weaving carpets, also printing carpets, &c. 

Dated 2%th October, 1853. 
2499. W. Thompson, 6, Clayton-street, Lambeth— Instanta- 
neously extinguishing fires. 

Dated 1st November, 1853. 

J. Bottomley, Bradford — Ornamenting textile fabrics. 

J. Crowley, Sheffield— Construction of ovens and fur- 
naces. 

J. Hansor, Wandsworth-road — Illuminating gas. 

A. Elliott, West Houghton, Lancashire — Looms. 

H. Tylor, Queen-street, London — Chair bedstead. 

W. R. Palmer, New York — Spike threshing machines. 

J. Heywood, Ratcliffe-bridge, Lancashire — Machines 
for printing yarns. 

T. S. Bale, Cauldon-place, and D. Lucas, Stoke-upon- 
Trent, Staffordshire — Ornamenting articles and ma- 
terials in pottery, &c. 

R. Circhbutt, King's-road, Chelsea— Woodcutting ma- 
chines. 



2520 
2521 

2523 
2525 
2527 
2529. 
2531 

2532 



2533 



Dated 2nd November, !853. 

2535. F. A. Gatty, Accrington — Bath for heating and distil- 
ling. 

2537. W. A. Gilbee, 4, South-street, Finsbury — Levelling 
apparatus. (A communication.) 

2539. W. Maltby, Cawborough — Preventing collisions on rail- 
ways. 

2541. F. Lipscombe, 233, Strand — Steam power, and regu- 

lating the same. 

2542. B. Butterworth— Combining oil with other liquids for 

lubricating compound. (Partly communicated.) 

2543. H. Brierley, Chorley, Lancashire — Spinning and knit- 

ting machinery. 
2545. R. G. Hedges, Southampton-row, Russell-square — 
Fastening ends of india-rubber springs. 

Dated 3rd November, 1853. 

2547. P. M'Gregor, Manchester — Spinning and doubling 

machinery. 

2548. W. "Wood, 126. Chancery-lane— Abstracting and con- 

suming smoke, &c. 

2549. J. Moffatt, Birmingham— Candlesticks. (Partly a com- 

munication.) 

2550. C. Reeves, jun., Birmingham — Swords, bayonets, &c. 

2551. T. Irving, Dueton, Yorkshire— Preparation of wool for 

spinning. 

2552. B. £. Duppa, Malenagner Hall, Kent— Colouring pho- 

tographic pictures. 

2553. W. Patterson, Edinburgh — Chairs. 

2554. P. Hindle, Ramsbottom, Lancashire — Power looms. 

2555. G. Duncan and J. Boyd, Liverpool, and J. Backy, 

Knotty Ash, near Liverpool — Cask manufacturers' 
machinery. 

2556. E. Goddard, Ipswich — Gas-burners. 

2557. J. H. Tuck, Pall Mall— Motive power, and for raising- 

liquids. 



1854] 



f^A^Ol, 



IAst of 'Patents. 



LIBRARY 



21 



Dated 4th November, 1853. 
2S58. J. Scott, Shrewsbury — Apparatus for shifting carriages 

on railways, &c. 
3559. G. Nasmyth, of Brabant Court— Steam-boiler furnaces. 

2560. W. Hindman, Manchester— Steam boilers, and fixing 

same. 

2561. W. G. Ginty, Manchester— Manufacturing of combus- 

tible gases from water, &c. 

2562. W. Crosland, Hulme— Governing speed of engines. 

2563. W. Racksterr, Royal Military Academy, Woolwich — 

Buffers. 

2564. W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Machinery for 

crushing ores. (A communication.) 

2565 . H. H. Higginbottom , Ashby de la Zouch— Water closets. 

2566. H. Pratt, Broughton-street, Worcester— Kneading 

dough, clay, &c. 

2567. W. Foster, Lister-place, Bradford — Looms. 

2568. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-flelds— Malleable iron 

manufacture, &c. (A communication.) 

Dated 5th November, 1853. 
25G9. J. Smith, Bradford— Millstones. 

2570. J. B. Niclin, Bartholomew-lane, London — Lubricating 

compound. 

2571. J. Harrison, Crewe — Steam engines. 

2572. J. Hyde, Sheffield — Furniture castors. 

2573. C. Can- and W. K.Horsely, Seglich, Northumberland- 

Steam machinery and pumps for mines, &e. 

2574. R. W. Jerrad, 17, Upper Eccleston-place, Eecleston- 

square— Steam-boiler furnaces. 

2575. J. Rubery, Birmingham— Open caps for sticks of um- 

brellas, &c. 

2577. W. B. Johnson, Manchester— Steam engines, and pres- 

sure indicator. 

2578. E. Kesterton, Long-acre— Springs for carriages. 

Dated 1th November, 1853. 

2579. H. Pershouse, Birmingham— Deposition of metals. 

2580. J. Todd, Fish-street-hill— Spindles and bearings for 

lathes, &c. 

2581. M. L. J. C. V. Falconi.'iParis, and 4, South-street, 

Finsbury— Composition for preservation of the dead . 

2583. J. Grindrod, Liverpool — Steam engines. 

2584. H. Wiglesworth, Newbury— Coupling railway carriage!. 

2585. R. Roughton, Woolwich— Steam boilers, &c. 

2586. T. Walker, Birmingham— Railway-signal apparatus. 

2587. A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Preventing fraudu- 

lent abstraction of property. (A communication.) 

Dated 8th November, 1853. 

2588. J. Onions and S. Bromhead, Peckham — Machinery for 

paper and papier mache. 

2589. J. Gardiner and W. W. Wynne, Great Marlow, Buck- 

inghamshire — Gas stoves. 

2590. E. H. Graham, Maine— Firearms. 

2591. H. Chamberlain, Kempsey, near Worcester — Brick 

tubes and tiles. 

2592. G. F. Parratt, 27, Victoria-street, Pimlico— Life rafts. 

2593. E. L. Hayward, 196, Blackfriars-road— Rozer of door 

and other locks. 

2594. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields — Machinery for 

preparing and combing wool, &c. (A communica- 
tion.) % 

Dated 9th November, 1853. 
2590. B. Dangerfield, and B. Dangerfield, jun., West Brom- 

wich — Steam boilers. 
2597. T. Dunn, Windon-bridge Iron-works, Pendleton; J. 

Bowman, Plaistow, Essex; and J. Dunn, Bellevue- 

terrace, Pendleton —Machinery for raising, &c, 

heavy bodies. 
2598-. J. A. Driew, Patricroft — Cutting velveteens, &c, &c, 

to produce piled surfaces. 

2599. J. Brown, Darlington — Coke ovens. 

2600. W. Dicks, Floore, Northampton— Wheels for carriages. 

Dated 10th November, 1853. 

2601. J. Atkins, Rirmingham — Ashpits for grates. 

2602. W. Pidding, Tachbrook-street, Pimlico — Fabrics of silk, 

cotton, wool, &c, application of such materials and 
machinery for' same. 

2603. Lieut. W. Rodger, R.N., 9, Stanfield-street, King's-road, 

Chelsea — Anchors. 

2604. J. Stevens, Darlington Works, Southwark-bridge-road, 

— Bearings of axles for gas meters. 

2605. S. Mead Folsom, Massachusetts — Instrument for 

ironing clothes, &c. (A communication.) 

2606. P. A. le C. de Fontainemoreau, 4, South-street, Fins- 

bury— Preventing accidents on railways. (A com- 
munication.) 

Dated \lth November, 1853. 

2607. W. Parker, Birmingham — Bearings for machinery. 

2608. S. Sturm, Carpenters'-bnildings, London — Machinery 

for optical lenses. 

2609. A. A. N. S. de Montferier, Paris, and 4, South-street, 

Finsbury — Rotary steam engine. 

2610. E.G. Banner, Cranham Hall, Essex— Saddlery and 

harness. 

2611. H. Walker, Gresham-street West — Communication 

between guard and driver. 

2612. J. Willis, Wallingford— Buckles. 

2613. R. Dryburgh, Leith— Holding staves whilst being cut. 

2614. W. Steel, Glasgow — Machinery for washing malt. 

2615. J.Pratt, Heldham — Machine for forging, drawing, &c, 

spindles, &c, in metal. 

2616. H. Hilshaw, Birch, near Middleton, Lancashire — 

Spinning machinery. 

2617. A. Easton, Barnard's Inn — Lamp. 

2618. A. Easton, Barnard's-inn — Liquid for producing light. 



2619. J. H. Dickson, Evelyn-street, Lower-road, Deptford — 
Preparing flax, &c. 

2621. J. M. Levien, Davies-street, Grosvenor-square— Ex- 

panding table. (A communication.) 

Dated 19th November, 1853. 

2622. S. Barker, Birmingham — Shaping metals. 

2623. F. A. Delande, Paris, and 4, South-street, Finsbury- 

square — New metallic composition. 

2624. H. Hilshaw, Birch, near Middleton, Lancashire, and 

R. Hacking, Bury— Spinning machinery. 

2625. J. Gedge, 4, Wellington-street, Strand — Consuming 

smoke. (A communication.) 

2626. J. Gedge, 4, Wellington-street, Strand— Metallic com- 

pounds. (A communication.) 

2627. W. Austin, 27, Holywell-street, Westminster— Manu- 

facture of casks. 

2628. T. de la Rue, Bunhill-row — Paper manufacture. 

2629. W. Austin, Holy well-street, Westminster — Sewer trap. 

2630. C. Busson, Paris— Finger -keyed musical instruments. 

Dated lith November, 1853. 

2631. J.T. C. Hill and E. Cottrill, Birmingham— Stamps and 

presses, &c. 

2632. W. Hadfield, Manchester— Looms. 

2633. S. F. Cottam. Manchester — Spinning machinery. 

2634. H. Willis, Manchester-street— Organs and free-reed 

instruments. 

2635. A. Cunninghame, Glasgow — Sulphuric acid. 

2636. M. Gray, Glasgow — Weft forks for power looms. 

2637. A. P. Coubrough, Blanefield, Stirlingshire — Bleaching 

apparatus. 

2639. W. Smith, Mauchline, Ayrshire — Ruling ornamental 

figures. 

2640. C.deBergue. Dowgate-hill — Machinery for removing 

patterns from moulds. 

2641. M. Fitzgerald, Sorrel Island, Clare, Ireland — Commu- 

nicating between parts of railway train. 

Dated 15th November, 1853. 

2642. J. J. Catterson, Islington — Carriage springs. 

2643. C. E. Blank, Trump-street, London — Winding yarn 

into hanks. (A communication.) 

2644. J. Liddell, Glasgow — Power-loom weaving. 

2645. J. Cameron and J.Napier, Loughor, Glamorganshire — 

Obtaining gold and silver from ores, &c. 

2646. J. H. B. Thwaites, aud Dr. W. B. Herapath, Bristol- 

Manufacture of quinine and other alkaloids. 

2647. A. Delcambre, Paris — Machinery for distributing type. 

2648. J. Fry, Cannon-street West — Solvents for india-rubber 

and gutta percha, and rendering fabrics waterproof 
without odour. 

Dated 16th November, 1853. 

2649. Lieutenant P. A. Halkett, R.N. — Lifting and lowering 

ships, &c. 

2650. J. Ellerthorpe, Kingston-on-Hull — Stopping railway, 

train. 

2651. J. W. Wayte, Gate-street, Lincoln's-inn-flelds— Self- 

feeding furnaces. 

2652. J. R. and R.and J. Musgrave, Belfast— Hot-air stoves. 

2653. P. Hill, Gravel-house, Coggleshall, Essex — Weaving 

plush, &c. (A communication.) 

2654. T. Ronald, Paisley — Fixing colours on yarns, &c; 

2655. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields — Threshing 

machines. (A communication.) 

2656. P. Pratt, Birmingham — Arrangement for raising 

thimbles. 

2657. J. Ferguson, Heathfield, Lanarkshire— Furnaces and 

prevention of smoke. 

2658. W. F. Greenfield, Ipswich — Communicating between 

parts of railway train. 

2659. T. Jackson, Commercial-road, Pimlico — Hat manu- 

facture. 

2660. J. Bristow, Bouverie-streer, and H. Attwood , Holland- 

street, Blackfriars-road— Marine boilers. 

Dated lyth November, 1853. 

2661. G. Carter, Mottingham, Kent — Steam-engine boiler 

furnaces, &c. 

2662. J. Clare, jun., 21, Exchange-buildings, Live pool — 

Manufacture of bar and sheet metals, and machi- 
nery for same, and application thereof. 

2663. G. Dugmore and G. H. Millward, Birmingham — Sig- 

naling and communicating on railway trains. 

2664. S. and S. V. Abraham, Lisle-street — Communicating 

information to persons in charge of railway trains. 

2665. W. Ashton, Manchester — Machinery for manufacturing 

braid. 

2666. J. Banfield, Birmingham — Railway signal. 

2668. C. Burton, 487, New Oxford-street— Improvements in 

carriages. 

2669. T. Bourne, West Smithfield— Construction of buckles. 

2670. A. Hoffstaedt, Albion-place, -Surrey— Artificial ultra- 

marine. 

2671. R. Griffiths, 444, Strand— Propelling vessels. 

Dated Wth November, 1853. 

2672. P. F. Keogh and W. A. Wilson, Liverpool— Steam- 

engines. 

2673. P. M. Parsons, Duke-street, Adelphi— Railway and 

other carriages. 

2674. A. Guy, 32, Upper Rosoman-street, Clerkenwell — 

Portable water-closet. 

2675. C. and J. Fernihough, Dukinfield, Cheshire— Machi- 

nery for wringing, twisting, glossing, &c, silk, 
cotton, &c. 

2676. T. Holmes, Pendleton, Lancashire — Ventilating drying 

stoves. 

2677. J. Gale, jun., Edinburgh— Electro.magnetic engines. 



2678. A. F. RSmond, Birmingham — Steam-boilers. 

2679. W. Taylor, 16, Park -street, Gloucester-gate, Regent'a- 

park — Anchors. 

2680. J. Melville, Roebank-works, Lochwinnoch, Renfrew- 

shire — Printing textile fabrics. 
2631. J. B. Clavieres, Paris, and 4, South-street, Finsbury— 
mode of giving publicity. 

2682. M. Poole, Avenue-road, Regent's-park — Condensers, 

evaporators, and heaters for steam-engines. ' (A, 
communication.) 

2683. P. B. O'Neill, Paris— Perforated buttons. (A commu- 

nication.) 

2684. J. H. Brown, Arthur-street, Aberdeen — Artificial skins. 

2685. H. R. Cottam, 1a, Sussex-terrace, Hpde-park-gardens 

— Portable houses. 

2686. J. Rice, Foley-place, and W. Matthews, Portugal street 

— Instrument for taking and applying vaccine 
matter. 

2687. R.S. Norris, Warrington, Lancashire, and E. Talbott, 
■ Crewe, Cheshire— Manufacture of iron. 

Dated 19th November, 1853. 

2688. J. Harris, Hanwell — Heating water. 

2690. M. Poole, Avenue- road, Regent's-park — Breech-loading 

fire-arms, &c. (A communication.) 

2691. W. Austin, 27, Holywell-street — Tiles and tubes. 

2692. E. Rowland, Mossley, Belfast — Apparatus to be applied 

to a railway truck, for sounding a whistle and put- 
ting such truck in motion. 

2693. T. J. Dimsdale, Dublin— Use of certain substances for 

defecation, &c, of saccharine juices, &c, and for 
neutralising noxious gases. 

2694. J. G. Potter and R. Mills, Darwen, Lancashire— Carpet 

manufacture. 

2695. E. Wharton, Birmingham — Railway wheels. 

2696. H. Daniell, St. Austell, Cornwall— Apparatus for drying 

clay. 

2697. R. F. Brand, South-terrace, Willow-park, Bermondsey 

— Fire-arms. 

Dated list November, 1853. 

2698. W. H. Tucker and W. R. Reeves, Tiverton— Locks. 

2699. J. Scott, jun., Greenock — Steering vessels. 

2700. H. Wigglesworth, Newbury — Improvements in pistons. 

2702. Sir J. S Lillie, C.B., 4, South-street, Finsbury— Appa- 

ratus for producing carburetted hydrogen gas. (A 
communication.) 

2703. R. J. Sibbald, Paddington, Edgehill, West Derby- 

Communicating from vessels to the shore, &e. 

2704. A. Radcliffe, Chichester-place, King's-cross — Improved 

glazier's diamond. 

2705. J. Cashmore, Bevis Marks — Communicating signals on 

railways. 

Dated 22nd November, 1853. 

2708. W. Greaves, Leeds— Indicator-alarum, applicable to 

railways. 

2709. A. Bain, Paddington— Card cases. 

2711. A. Bird, Birmingham— Communicating signals on 
railways. 

2713. F. Meyer, Paradise-street, Lambeth— Treating fatty 

matters for candles. 

2714. F. Levick and J. Fieldhouse, Cwm Celyn, Blaina Iron- 

works, Monmouthshire — Machinery for raising 
coals and minerals. 

2715. F. Meyer, Paradise-street, Lambeth— Bleaching oils 

and fats. 

2716. C. Ramsay, North Shields— Ships' and other pumps. 

2717. W. Pegg, Leicester — Instrument for cutting out gar- 

ments, &c, and grinding cutters for same. 

2718. F. Arding, Uxbridge — Machinery for cutting, &c, 

vegetable substances. 

2719. B. Burleigh, Great Northern Railway, King's-cross— 

Railway crossings adapted to the doubie-headed 
rail and ordinary rail and chair. 

Dated 2Zrd November, 1853. 

2720. H. R. Abraham, 11, Howard-street, Strand— Coffint 

and hearses. 

2721. C. F. Stansbury, 17, Cornhill— Apparatus for drill-sow- 

ing guano, &c. (A communication.) 

2722. J. F. Empson— Manufacture of wire. 

2723. J. Hill, sen., and J. Hill, jun.— Winding, doubling, and 

spinning machinery 

2724. J. Amos, Bristol — Wood for casks. 

2725. J. Timewell, Duke-street, St. James's— Cutting and 

shaping materials for dress. 

2726. J. Dicks, Parliament-street, Nottingham— bands for 

binding packets of lace, &c. 

2727. M. Wilkins, 60, Queen's-row, Walworth — Draining 

land. 

2728. W. B. Johnson, Manchester— Steam engines. 

2729. J. D. Brady, Cambridge-terrace— Straps for knapsacks. 

2730. T. W. Kinder, Permanent way. 

Dated Uth November, 1853. 

2731. J. Lovell, Glasgow— Application of heat. 

2732. D. Chalmers, Manchester— Railway breaks and signals. 

2733. H. Mason, Ashton-under-Line, and J. Jones, Man- 

chester—Doubling, twisting, and spooling machi- 
nery. 

2734. S. Holman, Colney-hatch— Double-action pump. 

2735. A. V.Newton, 66, Chancery-lane— Chest expander, &c. 

(A communication.) 

2736. G. M. Richards, Swansea— Feed plates used for oxi- 

dising lead, and refining silver and lead. 

2737. S. C. Lister, Manningham, Bradford— Combing wool 

8cc. 

2738. G. Townsend, Massachusetts— Sewing machinery. 

communication.) 



22 



List of Patents. 



[January, 



J739. W. Jones, Kilney-cottage, Swansea— Bricks. 
2740. D. L. Banks, 42, St. James's-place, Toxteth-park, Li- 
verpool — Rotatory engines. 

Dated 25th November, 1853. 

2742. D. Nicholl, Edinburgh— Envelope manufacture. 

2743. J. Berry, Manchester— Machinery for wire fencing. 

2744. W. Calder, Glasgow— Treatment of thread and yarns. 

2745. W. L. and C. Brook, Meltham mills, near Huddersfield 

— Preparing, dressing, &e , cotton, &c, and machi- 
nery for same. 

2746. A. Drew, Glasgow — Ornamenting woven fabrics, &c. 

2747. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields— Carding en- 

gines, &c. (A communication.") 

2748. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields — Production of 

printing surfaces. (A communication.) 

2750. A. E. L. Bellford, 16, Castle-street, Holborn— Improve- 

ments in pens and pencils. (A communication.) 

2751. A. E. L. Bellford, 16, Castle-street, Holbom— Rotary 

engines. (A.communieation.) 

2752. C. C. S. Grenier, Paris, and 1G, Castle-street, Holborn 

— Paint for buildings, &c. 

2753. E. Wilkinson and W. Rye,' Oldham— Power looms. 

2754. E. Barthelmy and T. Fetitgeau, Upper John-street, 

Fitzroy-sq., and J. P. Bourquin, Newman-street, 
Oxford-street — Ornamenting glass. 

Dated2ilh November, 1853. 

2755. J. Wormald, Vauxhall, and G. Pollard, York-road, 

Lambeth — Pipe wrench. 

2756. W. C. Moat, Strand— Truss. 

2757. J. Stenson, Northampton— Manufacture of iron. 

2758. G. E. Gazagnaire, Marseilles, and 16, Castle-street, 

Holborn— Nets for fishing, &c. 

2759. H. Goutte and J. M. Hammebacher, Paris, and 16, Cas- 

tle-street, Holborn — Machine for washing linen, &c. 

2760. J. Roth and H. Danner, Mulhouse, France, and 16, 

Castle-street, Holborn— Cards for carding. 

2761. A.E. L. Bellford, 16, Castle-street, Holborn— Straining 

mill saws. 

2762. L. Cornides, 4, Trafalgar-square— Gelatine with other 

substances, and colouring same to resist atmospheric 
influences. 

2763. T. and J. Chambers, Thorncliffe Iron Works, Sheffield 

— Kitchen sinks. 

2764. J. S. Romselot, Nimes, France— Magneto-electricity 

for machinery, &c. 

2765. J. M. Perodeaud, 35, Rue Godot de Mauroy, Paris — 

Converting peat into artificial coal, &c. 

Dated 2Slh November, 1853. 

2766. W. Pritchard, Clerkenwell— Buffers, and diminishing 

shocks in collisions. 

2767. J.$Walmesley, Accrington — Looms. 

2768. P. C. J. B. Sochet, Paris, and 4, South-street, Finsbury 

— Motive power by heated gases. 

2769. R. H. Nieholls, Bedford — Hoeing and cultivating land. 
2772. A. Macomie, 6, Percy-street, Rathbone-place — Furni- 
ture, forming writing or drawing case. 

2774. S. Hurrell, New North-street, London — Machinery for 

measuring, winding, or rolling fabrics. 

Dated 29lh November, 1853. 

2775. P. Kelly, ill, West-street, Drogheda— Cultivating, &c. 

land. 

2778. A. E. L. Bellford, 16, Castle-street, Holborn — Fire- 

arms. (A communication.) 

2779. J. Moore, Lincoln — Ploughs. 

2780. J. A. Manning, Inner Temple— Treatment of sewerage 

and products thereof. 

Dated30th November, 1853. 

2781. J. Jackson, Wolverhampton — Signalling apparatus. 

2782. J. Elce, Manchester — Spinning machinery. 

2783. P. A. le Comte de Fontainemoreau, 4, South-street, 

Finsbury — Jacquard machine, (A communication.) 

2784. E. R. Davis, 1, Howley-street, Lambeth — Pipes, 4c, 

from lead and other soff .metal forced through re- 
ceivers, &c. 

2785. J. Hewitt, Salford — Spinning machinery. 

2786. J. Redford, Pilkington— Power looms. 

2787. R. Balderstone, Blackburn— Spinning machines. 

2788. J. Patterson, Beverley — Land rollers or clod crushers. 

2789. A. Loubat, Paris— Tramways. 

2790. L.Jennings— Plain and ornamental sewing and ma- 

chinery for same. 

2791. N. E. Landtsheer, Ghent— Combing~machines for flax, 

&c. 

2792. F. S. Cole, Childown— Smoke-consuming apparatus. 

Dated 1st December, 1853. 

2793. T. Garnett, Low Moor, near Clitheroe, and D. Adamson, 

Duckinfield — Generating steam, and consuming 
smoke. 

2794. A. E.L. Bellford, 16, Castle-street, Holborn— Machinery 

for making horse shoes. (A communication.) 

2795. A. J. Jones, New Oxford-street — Cigar light. 

2796. J. Dilworth, Preston — Escape and safety valves. 

2797. T. and J. Hollinsworth, Winwick, Lancashire — Alarm 

whistles. 

2798. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields— Manufacture 

of caoutchouc. (A communication.) 

2799. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields — Vulcanised 

india-rubber. (A communication.) 

Dated 2nd December, 1853. 

2800. J. Reilly, 56, Thomas -street, Manchester— Tenoning, 

mortising, and sawing machinery. 

2801. A. W. Callen, Peckham — Excavating machine. 

2802. A. E. L. Bellford, 16, Castle-street, Holborn— Ships' 

stocks. (A communication.) 



2803. H. Deacon, Widnes, Lancashire, and E. Leyland, St. 
Helen's — Sulphuric acid. 

2804. A. Brown, Glasgow — Metallic casks, &c. 

2805. G. Williamson, Glasgow — Motive power. 

2806. A. Bain, Paddington — Damping paper for reception 
of labels &c. 

2807. J. :C. Wilson, Redford Flax Factory, Thornton, Kir- 
kFldy — Scutching machinery. 

2808. G.Collier, Halifax — Looms. 

2809. R. Rey bourn, Baker-street, Greenock — Sugar refining. 
2810.1S. C. Lister, Bradford— Combing wools, &e. 

2811. H. Bessemer, Baxter-house, Old Pancras-road— Manu- 
facture and refining of sugar. 

2812. J. Saunders, St. John's-wood— Rails for^railways. 

Dated 3rd December, 1853. 
2814. A. Rogers, Bradford — Ventilating sewers, &c. 
2816. W. Dray, Swan-lane, London — Portable houses. 
2818. H. J. Iliffe and J. Newman, Birmingham— Metallic 
bridges, &c. 



Dated Uh December, 1853. 
2820. S. Cheaving, Spalding— Filterer. 
•2822. W. Simons, Glasgow' — Propelling and steering. 
2824. J. Patterson, Beverley — Reaping machinery. 
2826. J. Robinson, Kentish-town — Consumption of smoke. 

Dated 6th December, 1853. 
2828. E. Oldfield, Salford— Spinning machinery. 
2834. W.E.Gaine, 4, Harewood-street — Treating orpreparing 

paper. 
2836. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields — Printing oil 

cloths. (A communication.) 
2838. J. Hargraves, Kirkstall, Yorkshire — Washing and 

scouring wool. 



658. 



1206. 



LIST OF PATENTS SEALED. 

Sealed l&lh November, 1853. 
John Talbot Ashenhurst, of Upper John-street— Im- 
provement in pianofortes. 
Jean Jacques Joseph Janin, of Gerrard-street, and 
Alexander Seymour, of the Strand— Certain im- 
provements in the manufacture of boots and shoes. 

1733. George Spencer, of Manor-road, Walworth — Improve- 
ments iu springs for carriages. 

1/80. George Katz Douglas, of Chester — Certain improve- 
provements in the permanent way of railways. 

1870. Richard Farmer Brand, of South-terrace, Willow-walk, 
Bermondsey — Certain improvements in firearms and 
ordnance. 

1897. John Perkins, of Manchester — Improvements in the 
manufacture of oils. 

1920. Alfred Vincent Newton, of Chancery-lane — Improve- 
ments in the distillation and purification of resin 
oil. (A communication.) 

2016. Ashley Aston Price, of Margate — Improvements in 
treating wash-waters containing soap, oils, saponi- 
fied or saponifiable materials, and in obtaining pro- 
ducts therefrom. 

2023. Henry Jeremiah Iliffe, and James Newman, both of 
Birmingham — Improvements in ;he manufacture 
of buttons. 

2070. William Hall, of the Colliery, Castlecomer — Improve- 
ments in the conversion of peat into charcoal. 

2121. William Smith, of Little Woolstone, Bucks — Improve- 
ments in implements for tilling and preparing land 
for crops. 

2136.^George Spencer, of Cannon-street west — Improve- 
ments in supporting rails of railways. 

2149. Sydney Smith, of Hyson Green Works, near Notting- 
ham — Improvements in governors for steam engines. 

2203. Hiram Tucker, of Massachusetts, U.S. — Improvements 
in the art or process of applying colours to a surface 
by means of a liquid. 

2205. William Farmer, of Fulham Brewery — Improvements 
in apparatus for preserving provisions. 
Sealed \1th November, 1853. 

1215. John Lee Stevens, of King William-street, City — Im- 
provements in grates and stoves. 

1217. James Thomas George Vizetelly, of Peterborough- 
court, and Henry Richard Vizetelly, of Gough- 
square — Improvements in printing machines. (A 
communication.) 

Sealed Uth November, 1853. 

1222. John Haskett, of Wigmore-street — Improvements in 
anchors, to be called the " Ferdinand Martin Safety 
Anchor." (A communication.) 

1224. Wharton Rye, of Collyhurst, near Manchester— Cer- 
tain improvements in kitchen ranges or fire grates. 

1227. John Ryan, of Liverpool-street — An apparatus for 
purifying liquids in a ready and economical manner. 

1231. George Sant, of Norton Lodge, Mumbles, Swansea — 
Improvements in clocks or timekeepers. 

1327. John Macdonald, of Henry-street, Upper Kennington- 
lane — Improvements in and applicable to lamps ; 
also applicable to apparatus for lighthouse-signal 
purposes ; part of the invention applicable to other 
useful purposes. 

1601. John Fell, of Chorlton-upon-Medlock — Improvements 
in the treatment of certain oils. 

1854. William Edward Newton, of Chancery-lane — Improved 
preparation or composition to be applied to pigments, 
for the purpose of facilitating the drying of the same. 
(A communication.) 

2064. James Gascoigne Lynde, of Great George-street — A 
pressure governor or self-acting apparatus for regu- 
lating the flow of water. 



2124. Richard Laming, of Millwall, Poplar— Improved pro- 
cess for purifying gas. 

2150. John Barsham, of Kingston-upon-Thames — Improve- 
ments in the manufacture of bricks, tiles and blocks. 

2186. George Peabody, of Warnford Court — Improved ma- 
chinery for dressing and warping yarns. (A com- 
munication.) 

Sealed 19lh November, 1853. 
1239. William Edward Newton, of Chancery-lane — Improved 
machinery or apparatus applicable for pumping 
water, and supplying steam boilers with water, and 
maintaining the water therein at a proper level. 
(A communication.) 
1244. William Fulton, of Paisley— Improvements in the 
treatment and scouring or cleansing of textil* 
fabrics. 
1246. St. Thomas Baker, of King's-road, Islington — Improve- 
ments in revolving shutters. 
1251. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford, of Castle-street, 
Holborn— Improvements in rotary engines, to be 
driven by steam or any vapour, fluid, or gas ; and 
in boilers and generators to be used in generating 
steam or gas for driving the aforesaid or other 
engines, or for other purposes. (A communication.) 

1252. Thomas Isaac Dimsdale, of Kingstown, near Dublin — 

Improvements in purifying coal gas, and in disin- 
fecting sewage or other foetid matters, and in ab- 
sorbing noxious gaseous exhalations. 

1253. William Carr Thornton, of Cleckheaton— Improved 

machinery for making wire cards. 

Sealed 21st November, 1853. 

1260. Henri Joseph Scouttin, of Naetz, France — Improved 
plastic compound, applicable to various ornamental 
and useful purposes. 

1262. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford, of Castle-street, 
Holborn — Improvements in navigable vessels, to be 
employed in all waters, and to be propelled or im- 
pelled by sails, steam power, or other means. (A 
communication.) 

1289. Thomas Singleton, of Over Darwent — Improvements 
in looms. 

1945. John Webster Cochran, of Gower-street— Improve- 
ments in machinery for crushing, grinding, and 
pulverising stone, quartz, or other substances. 

Sealed 23rd November, 1853. 

1267. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford, of Castle-street, 
Holborn — Improved method of treating flax and 
hemp, whereby they are brought to such a state 
that they may be carded, spun, and woven by ma- 
chinery, such as is now employed in the manufac- 
ture of cotton and wool into yarn and cloth. (A 
communication. 

1269. John Harcourt Brown, of Arthur's Seat, Aberdeen — 
Improvements in apparatus for bottling or supply- 
ing vessels with fluids. 

1271. Hemy Turner, of Wilson-street, Limehouse — New 
mode of applying hydraulic power to windlasses, for 
weighing anchors, and lifting heavy weights. 

1276. William Babb, of Gray's-inn-road — Improvements in 
the manufacture of hats, caps, and bonnets. 

1288. Alexander Porecky, of Bishopsgate-street Within — 
Improvements in the manufacture .of umbrellas 
and parasols. 

1311. Illingworth Butterfield, of Bradford,! Yorkshire— Im- 
provements in and applicable to looms for weaving. 

1313. Ebenezer Nash, of Duke -street, Lambeth, and Joseph 
Nash, of Thames-parade, Pimlico — Improvements 
in the manufacture of wicks. 

1330. William Green, of Islington — Improvements in treat- 
ing or preparing yarns or thread. 

1332. Richard Archibald Brooman, of Fleet-street — Improve- 
ments in firearms. (A communication.) 

1375. John Chisholm, of Holloway — Improvements in the 
production or manufacture of artificial manures. 

1382. Thomas Russ Nash, of Leigh-street — Improvements in 
filters. 

1536. Noble Carr Richardson, of South Shields — Improved 
capstan. 

1576. William Rice, of Boston, Lincolnshire — Improvements 
in harness for horses and other animals. 

1618. Henry Bate, of New Hampstead-road, Kentish Town — 
A new fire-escape, which he denominates the " Ig- 
nevador." 

168$. Charles Goodyear, of St. John's-wood — Improvements 
in spreading and applying india-rubber, or compo- 
sitions of india-rubber, on fabrics. 

1690. Charles Goodyear, of St. John's-wood — Improvements 
in the manufacture of brushes and substitutes for 
bristles. 

1731. Thomas Gray and John Reid, both of Newcastle — Im- 
proved mode of manufacturing flies and rasps. 

1772. Benjamin Collins Brodie, jun., of Albert-road, Re- 
gent's-park — Improvements in treating or prepar- 
ing black lead. 

2026. John Macintosh, of Pall Mall — Improvements in 
breakwaters. 

2079. Isaac Southian Bell, of the Washington Chemical 
Works, Newcastle-upon-Tyne — Improvements in 
the manufacture of sulphuric acid. 

2094. Edmund Leyland, of St. Helen's, Lancashire — Im- 
provements in apparatus for the manufacture of 
sulphuric acid. 

2208. James Smith, of Law Hill, Perthshire — Improvements 
in scythes. 

2229. John Phillips, of Birmingham— Improvements in 
shaping metals. 



1854.] 



List of Patents. 



23 



Sealed 25th November, 1853. 
1275. William Babb, of Gray's-inn-road — Improvements in 
the manufacture of hair trimmings. 

1278. George Irlam Higginson, of Meeting-house-lane, Dub- 

lin — Improvements in machinery or apparatus for 
evaporating or concentrating liquids. 

1279. Frederick Russell, of Regent's-park— Improvements 

in raising windows, shutters, blinds, and similar ap- 
pendages. 

1282. Louis Auguste Deverte and Charles Eck, of Argen- 
teuil, near Paris— Improved machinery for combing 
wool. 

1325. Joseph Brown, of Leadenhall-street — Improvements 
of elastic spring beds, mattrasses, cushions, and all 
kinds of spring stuffing for upholstery work gene- 
rally ; making them lighter and more portable. 

1381. Benjamin Biram, of Wemworth, Yorkshire— Improve- 
ments in working and ventilating mines. 

1513. Pacifique Grimaud, of Paris— A new aerogaseous 
drink, which he calls " Grimau'ine." 

1525. Charles Topham, of Hoxton— Improvements in appa- 
ratus for measuring liquids, ga-es, and other elastic 
fluids, and for regulating the flow thereof; which 
apparatus may also be applitd to, the obtaining of 
motive power. 

1585. John Getty, of Liverpool — Certain improvements in 
ship building. 

2170. Edward Thomas, of Belfast — Improvement in the con- 
struction of looms for weaving. 

2340. Nicholas Callin, of the Roman Catholic College of 
Maynooth— Means of protecting iron of every kind 
against the action of the weather, of rain, river, 
spring, and spa water, so that iron thus protected 
may be used for roofing, for cisterns, pipes, gutters, 
window-frames, telegraphic wires, for marine and 
various other purposes. 

Sealed 2%th November, 1833. 

1312. William Smith, of Salisbtuy-street, Adelphi — Cer- 
tain improvements in the machinery for, and me- 
thod of, making and laying down submarine and 
other telegraphic cables; which machinery is also 
applicable and is claimed for the making of ropes 
and cables generally. 

1323. Alfred Whaiey Sanderson, of Cahle-street.Laneaster— 
Improvements in preparing effervescing powders. 

1340. Edward Wilkins, of Queen's road, Walworth — Im- 

provements in pots and vessels for the growth and 
cultivation of plants. 

1341. Alfred Hardwick, of Liverpool — Improvements in pro- 

pelling vessels. 

1350. Joseph Whitworth, of Manchester— Improvements in 
machinery for perforating or punching paper, card 
and other materials. 

1352. William Thorold, of Norwich — Improvements in the; 
construction of portable houses, and in machinery 
for raising, moving, and lowering the same. 

1378. Edward Blackett Beaumont, of Wood 1 i all. Barnsley, 
Yorkshire — Certain improvements in bricks and: 
tiles. 

1406. Henry Bernoulli Barlow, of Manchester — Improve- 
ments in machinery for spinning, doubling, and: 
twisting cotton and other fibrous substances. (A, 
communication.) 

1493. James Worrall, jun., of Salford — Certain improve- 
ments in machinery or apparatus for washing,! 
bleaching, and dyeing fustians, beaverteens, can- 
toons, satteens, twills, and other textile fabrics. 

149C. George Robinson, of Manchester— Certain improve- 1 
ments in apparatus for roasting and desiccating: 
coffee, cocoa, and chicory, 

1S29. Jacob Brett, of Hanover-square — 'Improvements in, 
photography. 

1874. George Deards, of Harlow, Essex — Improvements in 
lamps. 

1962. Thomas Herbert and Edward Whittaker, both of Not- 
tingham — Improvements in warp machinery em- 
ployed in the manufacture of purled and other 
fabrics. 

2087. Robert Drew, of Bath, and John Bayliss, of Birming- 
ham — Improvements ;in stay and other like fasten- 
ings. 

2095. Thomas William Gilbert, of Limehnuse— Improvements 
in sewing sails and other articles. 

2117. Adolphus Singleton, of Manchester — Certain improve- 
ments in machinery or appar tus for grinding and 
setting doctors, used in calico and other similar 
printing machinery. ("A communication.) 

2179. Aristide Michel Servan, of Philpot-lane — Improvements 
in distilling fatty and oily matters. 

2218. Robert Brisco, of Low Mill House, Si. Bees, Cumber- 

land, and Peter Swires Horsman, of Saint John's, 
Beckermet, in the same county — Certain improve- 
ments in the preparation of flax and other vegetable 
fibrous substances. 

2219. Moses Poole, of Avenue-road — Improvement in the 

manufacture of pulp for paper-makers. (A com- 
munication.) 

Sealed 30 th November. 1853. 

1337. Hesketh Hughes and William Thomas Denham, both 
of Cottage-place, City-road— Improvements in piano- 
fortes. 

1356. Hesketh Hughes and William Thomas Denham, both 
of Cottage-place, City-road — Improvements in ma- 
chinery for weaving. 

1439. Joseph H. Penny and Thomas B. Rogers, of New York 
— Improvement in the manner of constructing ma- 



chinery for propelling vessels, and other machinery, 
which they term a crank propeller. 

1445. Arthur Parsy, of Crescent-place, Burton-crescent— 
Invention of a revolving engine, to be worked by 
steam, air, gases, or water. 

1534. Joshua Horton, jun., of Staffordshire— Improvement 
or improvements in steam boilers. 

1569. John Imray, of Lambeth — Improvements in obtaining 
motive power. 

1634. James Parkes and Samuel Hickling Parkes, both of 
Birmingham — Improvements in the manufacture of 
certain drawing or mathematical instruments; also 
in packing or fitting same in their cases; which said 
improvements in packing or fitting are also appli- 
cable to the packing or fitting of other articles. 

1702. James Naylor, of Hulme — Improvements in lamps. 

2110. Af red Vincent Newton, of Chancery-lane— Improved 
machinery for crushing and grinding mineral and 
other substances. (A communication.) 

2188. Alfred Vincent Newton, of Chancery-lane — Improved 
mode of constructing steam boilers ; applicable also 
in part to the construction of condensers. ( A com- 
munication.) 

2239. Robert Brisco, of Low Mill House, St. Bees, Cumber- 
land, and Peter Swires Horsman, of St. John's, 
Beckermet, Cumberland — Certain improvements in 
machinery for hackling flax, hemp, China grass, 
and other fib'ous substances. 

2249. Isaac Ambler, of Maningham, near Bradford — Improve- 
ments in preparing or combing wool and other 
fibrous substances. 

2287. Henry Goddard, of Castle-gate, Nottingham— Improve- 
ments in stoves and kitchen ranges. 

2289. John Rubery, of Birmingham— Improvements in the 
manufacture of umbrella and parasol furniture. (A 
communication.) 

2295. John Henry Johnson, of Linco'n's-inn-fields — Im- 
provements in apparatus for compressing or rare- 
fying air or other elastic fluids. (A communica- 
tion.) 

231 1. Charles May and James Samuel, both of Great George- 
street — Improvements in joining the ends of the ; 
rails of railways. 

Sealed 2nd December, 1853. 
1354. William Hammond Smith, of Gloucester-row, Wal-i 
worth — Improvements in the manufacture of parch-' 
ment. 

1362. Jean Durandeau, jun., of Paris — Certain means of ob- 

taining marks and designs on paper. 

1363. Ferdinand Louis Gossart, of Rue Montmartre, Paris — 

System of permanent circulation of caloric, intended 
to produce and overheat steam, gas, and liquid. 

1365. James Spotswood Wilson, of Tavistock-place, Russell- 
square — Machine or apparatus for digging or raising, 
earth, and applicable to agricultural or engineering 
purposes. 

1369. James Hayes, of Elton, Huntingdon — Improved ma- 
chine! y for raising and stacking straw, hay, corn and 
other agricultural produce. 

2113. Alfred Vincent Newton, of Chancery-lane — Improved 
machinery for crushing and grinding mineral and 
other substances. (A communication.) 

2187. Alfred Vincent Newton, of Chancery-lane— Improved 
method of forming seams and ornamental stitching, 
and in machinery for effecting such operation, part 
of which machinery is applicable to the forming of 
other seams and stitches. (A communication,) 

2225. William Edward Newton, of Chancery lane— Improved 
machinery for cutting metal or other substances. 
(A communication.) 

2251. Robert Halliwell, of Bohon le Moor, and William John- 
son, of Farnworth — Improvements in machinery for 
spinning anil doubing cotton and other fibrous sub- 
stances, and for grinding-cards. 

2261. Peter Rothwcll Jackson, of Salford— Improvements in 
machinery for manufacturing hoops and wheels. 

2269. William Gossage, of W.dne-s Improvements in 

obtaining certain saline compounds fiom solutions 
containing such compounds. 

Sealed 5th December, 1S53. 

1385. George Carter, of Mottingliam, Kent, and George 
Marriott, of Hull — Improvements in the manufac- 
ture of white lead. 

1388. John Walter Friend, of Caunto-road. Southampton- 
Improved method of measuring and registering the 
distance run by ships and boats proceeding through 
the water, which is also applicable to measuring 
and registering tides and currents. 

1396. Frederick Lipseombe, of the Strand — Improvements 
in the construction of ships and boats. 

1399. Alexander MHiougall, of Manchester— Improvements 
in the manufacture of potash and soda a.-h. 

1409. Claude Arnonx, of Paiis — New system of towing and 
traction. 

1413. Edward Maniere, of Bedford -row— Improvements in 
the manufacture oi pap'T. 

1431. Thomas James Perry, of the Lozells, Astoro-juxta- 
Birmingham — Improvements in raising and lower- 
ing Venetian and other blinds ; applicable also to 
the raising and lowering of other bodies. 

1459. Edward Walmsley, of Heaton Noiris, and Jnbn Holmes 
of Manchester — Improvements in, and applicable to, 
steam engines. 

1515. Charles Cowper, of Southamp'on-buildings— Improve- 
ments in the manufacture, of cards, or substitutes for 
cards, for the Jacquard loom. (A communication.) 



1580. 

1583. 

1603. 
1657. 

1949. 

2126. 
2301. 

2305. 
2313. 

2319. 

2359. 
2361. 
2375. 

2377. 
2387. 



1395. 

1430. 
1486. 

1816. 
1970. 
2006. 
2075. 

2138. 
2211. 

2242. 

2264. 
2288. 
23)0. 

2312. 

2316. 

2318. 
2334. 



2356. 



Edward Davies, of Gothenburg, Sweden Improve- 
ments in machinery or apparatus for carding and 
otherwise preparing cotton or other fibrous ma- 
terials to be spun, and also lor cleaning or stripping 
cards used in the said operations. 

Richard Bradley, and William Craven, of Wakefield — 
Improvments in moulding, forming, and compress- 
ing of clay for the manufacture of bricks, tiles, and 
other earthenware. 

Alfred Vincent Newton, of Chancery-lane — Improved 
machinery for printing. (A communication.) 

Martin Samuelson, of Hull— Improvements in the 
mandfacture of bricks and other articles from plastic 
materials. 

Alexander Cuninghame, of Glasgow— Improvements in 
the manufacture or production of alkalis and their 
salts or alkaline salts. 

John Wilson, of Manchester — Improvements in, and 
applicable to, machines for printing fahrics. 

Francis Whitehead, of Crayford, and William White- 
head, of the same place — Improvements applicable 
to lanterns, lamps shades, and reflectors for reflect- 
ing, concentrating, or diffusing light. 

Joseph Denton, of Frestwich, Manchester — Improve- 
ments in looms for weaving. 

William Edward Newton, of Chancery-lane — Improve- 
ments in fire-arms and cartridges. (A communica- 
tion.) 

Frederick Warner, and John Sholton, both of the 
Crescent, Jewin-street— Improvements in the manu- 
facture of large hells. 

Abraham Pope, of Edgware-road — Improvements in 
furnaces. 

Charles Ludovic Augustus Meinig, of Leadenhall- 
street — Improvements in galvanic batteries. 

Charles Coates, of Sunnyside, near Rawtenstall, Lan- 
cashire — Improvements in, and applicable to, looms 
for weaving. 

Benjamin Price, of Fieldgate-street, Whitechapel — 
Certain improvements in the means of, or apparatus 
for, reducing the quantity of smoke from the fur- 
naces of boilers, coppers, pans, and other like vessels. 

Augustus Applegath, of Dartford — Improvements in 
printing and embossing paper with a view to prevent 
forgery. 

Sealed 1th December, 1853. 

Henry George Rowe, Albert George Andrew, and Wil- 
liam Henry Andrew, all of Sheffield — Improvements 
in the mode of fastening the handles to table knives 
and forks. 

Joseph Spencer, of Bilston — New or improved cupels. 

Edgar Breffit, of Castleford, Yorkshire — Improvements 
in the manufacture of glass-house pots. 

John Macintosh, of Pall Mall — Improvements in the 
construction of bridges, viaducts, and other like 
structures. 

Thomas Hill, and Alexander Thomson, both of Glas- 
gow — Improvements in the manufacture of pipes or 
hollow articles from plastic materials. 

Charles Goodyear, of Avenue-road, St. John's Wood — 
Improvements in the manufacture of waterproof 
fabrics. 

Edwin Lumby, and Zacehseus Sugden, of Halifax — 
Improvements in needles or wires used in the 
manufacture of carpets, looped pile fabrics, and 
velvets. 

Thomas Swingler, of Victoria Foundry, Litchchurch— 
Improvements in the permanent way of railways. 

Henry Winter, of Castle-street— Improvement in 
trousers to supersede the use of braces ; which im- 
provement is applicable to other articles of apparel. 

Charles Coates, of Sunnyside, near Rawtenstall — 
Improvements in coupling pipes and other arti- 
cles, and in apparatus connected therewith. 

John Norton, of Cork— Improvements in firing explo- 
sive compounds. 

William Geeves, of New Wharf- road, Caledonian-road 
— Improvements in the manufacture of bricks. 

Henry Richarson Plumpton, and James Leonard 
Plimpton, of Massachusetts, U.S. — New and useful 
article of furniture to serve the purpose of a bed- 
stead, a toilet table, or a wash-stand and a writing 
desk. 

Henry Clayton, of the Atlas Works, Upper Park -place, 
Dorset-square— Improvements in the manufacture 
of bricks and tiles. 

George Fergusson Wilson, of Belmont, Vauxhall— 
Improvements in mating wool and fabrics com- 
posed of wool. 

George Fergusson Wilson, ol Belmont, Vauxhall— 
Improvements in the manufacture of soap. 

William Henry Muntz, of Massachusetts, U.S.— New 
and useful improvement in paddlewheels for navi- 
gable vessels. 

Robert Popp.e, of Beverley, and Henry Woodhead, of 
Kingston upon-Hull— Improvements in machinery 
for slubbing, roving, and spinning cotton and other 
fibrous substances. . 

Wil'iam Robinson, of Manchester— Improvements in 
machinery orapparatus for manufacturing or forg- 
ing ii on or other metals into screw-bolts, nuts, rivets, 
pins, studs, or other similar articles. 

William Edward Newton, of Chancery-lane— Improved 
machinery for preparing and combing wool. (A 
communication.) 



24 



List of Designs. 



[January, 1854. 



2386. George Laurie, of New York— Improvements in the 
manufacture of artificial teeth and gums. (A com- 
munication.) 

2394. Samuel Cunliffe Lister, of Bradford, Yorkshire— Im- 
provements in combing cotton and wool. 

2396. Augustus Applegath, of Dartford— Improvements in 
letter-press printing machinery. 

2412. George Collier, of Yorkshire— Improvements in the 
manufacture of carpets and other fabrics. 

2414. Charles Barraclough, of Halifax, Yorkshire— Improve- 
ments in the manufacture of carpets and other 
fabrics. 

Sealed &lh'D»cember, 1853. 

1402. Frederick Ludewig Halm, Danchell, of Elm-grove- 
villas, Acton-green, and William Startin, of Heath- 
field-terrace, Turnham-green — Improved mode of 
obtaining auriferous deposits from the beds of 
rivers and lakes, and from pits containing water. 

Sealed 9th December, 1853. 
1408. Antoine Pongou, of Marseilles — Certain improvements 

In obtaining motive power. 
1410. William Muir, of Manchester — Improvements in 

turning lathes ; a part of which improvements is 

applicable to other useful purposes. 

1414. William Brookes, of Chancery-lane — Improvements in 

treating fabrics suitable for floor-cloths, covers, and 
such like articles. (A communication.) 

1415. William Brookes, of Chaneery-lane — Improvements in 

the manufacture of boxes and other hollow recepta- 
cles. (A communication. ) 

1425. Christopner Binks, of Albert-villa, North Woolwich — 
Improvements in dryers, and in preparing drying 
oils for oil paints, varnishes, and other uses. 

1435. Richard Hopkins, of Manchester— Improvements in 
machinery or apparatus for cutting and shaping 
cork-wood and other similar substances. 

1501. Robert Midgley, of Northowram, Yorkshire — Improve- 

ment in preparing and finishing certain worsted 
yarns, and in apparatus employed therein. 

1503. William Boggett, of St. Martiu's-lane. and George 
Brookes Petit, of Lisle-street — Improvements in di- 
optric reflectors. 

1911. Richard Archibald Brooman, of Fleet-street— Method 
of, and machinery for, reducing wood and other 
vegetable fibres to pulp, applicable to the manu- 
facture of paper, pasteboard, millboard, papier ma- 
che, mouldings, and other like purposes. (A com- 
munication.) 

Sealed \2th December, 1S53. 

1428. William Smith, of Sheffield — Improvements in the 

mode for manufacturing metallic handles for knives 
and forks, backs for razors, bows for scissors, and the 
relative parts of such like instruments. 

1429. John Marsh, Theophilus Marsh, James Marsh, and 

Walter Marsh, all of Sheffield — Improved mode of 
fastening the handles of table knives and forks. 
1457. Timoleon Zoe Louis Maurel, of Paris — Certain improve- 
ments in horological alarms. 

1467. Peter Armande le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, of South 

street, Finsbury — Improved process for preserving 
milk; and its application to several organic products 
and alimentary substances. (A communication.) 

1 468. Peter Armande le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, of South - 

street, Finsbury — Improvements in the preparation 
of certain vegetable and alimentary substances. (A 
communication.) 
1489. JamesHeginbottom andJoseph Heginbottom, of Oven 
den, Yorkshire — Improvements in spinning. 

1502. Hiram Parker and Francis Holt, both of Manchester — 

Improvements in machinery and apparatus for 
grinding and turning metals. 

1552. Robert Harlow, of Stockport — Improvements in con- 
structing and working valves for baths, washstands, 
and other purposes. 

1801. John Griffiths, of Stepaside Saunderfoot, near Tenby 
if — Certain improvements in steam engines. 

1936. William Newton, of Chancery-lane — Improvements in 
the process of coating cast iron with other metals 
and the alloys of other metals. (A communication.) 

1851. Thomas Young Hall, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne — Im- 
provements in safety-lamps ; part or parts of such 
improvements being applicable to the consumption 
or prevention of smoke, and for the purposes of 
ventilation generally. 

1836. William Curtain, of Retreat-place, Homerton— Im- 
proved machinery for printing textile fabrics, oil- 
cloths, leather, paper hangings, and other similar 
fabrics or materials. 

1975. Charles Collyford Banks, of Clapham— Improvement 
in lubricators. 

1993. Samuel Taylor, of Manchester — Improvements in appa- 
ratus for generating and applying carbonic-acid 
gas. 

2234. Hiram Berdan, of New York — Machine for collecting, 
preserving, and thereby preventing the loss of mer- 
cury, in the process of amalgamating metals, and 
for the more perfect and economical washing, se- 
parating, aud amalgamating of auriferous and other 
ores. 

2254. John Wincoll Baxter, of Mistley, Essex — Certain im- 
provements in shipbuilding. 

2258. William Henry Wilding, of Chesterfield-street— Im- 
provements in propelling machinery. 

2262. William Peace, of Haigh — Hewing and excavating coal, 
cannel, and other materials, strata, and substances 
by certain machinery and appliances thereto. 



2322. James Knowles, of Eagley Bank, near Bolton le Moors 
— Improvements in machinery for regulating the 
velocity of steam engines and other motive-power 
engines. 

2341. Patrick Clark and Alexander Clark, both of Gate-street, 
Lincoln's-inn-fields— Improvements in revolving 
shutters and other closures for portable and other 
buildings. 

2348. Charles Scott Jackson, of Cannon-street, City — Im- 
provements in preserving seeds, potatoes, and other 
roots. 

2362. Thomas. Grahame, of Hatton Hall, Wellingborough— 
Improvements in building ships and other vessels. 

2393. Ellen Jones, of Palace-street, Pimlico — Improvements 
in steam-engine governors. (This is the same in- 
vention us that for which letters patent were granted 
to her late husband on the 14th day of April last.) 

2426. Julius Augustus Roth, of Philadelphia— Improvements 
in the bleaching and drying of fibres or fibrous ma- 
terials ; part of which improvements is applicable to 
the drying of woven add other textile manu- 
factures. 

2447. John Henry Johnson, of Lincoln's-inn-fie.lds— Im- 
provements in mills for grinding. (A communica- 
tion.) 

2450. James Denoon Young, of Westminster— Improve- 
ments in casting. 

Sealed 14(A December, 1823. 

1437. William G. Craig, of Newport, Monmouth— Improve- 
ments in axle boxes, guides, and healings of loco- 
motive engines and carriages; pirts of which im- 
provements are applicable to the bushes and hear- 
ings of machinery. 

1450. John Macintosh, of Pall Mall East — Improvements in the 
construction of portable bouts, or vessels, or buoys. 

1659. William Francis Snowden, of Weymouth — improved 
mangle. 

2001. Edward Patrick Gibbon, of Dublin — Improvements in 
window frames and sashes. 

2133. Charles Townsend Hook, of Tovil House, Maidstone— 
Improve nents in the manufacture of pulp. 

2352. Henry Whittaker Butterwnrth, of Philadelphia— Im- 
proved supplemental reflux valve for steam engines. 
(A communication.) 

2417. Thomas Thompson, of Much Park-street, Coventry- 
Improvements in machinery for weaving carpets, 
coach lace, and velvet. 

2421. William Russell, of Birmingham — Improvement or 
improvements in the manufacture of copper tubes. 

Sealed 1 5th December, 1853. 
1446. Thomas Butterworth, of Meanwond, Yorkshire — Ma- 
chine for ploughing land, harrowing and crushing 
clods at one operation. 

Sealed 1 6lh December, 1853. 

1449. Charles Wye Williams, of Liverpool — Improvements 
in the manufacture of sheet iron, and of iron plates 
used for boilers, vessels, buildings, and other like 
purposes. 

1401. William Christopher, of Euston-square, and Gustavus 
Gidley, of Hoxton — Improvements in abstracting 
sulphur and other matter from, vulcanised india- 
rubber. 

1462. John Blair, of New Milns, Ayrshire — Improved mode of 
cutting lappet cloths, or other similar fabrics. 

1464. Jules Alexis Adrien Dumoulin of Paris — Improved 
instrument for measuring and tracing. 

Sealed \Sth December, 1853. 

1477. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellfird, of Castle-street, 

Holborn — Improved stove or kiln. 

1478. Robert Lister, of Scotswood, Northumberland — Im- 

provement in chimney tops or flues. 

1479. Henry Bleasdale and Joseph Bleasdale, both of Chip- 

ping, Lancashire— Improvements in working, tilling, 
or preparing land 

1484. Henry Sanders, of Yeovaney, Staines — Improvements 
in drying grass and other crops. 

1488. Thomas Adan son, and William Adamson, of Sunder- 
land — Improvements in pumps. 

1494. John Cross Richardson, of Lilly Hill, near Manchester 

— Improvements in machinery or apparatus for 
winding yarn. 

1495. John Cross Richardson, of Lilly Hill, near Manchester 

— Certain improvements in looms for weaving. 

Sealed 19th December, 1853. 

1522. Frederick Ayckhourn, of Guildford-street, Russell- 
square — Improvements in the manufacture of water- 
proof fabrics. 

1530. Thomas Weatherburn Dodds, of Rotherham — Improve- 
ments in the manufacture of files, rasps, and other 
edge-tools usually made of steel. 

1555. John Mason, of Rochdale, and Luke Ryder of the same 
place — Improvements in machinery or apparatus 
for preparing and spinning cotton and other fibrous 
substances. 

1587. Edward Clarence Shepard, of Trafalgar-square— Im- 
provements in magneto-electric apparatus, suitable 
for the production of motive power, of heat and 
light. (A communication.) 

1591. Edward Clarence Shepard, of Trafalgar-square — Im- 
provements in the manufacture of gas. (A commu- 
nication.) 

1596. Francois Mathieu de Amezaga, of Bordeaux — Method 
of obtaining motive power, and certain machinery 
or apparatus employed therein. 



1715. John Robinson, of Colcman-street— Improved appa- 
ratus for making tea and coffee, and other infusions 
or decoctions for chemical and other purposes. 

1726. William Thorp, of Collyhurst, near Manchester— Im- 
provements in machinery for finishing and emboss- 
ing plain and fancy woven fabrics. 

1910. Archibald Douglass, of Norwich— Improved machinery 
for stitching, back-stitching, and running. 

2052. James Davis, of the Low Furness Iron Works, near 
Ulverstone, and Robert Ramsay of the same place — 
Improved engine, to be worked by steam, air, or 
water. 

2112. Peter Rotherwell Arrowsmith, and James Newhouse, 
both of Bolton-le-Moors — Certain improvements in 
machines for spinning and doubling. 

2263. Henry Jacob Jordan, of Bcrneis-street— Improved 
medicine for the cure of venereal affections, which 
he denominates " The Treisemar." (A communica- 
tion.,) 

2331. James Hall Nalder, of Alvescott, and John Thomas 
Knapp, of Clanfield — Improvements in winnowing 
or dressing corn. 

2350. Charles Scott Jackson, of Cannon-streot— Improve- 
ments in preserving timber and other vegetable 
matters. 

2429. John Henry Johnson, of Lincoln's-inn-flelds— Improve- 
ments in apparatus for sustaining bodies in the water- 
(A communication.) 

2440. Frederick Albert Gatty, of Accrington — Improvements 
in printing or producing colours on textile fabrics. 

2469. Edward Austin, of Pembroke Cottages, Caledonian- 
road— Improvements in surveying and raising 
sunken vessels, and in apparatus used therein, and 
in lifting vessels over bars and other obstructions. 

2471. Richard Ueyworth, of Cross Hall, near Charley, and 
Thomas Battersby, of Cross Hall aforesaid— Certain 
improvements in looms for weaving. 

2506. William Betts, of Wharf-road, City-road -Certain im- 
provements in machinery for manufacturing me- 
tallic capsules. 

2515. Anthony Park Coubrough, of Blanefield, Stirling, N.B. 
— Improvements in printing textile fabrics and other 
surfaces. 

2538. Edward Ward, of Potton, Bedfordshire — Improvement* 
in carriage axles. (A communication.) 

Sealed 20/A December, 185S. 

1499. Charles Crickmay, of Handsworth — Improvements in 

the construction of fire-arms. 

1500. John Paul, of Manchester — Colouring paper on the 

surface. 

1505. John William Perkins, of Narrow-street, Limehouse — 
Improvements in the manufacture of artificial 
manure. 

1510. Robert Galloway, of Cartmell, Lancashire — Improve- 
ments in manufacturing and refining sugar. 

1512 Joseph Skertchley, jun., of Kingsland— Improvements 
in the application of baths to articles used for resting 
the human body. 

1514. Henry Blatin, of Rue Buonaparte, Paris — Improve- 
ments in buckles. 



APPLICATIONS WITH COMPLETE SPECIFICATIONS 
FILED. 

2777. L. A. Michel, Paris, and 10, Castle street, Holborn— 
System of apparatus for sawing and breaking sugar. 
—29th Sept., 1853. 

2819. C. W. Hockaday, Post-hall, Brighton— Chemical com- 
pound as a remedy for scorbutic affections. Dec. 5, 
1853. 

2830. J. Mold, 6, Portland terrace — Improvements or addic- 
tions to augment convenience by transformation and 
facility the different lines required in the erection 
or manufacturing edifices or structures by appara- 
tus, tools, or instruments suitable for the different 
capacities of operation and general surveying. Dec. 
6th, 1853. 



DESIGNS FOR ARTICLES OF UTILITY. 

1853. 
Nov. 16, 3530, H. J. and D. Nicoll, Regent-street and Corn- 
hill — Improved paletot or coat. 

„ 18, 3531, Edward Morris, Birmingham — Sugar mould 
or sugar funnel. 

„ 18, 3532, Charles Symons, 1, Princes-street— Fitzroy- 
square— A table bedstead. 

,, 22, 3533, Albert Robert Cunningham, Kensington — 
Candlestick. 

,, 23, 3534, George Brewer, 10, Paradise-place, Hackney, 
and Charles Suffell, 132, Long-acre — Im- 
proved flexible tube self-acting level. 

„ 26, 3535, John Yates, 249 and 250, Whitechapel-road 
—Portable lever bout-front blocking machine. 

2, 3536, John Patterson, 104, Wood-street, Cbtapside — 
The Balmoral tie. 

3, 3537, Thomas Barnes and William Johnson, Farn- 
worth, Lancaster — Ventilating bobbin or spool. 

7, 3538, John Lingard, Pea Croft, Sheffield— A solid 
spring-knife handle. 

8, 3539, Edward Reynolds, Butterley Iron Works, 
Alfreton, Derbyshire — Improved link motion 
for steam engines. 

9, 3540, Dent, Alcroft, and Co., Wood-street, Cheap- 
side — The commercial purse. 
10, 3541, Edward Green, Wakefield, Yorkshire — Im- 
proved chimney-top. 



Dec. 



!o F 



18S4. i 



THE AETIZAN. 



No. CXXXIIL— Vol. XII.— FEBRUARY 1st, 1854. 



STEAM NAVIGATION IN THE MEDITERRANEAN. 

At the present moment of affairs, a notice of the various lines of 
steamers in the Mediterranean may not be uninteresting to our readers; 
and we are enabled, through our correspondent in France, to give 
several details, with which the public in England are scarcely familiar. 
Indeed, many of the operations to which they relate are so recent that 
they have only just appeared in print in France. — In our last volume 
will be found some notes on this subject. 

The Mediterranean possesses at this moment three great steam navi- 
gation companies, and fifteen private companies, of which eight sail 
under the French, and seven under a foreign flag. The three great 
companies are the English Peninsular and Oriental Company, the 
Austrian Lloyds, and the French Messageries Nationales. 

The Peninsular and Oriental Company employs ten of its immense 
fleet in the Mediterranean. Their service includes the line from South- 
ampton to Malta, where it divides into two lines to Constantinople and 
Alexandria respectively ; from the latter the line is continued by Cairo, 
Suez, and Aden, to the line to Calcutta. Two only of these boats touch 
at Marseilles. 

The Austrian Lloyds possesses 34 vessels, of 5,500 horse-power, 
and 16,093 tons in the aggregate. This great company, of which the 
head quarters are at Trieste, serves all the coast of the Adriatic sea, 
Greece, Constantinople and Alexandria. It has established at Trieste 
very large building and repairing yards for its exclusive use, and receives 
such a considerable subsidy from the Austrian Government, as to place 
it beyond the category of ordinary commercial companies. 

The company of the Messageries Nationales receives a large subsidy 
from the French Government, which, added to its enormous capital and 
extensive connections, renders it a gigantic monopoly, with which com- 
petition is impossible. On the other hand, however, it has to submit 
to certain restrictions, such as speed, times of starting, use of paddle- 
wheels, &c, which assist in restoring the balance. This company pos- 
sesses twenty-two vessels, of a collective force of 4,500 horse-power. 
These vessels run along the coast of Italy, Constantinople and Alexandria, 
with an intermediate service to Syria. 

The private companies which touch at Marseilles and the various 
ports of the Mediterranean, possess (including some on the stocks) 
fifty-five vessels, of which forty are on the screw, and fifteen on the 
paddle-wheel system of propulsion. 

Of these companies, those under the French flag are as follows : — 

The company "Bazin Perier," holding six paddle-wheel vessels, 
running on the line to Algiers. 

The company " Valery," holding five paddle-wheel vessels, running 
on the line to Corsica. 

The company " Imperiale," which, at this moment has four vessels 
afloat, and twelve building, destined for the Algerian mail line. 
4 



These three companies receive subsidies from the Government. 

The company " Leon Gay " has two vessels afloat, and three building, 
all propelled by the screw. 

The company "Andre Abeille" has three paddle-wheel vessels on 
the Italian line. 

The company " Marc Fraissinet " has one paddle-wheel and one 
screw vessel on the coast of Spain, and has two screw boats building, to 
run to various ports in the channel. 

The company "Charge" has three screw steamers on the Italian 
line. 

The firm of " Bazin," which has two screw steamers building. 

The company " Arnaud and Touache " has two iron screw vessels 
of 1,800 tons, and three other large vessels, intended for the Brazilian 
line. 

The company " Horace Bouchet," who are organising a service for 
Italy, with five small screw steamers. 

The foreign companies touching at Marseilles are as follows : — 

The Anglo-French company (Mr. Folsch, agent,) possess three screw 
steamers running between Liverpool and Marseilles. 

The Mediterranean company (Mr. King, agent,) employ five screw 
vessels on the same line. 

Three Spanish companies include — the company "Cuguruy," two 
screw steamers; company "Industrie et Navigation," four paddle- 
wheel steamers ; company " Pechier," four paddle-wheel steamers. 
Under the Neapolitan flag there are two companies at Marseilles : the 
company " Claude Clere," five paddle-wheel steamers ; the company 
" Deona," one paddle-wheel steamer. The Sardinian flag is represented 
by a single company (L. A. Fontana), running five paddle-wheel steamers 
on the Italian line. The foreign companies own twenty-nine vessels 
of different dimensions, of which ten are propelled by the screw, and 
nmeteen by the paddle-wheel. The coasting trade between Mar- 
seilles, Nice, the coast of Languedoc and Aries, employs ten vessels, of 
which, six are screw vessels. This number will soon be raised to 
fifteen . 

The following is a resume of these figures : — 
Messageries Nationales - 
Peninsular and Oriental - 

Private French companies 
Foreign companies , 

Coasting traders ----- 
Five vessels purchased at Havre - 



22 


vessels 


2 


3J 


55 


if 


29 


)> 


10 


»J 


5 


)t 



Total 



123 



For the construction and repairs of these vessels there exist two engi- 
neering and ship-building establishments — one at La Ciotat, the property 



26 



Notes by a Practical Chemist. 



[February, 



of the Messageries Nationales— the other at La Seyne, lately established 
under the title of La Compagnie des Forges et Chanteers de la Mediter- 
rante. This company has purchased the engineering works of Messrs. 
Taylor, of Marseilles, and has already in hand, to be completed in the 
course of 1854, fourteen steamers of an aggregate eapacity of 14,435 
tons, and a force collective of 2,075 horse power. 

At the Port of Cette, there is also an engineering and ship-building 
establishment. 

The prospectus of a new company has been issued, in which the 
object proposed is the adaptation of auxiliary steam power to sailing 
vessels. 

Considerable stress has been laid upon fact, that the French Govern- 
ment would be compelled to seek transports in England in the event of 
her sending an army to the East; but it evident, from the above reca- 
pitulation, that extensive means exist already, and in convenient prox- 
imity to Toulon — the Portsmouth of France in the Mediterranean. 

THE COMBINED VAPOUR ENGINE. 

We gave last month (p. 17) a translation of a French memoir of 
M. Dutrembley's combined vapour engine, which requires some eluci- 
datory remarks, since the circumstances of the trial are not detailed 
with that minuteness so desirable in such cases. We have so often 
spoken of M. Dutrembley's invention, and believe it to be so sound in 
principle, that we should regret if it suffered, as is often the case, from 
the injudicious nursing of its friends. 

The grand point to be determined is the economy of fuel; and one of 
the chief difficulties encountered in such trials is the maintaining an 
uniform actual power, or, in other words, a uniform resistance. It ap- 
pears that the commission only made experiments on the engines 
as working on the combined system, and, consequently, we ought 
to be informed of the actual power exerted by the engines in that 
case, and the corresponding consumption of fuel. This is not done. 
We are merely informed that the consumption of fuel was 77 kil. 
per hour, which, reckoning the engines at 70 horse effective, gives 
I'll kil. per horse power, and reckoning at 67 horse power, is 
1*16 kil. per horse power. When the engines were working on the 
ordinary system, they are said to have burnt 302 kil. per hour, or 
4 - 35 to 4'5l kil. per horse power— say 9'5 to 9 - 9 lbs., an economy of 
upwards of 74 per cent. Further on we find it stated, "The best 
constructors do not go below 4 kil. as that stipulated in their contracts 
as the minimum consumption of their engines." Very true; but the 
best constructors are not content with getting less than three times 
the nominal power out of their engines. The comparison, therefore, 
is useless, unless we know what these combined vapour engines are 
really doing. 

There is another point, apparently overlooked, but not less important : 
that is, the duty of the boiler in the two cases. In the first case, the 
boiler has to supply steam for the two cylinders ; in the second, for 
only one. Now, this is equivalent to doubling the heating surface, 
because the same surface has only to produce half the quantity of steam. 
If the boiler was rather small for the power in the first case, this would 
make a material difference in its evaporative economy, because it would 
be ample in the second ; and in any case there would be an advantage, 
because the comparatively larger boiler would admit of burning the 
cinders and small coal, a large quantity of which is thrown overboard in 
ordinaiy vessels. To make the trial a fair one, the duty of the boiler 
should be separated from that of the engine. An approximatively fair 
trial might have been made by throwing half the boiler power out of 
operation ; but it does not appear that this point was even noticed. A 
, steam vessel is not a convenient case to take for such an inquiry, since 
the various states of the weather, the immersion of the vessel, and the 
care bestowed in stoking, are only imperfectly under command. We 



must, therefore, look further for information, since reports, such as the 
one under discussion, do not advance the settlement of the question one 
iota. Good faith in such things is worth nothing, unless it be also 
accompanied by scientific accuracy. 

NOTES BY A PRACTICAL CHEMIST. 



Purity of Chemicals. — 1. Cyanide of Potassium. — It has been 
of late publicly asserted, that all who wish to obtain genuine cyanide, 
especially photographers, should purchase a black article, and on no 
account use the white, which is stated to be much more impure. The 
difference of colour is, .however, purely accidental. To ascertain the 
real value of a sample, the following process is recommended by Liebig: — 
A given weight of the cyanide to be examined is dissolved in water, and 
a large excess of a solution of caustic potash added to the solution. A 
solution of nitrate of silver, of known strength, is then gradually poured 
in, constantly stirring, until a permanent precipitate appears. The 
amount of nitrate of silver used being thus known, every atom (or 170 
grains) used is to be calculated equal to two atoms (or 130 grains) of 
cyanide af potassium in the sample under examination. The following 
are results obtained on examining some of the principal cyanides of 
commerce : — Medicinal cyanide, in crystals, perfectly dry, 99"02 per 
cent. ; so-called gold cyanide, quite white, and used by electro-platers 
for gold work, 92'43 per cent. ; so-called silver cyanide, also quite 
white, and used principally for silvering, 49.74 percent. 

2. Pyroacetic Spirit. — This liquid was originally supposed to be pure 
acetone; but it was afterwards proved that wood naphtha was used in its 
preparation, and it was supposed to be the pure pyroxylic spirit, or 
methylic alcohol, of chemists, the crude naphtha being deprived of an 
irritating oil, which prevented its being mixed with water without 
turning milky. But even the purified naphtha is of very fluctuating 
composition. When chloride of calcium, in very fine powder, is added 
to the sample under examination until the liquid is saturated, a variable 
quantity of oil rises to the surface after a short time ; and this occurs 
even when the naphtha is perfectly miscible with water without milkiness. 
If the oil be then removed, and the saturated liquid introduced into a 
retort placed in the water bath, and distilled, in general, a large quan- 
tity of a naphtha liquid passes over : this is known to chemists as 
lignone. If a little water be now added to the residue in the retort, 
and the distillation continued, another liquid passes over — the true 
methylic alcohol, or pyroxylic spirit, perfectly different in constitution 
and properties from the lignone first obtained. These two liquids 
occur in very varying proportions in every sample ; some being almost 
pure lignone, others containing only 5 to 10 per cent, of methylic 
alcohol, whilst in others 65 to 70 per cent, of the latter exist with 30 of 
lignone. 

Detection of Blood-Stains on a Rusty Knife. — The blade 
of the knife ordered by the judicial authorities for chemical examination 
had remained for a long time in a damp place, and was rusty. How- 
ever, some brilliant and dark stains, very distinct from the rust, were 
observed. On heating the point of the knife, these slams scaled off 
immediately, whilst the rust remained perfectly adherent; again, on 
steeping the knife in dilute muriatic acid, the shining stains were not 
altered, whilst the rest was readily dissolved. Hence it appeared pro- 
bable that these were blood-stains; but, as non-azotised vegetable acids 
produce similar stains, the scales obtained on heating the blade were 
put into a small test-tube and heated to dryness; red litmus paper, 
slightly moistened, held over the mouth of the tube, immediately 
turned blue, owing to the disengagement of ammonia from the hema- 
tine of the blood. For greater certainty, the whole blade was steeped 
for a long time in distilled water. The water acquired a reddish tinge, 
and, by help of the microscope, in place of the shining stains, fibrine 



1854] 



Notes on Designing Steam Machinery. 



27 



was detected, still adhering to the metal. The solution gave no preci- 
pitate with ammonia; with nitric acid, a white precipitate; when 
heated, it became turbid ; and, on the addition of chlorine water, it 
first turned green, and then suddenly colourless, depositing white flakes. 
These various liquids, evaporated to dryness and ignited, gave a residue, 
which was dissolved in hydrochloric acid, and the presence of iron, 
ascertained by the usual re-agents. 

Purification of Graphite for Lead Pencils. — Runge pro- 
poses to purify poor graphite for pencils by digesting the mineral in fine 
powder for 36 hours, in about twice its weight of strong sulphuric acid ; 
then diluting the acid with water, and washing the acid away. Graphite 
thus prepared is very much cheaper than the ordinary English, and 
quite as pure as the best Borrowdale lead. The decanted sulphuric 
acid contains iron, sulphate of alumina, &c; the latter may be sepa- 
rated when large quantities are operated upon. Runge also proposes 
to add a little lamp-black, to give a deeper tint to the lines made by 
the pencils. Certain kinds of manganese may probably be used for the 
same purpose. 

Hardening of Cast-Steel for Cutlery.— Kieser, of Issny, 
in Switzerland, prepares admirably hardened razors, pen-knives, &c, 
from English cast-steel, by plunging the blades, at a dark cherry-red 
heat, into a bath made of 4 parts yellow rosin, in fine powder, 2 parts 
fish oil, to which is then added, in a very hot state, I part melted tallow, 
and allowing them to cool perfectly ; after which, they are heated with- 
out wiping them, and immersed in water in the ordinary way. The 
blades hardened by this method are found more uniformly done than 
by any other process ; at the same time, they are not too much so, or 
the metal too brittle. The edge is exceedingly fine. 

Filter for Purifying Oils. — Paper pulp is mixed with i to J 
its weight of saw-dust, that of beech being preferred, the mixture well 
washed for several days, and then moulded into cakes. One of these, 

9 8 inches in diameter and 326 inches thick, weighing about one 
pound, is capable, with a pressure of 13 feet of oil, of filtering 317 
gallons in 24 hours. 

Colouring Material for Fixing Designs upon Muslin. — 

10 parts of resin are melted in a pot, and 10 parts sulphate of lead, and 
1| of fine lamp-black, are then well worked up with it. When cold, 
the brittle mass is used with gum, or some other mixture. White lead 
answers as well as the sulphate. 

answers to correspondents. 

" Practicus." — To analyse solder, proceed as follows : — Dissolve a 
weighed portion in nitric acid of moderate strength, when the tin will 
remain as an insoluble peroxide ; the solution is diluted and filtered off, 
the residue washed, dried, heated to redness, and weighed. It contains 
78*62 per cent, of metallic tin. The lead is then precipitated from the 
clear liquid by dilute sulphuric acid, and the whole heated until all the 
nitric acid has been driven off, and the fumes of sulphuric acid are per- 
ceptible. The remainder is then diluted with a little water, the sulphate 
of lead thrown upon a filter which has been dried at 250° fahr., and 
weighed ; after which it is washed with alcohol. We may dispense with 
a weighed filter, if we carefully remove the dried precipitate as much as 
possible from the filter. This is now burnt separately, that no 
reduction may take place from the carbon of the filter. 

" 0. S." — We have examined the two bottles of hair-dye. The 
"primrose-coloured fluid" is simply hydrosulphate of ammonia — a very 
nice thing for a lady to wash her locks in. The colourless liquid is 
nitrate of silver. You may buy both articles at a druggist's for one- 
fourth the price charged by the advertiser. 

" Southwark." — The Artizan is not a medical journal ; nor if it were, 
would we prescribe through its columns. Your mistake arises from the 
fact that, in this country, dealers in drugs style themselves chemists, 
which, as a body, they are certainly not. 



NOTES ON DESIGNING STEAM MACHINERY.— No. III. 

By " Navalis." 

Finch's Self-acting Feed Apparatus for Steam Boilers. 

Our boiler explosions are at once a terror to the community and a 
disgrace to the trading and manufacturing professions. Danger to life 
and property, it is true, will always be in proportion to the extraordinary 
means which are pressed into the services, and required by the in- 
creasing necessities of mankind; but, while this may be admitted as an 
axiom, it cannot be accepted as offering the slightest palliation for the 
reckless proceedings of some American engineers, or for our own im- 
perfect arrangements, and the careless management on the part of the 
employers of steam power. It is a humiliating fact, that our steam- 
boilers are scarcely ever under the superintendence of stokers or engine- 
men who have been initiated into a knowledge of the mechanism and 
working of the steam engine and boiler ; the royal navy and mercantile 
marine being the only establishments which can be considered as ex- 
ceptions to this pretty general rule. But our attention is directed more 
particularly to the arrangements on land, among manufacturers and the 
railway companies, with whom these accidents are principally occurring, 
although from the superior organization of the latter, better results 
might have been expected. That some of these explosions have arisen 
from imperfect construction there cannot be a doubt, while a few have 
arisen from causes which have never been very satisfactorily explained ; 
but the causes of a great majority of our present boiler explosions are 
palpable, and comparatively within the power of human control, if the 
employers of steam power would but set themselves to work in right 
earnest, and apply the remedies which they could, with but a trifling 
expense and trouble, have at their command, but permanent— at least 
the utmost attainable security can only be effected by the employment 
of more skilled labeur — of men who have acquired some elementary 
knowledge of the steam engine and boiler, and who could submit a 
boiler to a pressure according to its form, quality, and wear and tear, 
and keep it at any time, as much as human efforts can do, within the 
limits of safety ; and thus act as a check upon the policy of some manu- 
facturers, who, to bring into action their increased establishment, force 
the additional duty from their moving power, by maintaining a bursting 
pressure in the boiler. In the royal navy and mercantile marine, where 
the arrangements and management are somewhat as they ought to be, 
boiler explosions are exceedingly rare ; and this happy result is no doubt 
due to the fact of the boilers being under the superintendence of 
engineers whose duties are not so multifarious as those of many engine- 
men on land, and whose professional knowledge enables them to appre- 
ciate a due apprehensiveness of the danger of tampering with a safety- 
valve, or neglecting to keep up the proper supply of feed-water to the 
boiler. But, unfortunately, on land we have a different state of things; 
the vulgar standard of pounds, shillings, and pence is the measure of 
efficiency in the working of our steam power, and the safety of human 
life and property is quietly submitted to the chapter of accidents. A 
host of tradesmen and manufacturers are now developing the resources 
of steam power in every possible application, and leaving its manage- 
ment to an illiterate stoker — a species of operative centaur — politely 
dubbed, in the language of commercial parlance, " a handy man ;" but 
who is, nevertheless, a mere unskilled labourer ; and in the course of a 
few years, when we have become surrounded with old boilers, we shall 
probably have them bursting, in their due turn, from the general effects 
of decrepitude and want of proper attention, and have the consequences 
of the present mischievous policy in full force. That a difficulty would 
be found at present in procuring the kind of labour required, is, we fear, 
but too true; but we have no reason to suppose that men could not be 
found who are either qualified, or who would soon qualify themselves, 
for a position which offered them a higher status in the social scale, if 



25 



Notes on Designing Steam Machinery. 



[February, 



a premium in the shape of better wages were offered to them, in return 
for their more skilled Jabour. 

Some people, we observe, are already solicitous for legislative inter- 
ference ; and few, perhaps, would be serry to see both bane and anti- 
dote in full operation at once. We very much question whether any 
vexatious supervision, interfering with the freedom of business, and re- 
moving the responsibility from the manufacturer to the government, 
would mend the matter ; but, on the other hand, we see no reason why 
the employment of skilled labour should not be rendered compulsory, 
and that persons having charge of steam power should pass an 
examination before a board, and be granted with a license, similarly to 
pilots and captains, whose duties, as far as regards having charge of life 
and property, are not very dissimilar. Such a course appears to us to 
offer the legislature the opportunity of meeting the wishes of the 
general public without unduly interfering with the liberties of the other; 
but still leaving tradesmen and manufacturers to manage their own 
affairs : thus keeping the full responsibility for mismanagement on the 
proper shoulders, and retaining the usual power to punish the delin- 
quent who, by negligence or a drivelling and parsimonious policy, perils 
the lives and property of his neighbours. But we must now conclude 
this rough introductory glance at a few of the more prominent bearings 
of this melancholy subject, and proceed to describe a self-acting feed 
apparatus, which has been designed and put in operation by Mr. 
Benjamin Finch, managing machinist to the Irish Engineering Company, 
by whom this apparatus is manufactured. 

The object of this machine is to maintain a uniform level of water in 
the boiler, the advantages gained by obtaining this condition being that 
it compensates for any extraordinary evaporation, and for the blowing 
off of brine or sediment ; it admits the proper quantity of water into 




Fig. 1. Scale : 1 inch=l foot. 

the boiler and no more, and thus obviates the liability to prime ; it 
removes one of the fruitful causes of our present explosions, by con- 
tinually admitting the feed-water as it is required, and thus being an 
excellent substitute for the irregular and sometimes negligent attention 
of the person in charge ; it furthermore tends to keep the temperature 
of the water in the boiler uniform, and thereby requiring a uniformity 



of calorific effect, and producing a uniform quantity of steam, for the 
law holds as good in the evaporating of water as in any other physical 
operation: that uniformity of action invariably gives out the best 
result, so that on the score of economy also this machine recommends 
itself. 

Fig. 1 is a side elevation of the feed apparatus, with the boiler in 
section, showing the position of the float when in action. Fig. 2, a 
sectional elevation through the centre of valve casing and stop cock, 
and fig. 3, a sectional plan at the centre of valve casing, which is 



(( 



w 



Mw mm 

mJmMkmk H 




Fig. 2. Scale: l£inch=l foot. 

provided with an inlet branch, a, communicating with the force pump, 
and the outlet branch, b, communicating with the boiler, formed 
on the valve-box containing the double beat or equilibrium-valve, c ; 
this valve is placed under control by means of the spindle, d, which is 
jointed to the valve, and carried up through a stuffing-box in the cover, 




Fig. 3. Scale : 1| inch=l foot. 

and weighted on the outside to any extent necessary to increase or 
decrease the buoyant effect of the float, e, and thus have the means of 
working at any particular level of water which may be found desirable; 
the double-beat valve, c, is connected with the float, a, by means of the 
lifting spindle,/, and the lever, g, the lever being suspended by the 
bracket h, which is rivetted to the boiler ; the valve, c, is thus actuated 
by the float closing or opening it according to the water level in the 
boiler, and the feed water is thus admitted through the outlet, b, and 
forced down the descending pipe, i, into the boiler, as it is required; 
the lifting spindle,/, is provided with a conical-shaped collar, and made 



1854.] 



Coal Mining on the Continent. 



29 



to fit a countersink formed in the brass bush through which it works : 
this spindle, when raised to its fullest extent, acts as a valve in closing 
off all communication with the boiler, and by then shutting off the 
stop- cock, j, the engineer may examine the valves, and remove any dirt 
which may by any chance be found deposited upon the valve seats, and 
tending to derange the action. 

- The stop or three-way cock, j, through which the feed-water passes 
on its way to the boiler, answers two purposes — that of admitting the 
feed-water from the force pump when the boiler is under pressure, and 
also of admitting cold feed-water from an overhead cistern for filling 
the boiler previous to the fires being lighted up, the pipe, Ic, being the 
means of communication from the cistern to the boiler, and after having 
filled the boiler from this cistern, by giving the cock-plug a half turn, 
this communication is stopped, and the water passing through the self- 
acting feed, is then free to enter the boiler. 



COAL MINING ON THE CONTINENT. 

A very great activity now manifests itself in the coal and iron works 
of the three kingdoms of France, Belgium, and Prussia. In the first 
two in particular, new fields are being explored, and works accordingly 
established, as well as those undertakings which, during the disturbed 
state of political affairs, have been either abandoned, or only partially 
carried on, are now to be seen in full work, giving employment to a 
large number of men, and stimulating trade in every branch. 

These coal fields, as compared with those of Newcastle and South 
Wales, are not so well known in the character of the beds beneath the 
surface, and much new ground remains to be explored; there is, how-, 
ever, a great amount of work being now done in this way ; the land 
proprietors are searching in all directions for the suspected black trea» 
sure hidden beneath their soil. 

In consequence of these requirements for exploring, considerable at- 



BOEING APPARATUS. 




^ 



o 



V 



J 



IS LJtTXKS 



\ 






Fig. 4. 



Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 



Designs for a self-acting feed apparatus are by no means new nor few 
in number, but simple and efficient ones are very rare ; some indeed 
possess the singular merit of being far too ingenious, and are much too 
complicated ; in fact, their first cost alone being a sufficient bar to their 
adoption, by small proprietors especially — the very parties who most 
require them. Mr. Finch's, however, is simple in its mechanism and 
efficient in its working, and bids fair to come into general use. Two 
have been at work at Roe's distillery, and other two at Pirn's works in 
Dublin for several months, and with satisfactory results; and probably 
the day is not far distant when a self-acting feed apparatus will be con- 
sidered as necessary an adjunct to the steam-boiler as the safety-valve 
itself. 



Fig. 3. 

tention has been given, and much art is brought to bear, upon the best 
mode of conducting trial pits and holes, and there have sprung up pro- 
fessed boring engineers, who undertake these works, and attain consi- 
derable skill in the art, to a much greater extent than is known in this 
country. Many practical improvements have been made in the machi- 
nery employed ; one in particular we may notice, by means of which a 
far greater certainty in the results is attained, owing to their being able 
to produce specimens of the beds traversed through ; and show, by 
these specimens, not only the nature and quality of the rock, but the 
amount and direction of the inclination of the beds in situ. We give a 
sketch of the tool that brings these specimens to the surface, or to grass, 
as the miners term it. An annular cut, as shown in fig. 2, is made with 



30 



Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 



[February, 



a crown boring tool (fig. 1) of ordinary construction, and then this 
wimble (fig. 3) is let down, and the teeth b b, which are arranged all 
round the bottom of the cylinder a A A A, in passing in, slide over the 
top of the cylindrical piece left in the middle of the hole by the crown 
borer, — but, in drawing back the body of the wimble again, hold fast in 
the sides of the core : — by working the rods up and down for a short 
space, these teeth work their way gradually in, and eventually, by a 
strong pull, the core is broken off and brought up. c c is a ring, which 
presses on the teeth to force them in : in introducing the wimble, this 
ring is held up by a piece of twine, so slight, that a sudden jerk on the 
sole of the boring snaps it, and it then falls on the teeth b b. And fur- 
ther, in bringing up, care is taken to preserve the rods and tool con- 
stantly in the same position, i. e., not to let the rods turn round at all, 
so that the direction of the dip of the beds is by this means accurately 
determined, as well as the vertical angle. Care is of course necessary 
in this last operation to get a correct result, but it is constantly done, 
and with perfect success. 

The advantage of these specimens to land owners in granting leases, 
or to new companies, must be very great; as it is also in all cases for 
laving out the working of a colliery in positions of the shafts and sys- 
tem to be adopted in the ultimate carrying on of underground opera- 
tions. And this is very apparent in some of our continental neighbours, 
who are systematic and scientific, perhaps, even to a faulty extent. 

Another rather ingenious machine is made use of, in order to pre- 
vent the weight of the rods falling with the tool, by which they are 
rendered very liable to beat against the sides of the hole, and very 
frequently to fracture in consequence. This apparatus releases the 
tool at the commencement of the return stroke, so that it falls freely 
away from the rods which follow after it and again lay hold of it to 
raise again. The action of the thing will be readily understood from 
the accompanying wood-cut, fig 4. a is a leather piston, less in diameter 
than the size of the hole by about 2 to 3 inches, capable of sliding up 
and down the rods for a distance of 2 inches ; it carries with it a ring, c, 
which, when moved up and down on the inclined ends of the two levers, 
d d, opens and closes the lower ends, which take hold of and release 
alternately the piece, f f. Into the lower end of this piece is screwed 
a very heavy chisel, some 600 or 700 lbs. in weight. As the rods are 
drawn up, the water in the hole presses on the upper side of the leather 
piston, keeping the lower jaws of the lever tight hold of the end of the 
piece, f, carrying the tool : immediately the down stroke is commenced, 
the water acts on the under side of the leather piston, opens the jaws 
and releases the tool, which falls freely by its own weight, and the rods 
follow after to take hold again, Wooden rods with screwed iron ends 
are made use of, and the holes are generally about 12 inches diameter. 
Where depths of 100 to 150 fathoms have to be reached, these holes 
have been bored at a less cost than our contractors do the smaller 
size of 4 and 6 inches ; and there is a certainty in the evidence they 
afford ; whereas it is constantly complained of with us, the unsatisfac- 
tory results obtained from trial holes in general. One very material 
advantage in the larger hole is, that in the event of any accident with 
the rods, or anything falling in, it is very much easier to lay hold of any 
article so offending, to fish it out. We believe there are many opera- 
tions in mining on the continent where the system is superior to ours ; 
in proof of which we may mention the relative rate of accidents ; whilst 
in England, out of every 1,000 men 4 annually are killed, in Prussia 
this number is only 2, and in Belgium rather less than 3. 

INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, BIRMINGHAM 

October 20th, 1853. 
The following paper, by Mr. William S. Garland, of Soho, Birming- 
ham, was read : — " Description of the new Pumping Engines at the 
Birmingham Water-works." 



The intention of the author in this paper, which describes a pair of 
pumping engines, manufactured by Messrs. James Watt and Co., of 
Soho, for the Birmingham Water-works Company, was stated to be 
rather to place before the Institution a record of well and successfully 
executed works, than to claim any particular novelty in their con- 
struction. 

These water-works were established in the year 1830, and the com- 
pany then erected two engines, having cylinders of 61 inches diameter, 
and 8 feet stroke, each working two punaps of' 18 inches and 20 inches 
diameter, and of 6 feet and 8 feet stroke respectively, to the lower levels 
of the town, or working one pump only when raising water to the 
upper reservoir. These engines were found of sufficient power for the 
necessary supply until the year 1850; at which time the demand had 
so much increased that the company determined, at the recomraenda- 
tion of Mr. Rofe, their engineer, to augment their establishment by the 
addition of two new engines of greater power. 

1'he cylinders of these engines are of 72 inches diameter and 10 feet 
stroke, working a pump of 23 inches diameter, also of 10 feet stroke, 
under a head of 252 feet, which with the bends in the main and friction 
is equal to a total resistance of 285 feet, and to a load upon the plunger 
of 124 lbs. per square inch, or, upon the steam piston, of 13 lbs. per 
square inch. The weight upon the plunger required to overcome the 
load upon the air-pump, the friction of the engine, and to maintain a 
velocity of 10 strokes per minute, is nearly 26g tons, which is equal 
to 142 lbs. per square inch upon the area of the 23-inch plunger, and 
14J lbs. upon the piston. The power, therefore, of each engine, when 
making 10 strokes per minute, is equal to 180 horses; and the total 
power which the company now have for supplying the borough is equal 
to 530 horses. 

The cylinders have steam-cases, and are enclosed in a covering of 
felt, having an outside casing of wood, to prevent the radiation of 
heat ; and the top of the cylinder and upper nozzle are covered in a 
similar manner. 

The steam-valve, equilibrium-valve, and exhaustion-valve, are 13, 
15, and 18 inches in diameter respectively, and of the double-beat 
construction, by which the principal part of the pressure that the com- 
mon conical valve is subject to, is removed. The steam governor- 
valve is made of the single conical form (there being no necessity for 
making this valve upon the double-beat principle), and it is regulated 
by a screw and wheel handle. 

The load on these engines is a variable one, to the extent of tha 
difference of the dead level of the upper reservoir and the amount of 
friction of the water in transitu j and it sometimes happens that the 
water is being drawn off faster than the engine supplies it : and the 
velocity of the water beyond where the great draught occurs is conse- 
quently decreased, and the resistance proportionably diminished. 

To prevent any accident to the engine by going out too suddenly, in 
consequence of this diminished resistance, a throttle-valve is placed 
between the upper and lower nozzle, and in the pipe communicating 
with the top and bottom of the cylinder, which is regulated in its open- 
ing by a screw and wheel handle; and by contracting the passage, or 
in other words, wire-drawing the equilibrium, the equalisation of pres- 
sure between the top and bottom of the cylinder is more slowly formed, 
during the time the plunger is descending, to the extent the weight is 
in excess of the diminished resistance. In these engines this valve has 
been found of invaluable service, and it will even hold the plunger at 
the top of the stroke. It acts exactly like putting on a break to a 
crane when lowering a weight, without absorbing any power or causing 
any disturbance to the working of the engines. 

The opening of the steam, injection, and exhaustion-valve, is regu- 
lated by a cataract, and the speed of the engine is thus under the con- 
trol of the engine-man. The equilibrium-valve is opened by quadrant 



1854.] 



Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 



31 



catches, and is dependent upon closing of the exhaustion- valve ; the 
former being opened upon the closing of the latter, and shut in the 
usual manner by a tappet upon the plug-rod. 

The injection-valve is also made upon the double-beat principle, to 
render the strain upon the exhaustion-valve spindle as little as possible, 
by relieving it of all unnecessary pressure — the underside of it being 
open to the condenser. 

In the event of the bursting of any pipe in the main, and the resist- 
ance to the plunger being suddenly removed, a detent is fixed upon 
the plug-rod, to prevent the repetition of a blow upon the spring beams 
by the catch-pins. This detent comes into the action upon the engine 
making more than its usual length of working stroke, by holding the 
steam-handle down, and thus preventing the opening of the steam- 
valve. This adjunct to the hand-gear, though it may never be brought 
into operation from such an occurrence, would evidently be of great 
value in such a case. 

The air-pump is of 34 inches diameter and 5 feet stroke, and the con- 
denser of similar capacity. The air-pump bucket is fitted with a brass 
annular or ring-valve, and the delivery and foot valves are of the usual 
construction, or what are termed flap-valves. A vacuum is obtained, 
varying from 27 to 29 inches, according to the state of the atmosphere. 
Each engine has its separate condenser cistern, formed of east-iron, 
which is supplied by a cold-water pump of 13§ inches diameter, and 
making 5 feet stroke. The feed-pump is of 6§ inches diameter, and 
2 feet 6 inches stroke, fitted with an air vessel. The plunger of the 
main pump is, as before stated, 23 inches diameter, and of the same 
length of stroke as the steam piston, viz., 10 feet. The suction-valves 
and deliver v -valves of the pump are of the double-beat kind, and 
fitted in pairs, for the purpose of giving additional security to the 
action of the pump, in the event of one of them sticking or becoming 
otherwise deranged. They are of cast-iron, and their beating faces are 
composed of a mixture of tin and lead, which is run into a dovetail 
recess turned in the cast-iron seat, and thereby becomes perfectly fixed. 
The water-way through these valves is of the same area as the plunger, 
and the lift of them is about 2 inches ; the blow, when shutting, being 
scarcely perceptible. These valves were taken out after six months' 
work, and the beating faces of them were as perfect as when they were 
first put in. 

The air-vessel is 7 feet internal diameter and 18 feet high, or 15 
feet high above the delivery branch into the main ; and it is replenished 
with air by a separate pump of 6 inches diameter and 3 feet 6 inches 
stroke. An air-cock is fixed upon the suction-pipe of this pump, by 
which the necessary quantity of air to be supplied is regulated. This 
cock only requires to be partially open, and, when closed entirely, the 
pump lifts water only. The air-vessel is of great importance, as by 
its equalising action, the motion of water in the mains is rendered con- 
tinuous, and a less weight, in consequence, is required to give the 
necessary velocity to the descent of the plunger in the out-door stroke. 
At the top of the pump-plunger is fixed the pole-case, containing the 
necessary weights to overcome the load or resistance, and, as before 
stated, is equal, with the plunger and rod, to about 26J tons. 

Upon the first delivery-pipe joining the air-vessel is fixed a safety 
discharge-valve, 6 inches diameter, loaded by a lever and weight, a 
little above the pressure upon the main, to prevent any undue force 
being thrown upon the pump, from the accidental shutting of the 
sluice cocks between the engines and the town. 

The main lever or working beam is 30 feet long, cast in two plates, 

each of 3 inches in thickness, and the depth of it iu the middle is 6 

feet, and, at the ends, 2\ feet. Each of the plummer blocks has 

, saddles of east-iron between them, and wooden spring beams 30 inches 

deep and 20 inches wide. 

It may interesting to state, that the quantity of water lifted by every 



stroke of each engine is equal to 180 gallons, or 1,800 gallons per 
minute, and 108,000 gallons per hour; weighing upwards of 483 tons 
lifted in each hour. 



Mr. Garland explained the drawings of the engine and pump, and 
stated that the first engine was started in July, 1852, and the second 
in April, 1853. 

In answer to an inquiry, whether it had been found requisite to 
have double valves to the pumps, from any accidents having happened 
as there would be the disadvantage of an additional load on the piston 
to lift the extra valves, which would probably amount to 1 lb. per 
square inch, — Mr. Garland said no difficulty had been experienced with 
the valves : the double valves were only adopted as a measure of pre- 
caution, for obtaining additional security to the action of the pump 
working under such a heavy pressure. And in reply to other questions 
put to him, he remarked that the pressure of steam was 12 lbs. per 
square inch, and it was cut off at one-third of the stroke — expanding 
through two-thirds. The load on the engine was constant, except the 
variation in friction of the water in the mains, according to the level 
at which the greatest discharge of water happened to be taking place ; 
the water being always forced against the head of the upper reservoir 
at the highest part of the town, which was 252 feet above the engine. 
The only difference made would be in the speed of the engine ; the 
usual speed was 10 strokes per minute, equal to 200 feet per minute 
average speed of the steam-piston and the pump-plunger. The actual 
pressure of water on the pump — 124 lbs. per square inch, as named in 
the paper — was measured by a Bourdon's gauge, fixed in the engine- 
house ; and there was found to be very little fluctuation in the pressure 
— the variation rarely amounting to 5 lbs. per inch. The actual duty 
obtained by the engines, from the coal consumed, had not been ascer- 
tained, because the only fuel used was Staffordshire coal-slack ; and as 
its evaporative value, compared with the best Welsh coal (which was 
invariably used in testing the duty of a pumping engine) was not 
known, there had been no ooportunity of obtaining a definite result as 
to duty. 

Mr. Cowper remarked, that the steam -pressure was small as com- 
pared with the Cornish pumping engines, and he considered that a 
higher pressure would be more economical. He thought the pump 
appeared large for keeping the air-vessel supplied with air, and in- 
quired whether it had been found necessary ? 

Mr. Garland said the pipes from this pump were found to get hot if 
sufficient water was not pumped with the air, from the quantity of heat 
liberated from the air under so great a compression, which was other- 
wise carried off by the water mixed with the air; and there was no 
objection in having the pump large, as the extra power for working it 
was spent usefully in pumping water. In answer to an inquiry of the 
chairman, about the construction and working of the pump-valves and 
valve-seats, Mr. Garland said the valves were cast-iron, with faces and 
seats of a composition of tin and lead run into a dove-tailed groove, 
which was found to be just the right degree of softness, and appeared 
to stand better than any other material. 

Mr. Cowper thought that composition was certainly the best for the 
purpose. Wood faces had been originally used by Harvey and West 
in their double-beat valves, but the valves were much improved by 
using the tin and lead faces, which adjusted themselves accurately in 
work, and were very durable. He thought the form of valve shown in 
the drawings was originally due to Mr. Slade. It was, in his opinion, 
preferable to make a pumping-engine double-acting, on the bucket and 
plunger plan, with the plunger half the area of the bucket, so as to 
pump half the water in the up-stroke, and half in the down-stroke ; 
thus enabling an engine and pump of half the size to do the same 
work ; also to add a crank and fly-wheel, and work at a higher speed, 



32 



Griffiths' Patent Hatchet Brace. 



[February, 



which further reduced the size and cost of engine and pump. In one 
instance that he knew, there were four 150 horse-power engines on 
this plan working, very satisfactorily, from 12J to 21 strokes per 
minute, with 7 feet length of stroke. But he considered the hori- 
zontal engine, with direct-acting pump and crank, was the most advan- 
tageous and economical, when the water to be pumped was near the 
engine-house floor. 

The chairman observed that it was an important subject, and the 
paper read was of much interest, from its practical nature. 

INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. 

January 24, 1854. 
James Simpson, Esq., President, in the Chair. 

The paper read was a " Description of an improved Inclined Plane, 
for conveying Boats to and from different Levels of a Canal," by Mr. 
J. Leslie, M. Inst. C. E. 

After alluding to the successful inclined plane, established by the 
author, at B lack-hill, near Glasgow, on the Monkland Canal, and 
describing the difficulties to be overcome, and the points essential for 
the good working of such lifts, the paper proceeded to propound, as 
the simplest modification, in cases where there was a scarcity of water, 
and where vessels would bear being taken out of the water, to have two 
uniform inclined planes, descending each way, from a culminating 
point, or summit, placed at a suitable elevation above the water in the 
upper reach. Each of the inclines was out down for a distance from 
the summit, equal to the length of a carriage, fit to carry the largest 
boat, and a railway laid on a lower level in a segment of a circle verti- 
cally ; the segment being traeed from a centre so placed, that lines 
parallel to, and equidistant from, the inclined planes, should each be a 
tangent to the circle, at a point half-way between their summit, or 
apex, if produced, and the terminations of the segmental rails. 

On this curved railway there was a lower, or subsidiary carriage, 
running on a number of rollers, so as to have no friction on the axles, 
and having straight rails and ratchets on its upper surface. 

When the lower carriage was on either end of the curved railway, its 
upper surface formed a direct continuation of one of the inclined 
planes, and being exactly one-half of the length of the curved railway, 
the uppermost point of the rails fixed on the carriage, coincided 
exactly with the apex of the two inclines. 

The principal carriage with a boat on it was then run forward, so as 
to stand in the lower carriage, by a rope attached to a drum on the 
shaft of the fixed engine, and was held in its place by palls dropping 
into the ratchets, when the lower carriage, with the travelling carriage 
and the boat on it, was moved forward by a wheel working in a rack 
under the lower carriage, which was thus made to traverse the apex or 
summit, and descended until the surface of the rails in the lower car- 
riage, and on the incline, became identical, and the upper carriage was 
lowered into the water by the rope motion and the boat was allowed to 
float from it, into the next reach of the canal. 

This plan was first proposed for removing vessels from a small dock 
by the side of the Vistula, at Warsaw, so as to be out of the reach of 
floods and of ice; and whenever there was a scarcity of water for lock- 
age, or for working caisson inclined planes, it was admitted to be a 
desirable modification. 

In the discussion, after paying a just tribute to the ingenuity and 
skill of the author, it was admitted, that inclines of this nature were 
only applicable for certain exceptional situations ; that in general it 
would be cheaper to pump up the water for lockage, using over again 
as it might be required, and that in general the competition between 
railways and canals had ended in the partial abandoning of the latter, 
in spite of all attempts to use steam propulsion and traction. 



GRIFFITHS' PATENT RATCHET BRACE. 

Several attempts have been made to improve the old-fashioned 
ratchet brace, but these attempts have usually resulted in making it 
more complicated without materially removing its defects. It is a tool 
of such universal and daily use, that its durability and convenience are 
more important than its unpretending appearance might lead an ordi- 
nary observer to imagine. Its more prominent defects are, that the 
drill is forced round by a single tooth only of the ratchet, and conse- 
quently all the strain is thrown on one tooth, which is often broken; 
secondly, that the teeth and the pall are exposed to dirt and wet, and 
other accidents. Mr. Griffiths (of screw propeller celebrity) has in- 
vented an arrangement which obviates these defects in a manner so 
simple and convenient as to leave nothing else to be desired. In the 
accompanying engravings, fig. 1, is an external view of the brace, with 




Fig. 1 



Fig. 3. 




Fig. 2. 



the handle broken off to bring it within our column. Fig. 2 is a plan, 
half in section, and fig. 3 is an elevation, half in section, with the han- 
dle entirely removed. Its construction will be readily understood from 
the engravings. The handle is formed like a close-ended spanner, 
which fits on over a nut a, bearing on the underside of it a set of ratchet 
teeth; a similar set of ratchet teeth are formed on the tool holder b. 
A small spiral spring at c serves to keep the teeth in contact. The stem 
d, screwed into the tool holder b, has the feeding screw e screwed into 
it. The whole of the mechanism is thus protected by the handle. The 
action is the same as the ordinary ratchet. When the handle is turned 
in one direction, the nut rises out of gear, and the tool holder stands 
still; and when the handle is brought back, all the teeth of the ratchet 
are engaged, and the drill is turned round. 

In doing repairs much precious time is often lost in adjusting ineffi- 
cient drilling tackle, for which no excuse can any longer be offered, 
since we are assured that these drill braces can be sold at a price which 
will completely extinguish the clumsy old-fashioned instrument. 



1854.] 



On the Manufacture of Cast Steel. 



33 



ON THE MANUFACTURE OF CAST STEEL. 
By Ds. Kaesten* 
Chemistry had already been established upon a scientific basis by the 
adoption of the doctrine of definite proportions at the time when attention 
was again directed to the compounds of iron with carbon. With regard to 
these substances, so important in the arts, the law of definite combining pro- 
portions did not appear to hold good; but the per centage of carbon was 
greater in proportion as the carboniferous iron approximated more closely to 
steel, and from this to cast iron. However, there still remained a possibility 
of reconciling the fact with the law, by assuming the existence of a definite 
carburet of iron capable of confining with iron in definite or indefinite pro- 
portions, and determining its characters. Still, the existence of such a car- 
buret of iron has never yet been proved. In the course of a former investi- 
gation of this subject, I was of opinion that I had really obtained such a sub- 
stance. But the evidence of subsequent experience is entirely the other way; 
and even if such a compound were discovered, the difficulty would not be 
removed, for it would still be necessary to admit that it combined in indefi- 
nite proportions with iron. It would appear as if the combination of iron 
with carbon in indefinite proportions does not exceed a certain limit, and that 
the maximum per centage of carbon is about 5 '93. 

The classification of the various kinds of carburetted iron, under the gene- 
ral names of cast iron, steel, and bar iron, is entirely arbitrary, and based upon 
the physical characters. When entirely free from carbon, iron is so soft that 
it offers but little resistance to friction, and would be inapplicable to most of 
the purposes for which iron with more or less of carbon is employed. By 
combination with carbon within certain limits, it acquires greater hardness; 
the elasticity and ductility are increased. The increased hardness is especially 
remarkable when the strongly-heated metal is suddenly cooled. This cha- 
racter of some carburetted iron has been made the distinction between bar 
iron and steel, inasmuch as all bar iron, which becomes harder when sud- 
denly cooled, is, by universal consent, termed steel. The analyses of a 
great number of varieties of iron have led to the result that the per centage of 
carbon may rise to - 2, or even 0"25, before the metal has become consider- 
ably harder when suddenly cooled. The purer the iron is— the greater its 
freedom from adventitious substances, especially sulphur, silicium and phos- 
phorus — the larger may be the per centage of carbon requisite to determine 
its hardening when cooled suddenly. The best kinds of Swedish bar iron, 
and that made in Germany from spathic iron and brown iron ores, do not 
become very hard even when containing as much as - 35 per cent, of carbon, 
although the hardness is such as to justify the appellation of steel-like iron. 
The transition from this kind of iron to true steel is so imperceptible, that it 
is necessary to adopt some arbitrary means of deciding whether the metal is 
bar iron or steel. If the carburetted iron acquires, on sudden cooling, such 
a degree of hardness as to give sparks when struck upon flint, it may be re- 
garded as steel; and this degree of hardness requires a per centage of carbon 
amounting, for the less pure kinds of iron, to - 5; and, for the nearly pure 
iron, to 3*65. However, steel containing such a small per centage of car- 
bon is always but soft steel, which, to become capable of acquiring greater 
hardness, must be more highly carburetted. The hardness acquired upon 
sudden cooling increases as the per centage of carbon increases, but not in 
the same proportion. For iron almost perfectly free from adventitious 
substances, a per centage of 1*4 or 1*5 carbon corresponds with the highest 
capability of acquiring hardness and tenacity. With a still higher per cent- 
age of carbon, the steel acquires greater hardness; but its tenacity is 
lessened, and the malleability decreases so rapidly with the increase of 
carbon, that, with a per centage of 1"75, it can scarcely be welded at all. 
When the per centage of carbon amounts to 1*8, it is only with great diffi- 
culty that it can be forged, although, with a very great degree of hardness, 
it may still possess considerable tenacity. Steel which contains 1-9 per cent, 
and more of carbon, can scarcely be forged at all, and with a per centage of 
2'0 the limit between steel and pig iron appears to be reached; for such 
metal in the soft state — that is, before being hardened — cannot be beaten out 
while hot without splitting and breaking under the hammer. 

Steel, in virtue of the remarkable capability which it possesses, after cool- 



* From the London Chemical Gazette, No. 256. 



ing slowly from a high temperature, of being worked like soft iron, and 
then acquiring a considerable increase of hardness, without loss of tenacity 
on subsequent sudden cooling, has become a very valuable substance for 
various branches of industry. However, it has not yet been possible to refer 
the altered condition of hardness presented by the slowly and suddenly- 
cooled metal to any altered state of combination of the carbon and iron in 
steel. Such wide differences of hardness and softness as those presented by 
steel which has been submitted to these two modes of treatment, can only be 
regarded as resulting from a total alteration of its molecular structure. The 
conjecture that the state of combination of the iron and carbon in hardened 
and soft steel respectively must be very different, is rendered in a high 
degree probable from the circumstance that such a difference in the state of 
combination of the iron and carbon in the carburets with a larger per centage 
of carbon — the different kinds of pig iron — may be proved to exist with per- 
fect certainty. A distinction has always been made between white and gray 
pig iron. These substances differ so obviously in their characters— colour, 
hardness, tenacity and brittleness — that the fact could scarcely have been 
overlooked. In addition to this, the difference in their conditions of fusion 
must not be overlooked, the gray kind requiring a much higher temperature 
than the white iron, and 'passing almost suddenly from a solid to a liquid 
state, while the white iron not only fuses at a lower temperature, but before 
liquefaction becomes soft, and then pasty. Before a trustworthy method of 
separating carbon from iron had been discovered, it was supposed that this 
difference in the behaviour of white and gray kinds of iron was attributable 
to the per centage of carbon; for, on dissolving gray iron in acids a much 
larger quantity of carbon is left than when white iron is treated in the same 
manner. Now, however, it is known that this inference was erroneous, and 
that the characters of pig iron are dependent, not upon the greater or less 
per centage of carbon, but upon the state of combination of the carbon and 
iron. The gray iron, when suddenly cooled after having been melted, is 
converted into white iron; and white iron, when exposed to a high tempe- 
rature after melting, and gradually cooled, is converted into gray iron, 
without the per centage either of iron or carbon being in any degree altered. 
Every kind of gray iron corresponds to a white iron with precisely the same 
per centage of carbon; and the wholly different behaviour and characters of 
these two kinds of iron are no longer regarded as owing to the greater or 
less per centage of carbon, since it is known that the gray soft iron, malleable 
at the ordinary temperature, is a mixture of steel- like iron with carbon, 
while the white, hard and brittle iron is a true chemical compound of iron 
with the entire quantity of carbon present. 

The analogy between the gray and white pig iron on the one hand, and 
soft and hardened steel on the other, is unmistakeable; but no trace of un- 
combined carbon has ever been found in slowly-cooled soft steel. Even cast 
steel, which contains from l - 9 to 2 - per cent, of carbon, and which, on ac- 
count of this large per centage, can no longer be forged, has never been 
found to contain uncombined carbon after the slowest possible cooling. It 
is only when the per centage of carbon amounts to 2 - 25 or 2 - 3, that carbon 
separates in the slowly-cooled metal, and communicates to it the characters 
of true pig iron. If, therefore, a distinction is to be drawn between steel 
and pig iron, founded upon a character determined by the combining pro- 
portions, it would correspond with a per centage of carbon amounting to 
2 - 25 or 2'3, because a part of the carbon is then separated on gradually 
cooling the mass. The more the per centage of carbon increases from this 
minimum to the maximum of 5"93, the lighter is the colour of the metal and 
the greater the hardness of the white variety. In the gray iron, on the con- 
trary, the quantity of carbon which separates, and which determines the 
darker colour and greater softness of the metal, as well as the greater or less 
per centage of carbon remaining in a state of chemical combination with the 
iron, is dependent upon the more or less solidification of the melted mass. 
It is, therefore, not sufficient to know the per centage of carbon in pig iron, 
as ascertained by analysis, in order to form an opinion as to the behaviour 
of the iron in question; but it is at the same time necessary to determine how 
much of that carbon is chemically combined with the iron, and how much is 
present only as a mere mechanical admixture. With regard to the metal- 
lurgical processes, the object of which is to separate the carbon from pig 
iron for the production of steel or bar iron, the state of combination in which 
the carbon exists is of far greater importance than the total per centage of 



34 



On the Manufacture of Cast Steel. 



[February, 



this element. White iron requires for this purpose methods of processes 
different from those applicable to gray iron; and cases may occur in which 
the smelter would be obliged to convert gray into white iron, even although 
this has to be effected by an addition of carbon, notwithstanding that its 
separation is the real object of his operations. 

-' Although in the case of pig iron it is necessary to bring it into a liquid 
state, in order to convert the gray and soft variety into that which is white 
and hard, or, on the contrary, the former into the latter by rapid or slow 
cooling of the metal, in the case of iron with a smaller per centage of carbon 
or steel, mere rapid or slow cooling, without any previous alteration of the 
6tate of aggregation, is sufficient to convert the darker-coloured soft steel 
into the whiter hard steel, and the reverse. Judging from analogy, there- 
fore, it is highly probable that changes in the state of combination of carbon 
and iron take place in the hardening and softening of steel, corresponding 
to the different states of combination of this element in gray and white iron, 
although these differences in the state of combination have not yet been 
proved by chemical evidence to exist in the case of steel as they have in raw 
iron. However, the hard and soft steels have never been regarded as special 
varieties, and there is no greater reason for regarding white and gray pig 
iron as special varieties, because the differences in colour, hardness and 
tenacity are owing solely to the respective states of combination determined 
by conditions of temperature, and not to any alterations in the combining 
proportions. If, however, gray and white iron are regarded as special 
varieties, in the same manner as graphite and diamond, it must not be for- 
gotten that a perfectly analogous relation exists between hard and soft steels, 
which are not regarded as special varieties. 

In the processes employed for decarbonising pig iron, and converting it 
into steel, it has not hitherto been possible to obtain a product of perfectly 
homogeneous nature. It is always necessary to sort the steel, in order to 
separate the harder parts containing more carbon from the softer, and these 
again from the steel-like iron. This absence of homogeneity in the product, 
resulting from the imperfection of the processes, led to an attempt to give the 
steel great uniformity of texture by melting. The so-called cast steel is really 
a much more homogeneous and trustworthy product than the raw steel, or that 
obtained by cementation, although its characters likewise depend upon the 
proper and careful selection of the material from which]jit is made. In con- 
sequence of the fact, that steel may be prepared by fusion, which, together 
with a large per centage of carbon and consequent hardness, possesses homo- 
geneity, whatever may be the degree of hardness desired, cast steel has 
acquired such a well-merited reputation, that it is now always employed for 
articles in which great hardness is indispensable. However perfect the pro- 
cess for making cast steel may appear to be, it is still open to the disad- 
vantage that the selection of the suitable material must be entrusted to the 
judgment of the workman, and, consequently, that however homogeneous 
the product, the per centage of carbon, the hardness and solidity of the steel 
cannot be determined with precision beforehand. Such imperfections in the 
practice of metallurgical operations are in every case unavoidable, when de- 
terminations of weight must be replaced by the practised eye of the workman. 
The per centage of carbon in the material employed in making cast steel — 
cementation steel — is different in every part of the section of the bars, so that 
the average per centage of carbon in the charge of a crucible and the pro- 
duct of the casting cannot be determined with precision. Although the 
hardness of the English and good German cast steel corresponds tolerably 
well with that which is required, this result is solely attributable to the 
perfect acquaintance of the workmen with their materials, and their careful 
Selection of it for this particular purpose. There would be no uncertainty 
as to the result, if we possessed a material applicable to the preparation of 
cast steel, in which the per centage of carbon could be calculated. The 
white pig iron made from pure spathic and brown iron ores, free from dis- 
seminated copper pyrites, and the per centage of carbon in which may, with- 
out any considerable error, he assumed as 5'6,* is a material of this 
description. The per centage of carbon in the best kinds of Swedish bar 
iron, and the iron which is made in Germany from pure spathic and brown 
iron ores, may very safely be assumed as - 25 on the average. The above 
pig iron and this bar iron are the purest kinds known, containing only traces 

* Karslen and v. Dechen's Archivfur Mineralogie, voL xxl., p. 501, 



of silrcium, from which likewise the cementation steel used for making cast 
steel is never free. Both these kinds of iron are therefore of such a nature 
as to enable the operator to determine beforehand with precision the per 
centage of carbon in a crucible-charge, and to produce cast steel of any 
desired degree of hardness by means of a simple calculation of the requisite 
proportion of the two kinds of raw material. If the per centage of carbon in 
the melted product obtained in this way, and the characters dependent upon 
that per centage, should be found to agree perfectly with calculation — a 
question to be determined only by experiments on a large scale — it might be 
expected that the production of cast steel from these materials would consti- 
tute a new phase of this branch of industry in Germany ; for, besides the 
trustworthiness of the operation, by which cast steel could be made of any 
desired degree of hardness and tenacity, it possesses economical advantages 
in the cheapness of the raw material. These advantages are for German 
industry of especial importance, from the circumstance that, in many pro- 
vinces of that country, the pure white iron with lamellar facets is produced 
in large quantity, and not at all in other countries. 

But the production of cast steel by melting together white iron and pure 
bar iron, appeared to be liable to an objection far greater than that founded 
upon the impurity of the raw material ; and this arose from the doubt as to 
whether the product of the fusion would be homogeneous. In my Handbuch 
der Eisenliultenkwn.de, (3rd edition, vol. iv.,p. 512,) I have already expressed 
an opinion that this would not be the case, and have given the reasons which 
make it advisable to employ cementation steel for making cast steel, in pre- 
ference to a mixture of pig iron and bar iron in suitable proportions. How- 
ever, the question of practicability could only be decided by direct 
experiment ; and it was, for the above-mentioned reasons, of sufficient 
importance to submit it to this test. Such experiments were made in the 
years 1846 and 1847, at the cast steel and file factory of M. Huth, at 
Geitebriick, near Hagen, and under the direction of the late Superintendent 
Stengel, M. Huth having placed his factory at our disposal for the purpose. 

The melting crucibles employed were of such capacity, that from 30 to 
35 lbs. could be melted at a time. The melted metal was as usual ran off 
into cast iron moulds. The following is a brief statement of the results ob- 
tained in a great number of meltings, and the subsequent treatment of the 
cast steel : — 

1. In the selection of the pig iron, it is of great importance to employ such 
as presents perfect lamellar structure, and not such as is partly fibrous or 
compact. The use of lamellar iron is necessary, not only in order that the 
per centage of carbon in the charge may be calculated with accuracy, which 
cannot be done with fibrous or compact iron, in which the per jcentage of 
carbon varies greatly, but likewise and especially because the lamellar iron 
exercises the greatest solvent action upon the bar iron ; so that even a com- 
paratively much larger quantity of these kinds is but an imperfect substitute 
for the lamellar iron. Consequently, good cast steel cannot be produced in 
this way without lamellar pig iron. 

2. The extremely high temperature which bar iron requires for fusion, 
appeared to render it necessary that it should be added to the charge in small 
fragments. On this account the first fusions were made with bar iron, which 
had been rolled into moderately thick sheets, and then cut into pieces. How- 
ever, it was subsequently ascertained that the solution of the bar iron in the 
liquid pig iron takes place without any difficulty, and that the product is 
equally good when thick pieces are used, so that, finally, masses of a cubic 
inch in dimensions were employed. By this means, the expense of cutting 
the bar iron is obviated ; at the same time, the iron is less oxidised ; and 
less room is taken up in the crucible, than when it is in small fragments. 

3. In order to produce a homogeneous cast steel, the highest possible 
temperature is necessary for the fusion; consequently, very infusible cru- 
cibles, which are not liable to crack, are a much greater desideratum in the 
production of cast steel from pig and bar iron, than even in the melting 
of steel itself. Of course, the greater the number of meltings which can be 
made in one crucible, the greater is the economical advantage gained. 

4. The melted metal must be run off into the cast iron moulds as rapidly 
as possible, in order that the whole mass may cool uniformly. At the same 
time, care must be taken that none of the slag is allowed to pass from the 
crucible into the moulds, for there is not time for the slag to separate from the 
metal; it solidifies in the midst of the steel, and renders the casting defective 



1854] 



Remarks on the Structural Conditions of Iron. 



35' 



and causes the bar to rend in rolling. This may be most advantageously 
obviated by taking the cover from the crucible while it is still in the furnace, 
and skimming off the slag with a ladle-shaped iron. The small quantity 
which then remains may easily be kept back in the ordinary way during the 
casting. 

5. The cast steel, when allowed to cool slowly in the crucible, loses all 
coherence, and breaks down under the hammer or rollers. The cause of 
this appears to lie in the formation of carburets of iron, which do not remain 
combined with the rest of the steel containing less carbon. 

6. The cast bars must, after they have cooled, be freed from all adhering 
granules of metal by means of a chisel. If this is neglected, the edges of the 
bars become broken in rolling. 

7. In heating the cleaned bars for the purpose of further working, a 
bright red heat must be employed. This cannot be effected in a satisfactory 
manner before a blast, because the temperature is not sufficiently uniform, 
and a uniform heat is indispensably necessary for the favourable result of the 
rolling or hammering. This can only be effected in a well-constructed re- 
verberatory furnace, and most advantageously in one fed with gas, a slight 
excess of which is present. 

8. It is preferable to roll the heated bars rather than to hammer them; but 
if a hammer is used, it must be of considerable weight. 

9. The cast bars presented a perfectly homogeneous appearance, even 
after rolling. The bars were first rolled out square to a length of 4 feet, and 
then, after reheating, brought into the desired form. They admitted of being 
rolled into the thinnest sheets without cracking at the edges. 

10. Even in making soft steel, for which purpose the crucible was charged 
with 25 lbs. of bar iron and 2 lbs. of pig iron, a perfect solution of the bar 
iron was effected by means of a strong heat. The product was a homoge- 
neous steel, although, according to calculation, it could not contain more than 
- 6 per cent, of carbon. The best, hardest, and most tenacious steel was 
obtained by fusing mixtures in which the calculated per centage of carbon 
was 1*5 or 1-6. For this purpose the crucible was charged with 24 or 25 lbs. 
of bar iron and 8 lbs. of pig iron. 

11. The cast steel, even that which is soft, and in which the per centage 
of carbon is only 0"6, differs essentially from the raw or melted steel, in the 
circumstance that it cannot be welded without great difficulty. With a 
higher per centage of carbon, it can only be welded under a coating of borax. 
With a per centage of 1-25, it can no longer be welded at all. Although, 
on the one hand, this behaviour of the cast steel obtained in this way indi- 
cates its homogeneity, still it is a defect — one, indeed, which is likewise pos- 
sessed by the English cast steel in a somewhat less degree. 

12. The cast steel bears only low tempering heat, and acquires a very high 
degree of hardness, although at the cost of its tenacity. The proper mode 
of tempering it still remains to be ascertained. 

13. The steel may be used for making the finest kind of cutlery for files and 
chisels. Eor all purposes in which it is submitted to sudden and violent 
blows, it has proved destitute of the requisite tenacity. While very hard, 
it possesses considerable brittleness. 

14. The last-mentioned character of the steel affords ground for doubting 
its certainly apparent homogeneity, and this conjecture is confirmed by the 
fact, that its tenacity and capability of being welded are considerably in- 
creased by remelting. If, however, it should prove to be impossible to pro- 
duce a good cast steel in one melting, the economical advantages of this 
process would probably be altogether lost. 

The further prosecution of these experiments has unfortunately been in- 
terrupted by the long illness and death of Superintendent Stengel, who had 
for a number of years afforded me valuable aid in carrying out a variety of 
experiments, which appeared to me to be necessary for the purpose of throw- 
ing some further light upon the metallurgy of iron.— Karsten and v. Dechen's 
Archiv. vol. xxv., p. 218. 

REMARKS ON THE STRUCTURAL CONDITIONS OE IRON. 

By T. R. V. Fdchs. 
The difference in physical characters presented by the several kinds of 
iron is generally attributed to the presence of a variety of substances, among 
which carbon is considered the most important. It is contained in all kinds 



of iron, almost always accompanied by silicon, which perhaps exercises the 
same influence. Raw iron contains the largest quantity of carbon, bar iron 
the least, and steel is in some sort intermediate between the two; but the 
quantity of carbon does not in any case bear a constant proportion to the 
iron, nor are these three kinds of iron separated from each other by any de- 
finite limits. These two facts are sufficient to show that the carbon cannot 
be in a state of very" intimate 'combination with the iron, and there are no 
sufficient grounds for assuming that the different conditions of this metal are 
determined solely by the quantities of carbon contained in it. The nume- 
rous, and in many respects valuable, analyses of iron have served only to 
prove the truth of the above remark. Upon the gratuitous assumption that 
the varying per centage of ^carbon is the cause of the differences in the cha- 
racter of iron, attention has been too exclusively devoted to this point, while 
another, and perhaps more essential one, the crystalline structure, has been 
overlooked. 

Fuchs expresses his conviction that iron is a dimorphous substance; that 
there are, in fact, two species (varieties) of iron — the tesseral and the rhom- 
bohedral. He considers it as provedlhat malleable iron belongs to the tes- 
seral system ; and if any doubt still exist, it may be inferred from analogy 
that such is the case, inasmuch ,as all other malleable metals possess crystal- 
line forms belonging to this system. 

The crystalline form of raw iron has not been ascertained with so much 
certainty; butEuchs considers it highly probable that it belengs to the rhom- 
bohedral system, because it comes within the class of perfectly brittle metals, 
the crystalline forms of which, as far as we are acquainted with them, are 
rhombohedral. 

But the difference between malleable and cast-iron does not consist 
merely in the crystalline structure, which may be open to doubt, but like- 
wise in their physical characters, and to some extent in their chemical beha- 
viour; for instance, the cohesion, hardness, resistance to fracture, fusibility, 
oxidizability, solubility in acids, &c. He is of opinion, that these circum- 
stances alone would justify the inference that there is a specific difference 
between malleable and cast-iron, which he compares with those presented by 
the modifications of sulphur, phosphorus, arsenious acid, by glass and Reau- 
mur's porcelain. 

Einally, with regard to steel, Fuchs is of opinion that it is an alloy of 
tesseral and rhombohedral iron. The per centage of carbon which it con- 
tains varies from 0"625 (Gay-Lussac) to 1*9 (Karsten). It cannot, therefore, 
be regarded as a definite and constant compound. It differs from other 
alloys in the circumstance that its characters may suffer considerable altera- 
tion without an accompanying addition or loss of substance, as in the hard- 
ening and softening of steel — changes which Fuchs supposes to be the result 
of an internal and alternating metamorphosis, by which the relative propor- 
tion of the two species of iron is altered. Thus, according to his views, in 
hardened steel the rhombohedral preponderates over the tesseral iron, and 
the reverse in soft steel. Very hard steel would, therefore, from the very 
small proportion of tesseral iron, approximate closely to cast iron; and this 
conjecture is favoured by the low specific gravity of the hardened steel. By 
the process of tempering, the proportion of tesseral iron in steel would in- 
crease with the temperature. The two kinds of iron in steel may be regarded 
as in a state of constant mutual tension, which may perhaps be the reason 
why steel retains permanently communicated magnetism, while malleable 
iron does not. 

An experiment of Schafhautl's* would appear to favour the above views. 
He submitted a piece of a razor-blade to the action of a tolerably strong 
hydrochloric acid for several days, at the end of which time is was found to 
have been very unequally attacked. When washed, dried, and broken in a 
mortar, it furnished fragments, some of which could be powdered, while 
others were malleable. 

With regard to the important and much-discussed'question of the altera- 
tion of malleable iron when exposed to continuous vibration, concussion or 
torsion, in consequence of which it requires a granular fracture, Fuchs 
admits that such an alteration takes place even in the best worked metal, 
but does not altogether agree with the explanation usually offered for it, 
viz., the gradual assumption of a crystalline texture; and is of opinion that 

* Prechtl's Technologischer Encyclopedic, Abhandlung uber den Stahl. vol. xv., p. 377. 



36 



Will Ocean Screw Steam-Ships Pay ? 



[Eebruaryy 



it consists in the passage of the iron from a fibrous crystalline state to a gran- 
ular crystalline state — a change in the aggregation, not an essential meta- 
morphosis. When iron passes from the fibrous into the granular texture, 
the cohesion of the molecules is lessened; and by their aggregation into 
rpunded groups, a heap of distinct particles is produced, which may be com- 
pared with what mineralogists call granular minerals. The continuity of 
the mass is thus to some extent destroyed, inasmuch as these granular par- 
ticles only adhere together more or less, and consequently the greater the 
size and number of these partisles, the greater is the diminution in tenacity. 
According to the statement of Kohn, the original condition of iron thus 
altered cannot be restored by heating to redness and forging, but only hy ex- 
posure to a welding heat; and Euchs considers this a sufficient proof that 
this alteration of iron consists in a breaking up of the continuity of the mass. 
Th: restoration of this continuity requires that the granular iron should, by 
exposure to a welding heat, be rendered amorphous, when the cohesive force 
again becomes active, a condition which in the case of most other bodies 
obtains only when they are liquid. — Journal of the Franklin Institute. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 



FRESH WATER APPARATUS FOR SCREW STEAM-SHIPS. 

To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir, — Now that screw ships are in such general use for long passages, 
and, in tropical climates, conveying a large number of passengers, the 
consumption of fresh water must be very great. It is a well-known fact 
that our paddle-wheel steamers, for similar passages, are supplied with a 
simple condensing apparatus, placed in one of the paddle boxes, and the 
backwater from wheel being constantly thrown upon the condenser. 
In screw ships this arrangement is not applicable, the Portuguese screw 
ship Donna Maria II. requiring a condensing apparatus capable of dis- 
tilling 800 gallons per day. I have adopted the following method, 
which, I have the presumption to think, is simple, inexpensive, and ori- 
ginal, viz. — In any convenient place I put a wrought-iron tank, 3 feet 
3 inches long, 5 feet high, and 1 foot 2 inches wide. Within this tank, 
thirty 21-inch tubes, 4 feet long, are inserted in a similar manner to a 
tubular boiler ; steam is admitted from the boiler outside of the tubes. 
To effect the 'condensation, one of the bilge or hand-pumps is ar- 
ranged to pump water from the sea (when required). This water is 
forced up through the tubes, and discharged from the top in any con- 
venient manner, or into the boilers for feed, or into the sea ; the dis- 
tilled water is drawn off by a cock and pipe to any convenient part of 
the ship. The plan will be readily understood by the accompanying 
figures in which b is the bilge entry, and a the discharge. 

While on the subject of distilling sea water, the following may not 
prove uninteresting to your numerous readers. 

In the year 1850, when on board the Brazilian steamer Carolina, 
bound from Rio de Janeiro to the River Plate, off Cape St. Maria, we 
became disabled by the breaking of the piston. After contending with 
head winds ten days, we found our fresh water reduced to six gallons, 
by the leakage of our tank ; and, owing to the heavy sea, it was impos- 
sible to obtain a supply from passing vessels. After some consideration, 
the following method was adopted by me. I took a boat from the 
davits and lashed it securely on deck ; I then took down 6-feet length 
of waste steam-pipe, took off the ball on top, and fixed blank flanges at 
each end ; this pipe was 7 inches diameter ; it was secured in the bot- 
tom of boat. A small wrought-iron pipe, i-inch bore, used to convey 
steam from the boiler to steam gauge, was carried into one end of large 
pipe in bottom of boat ; but being too short, the right length was made 
up by one of the small copper pipes used to oil the outer end of paddle 
shaft. The other small pipe was carried through the stern of boat, and 
inserted at the other end of large pipe, to draw off the distilled water. 
Steam was then got up in the boiler, and a deck-pump kept the boat 
constantly full of cold water. I thus made 245 gallons of good fresh 



water from the sea in 18 hours. We were thus enabled to run for the 
port of Rio Grande do Sul, where we arrived after a passage of four 
days. 

Fig. 1: 



1 



X 



1 



c 



f 



FT 



!jE 






rw 



^~ 



L 



Fig. 2. 



<r. 



^ 



oooooooooo 
oooooooooo 
oooooooooo 



Scale, J-inch to 1 foot. 

To judge of our want of water, the condensed water from our main 
steam pipes (which were 32 feet long), running among the tallow of 
cylinder as the piston was out, was greedily collected by the firemen 
and sailors to make their coffee. During the time I was arranging 
this apparatus, both captain, engineers, and crew were incredulous to 
the possibility of making them fresh water from the sea; and when sa- 
tisfied of the truth by taste, their gratitude knew no bounds. 

Yours very truly, 

London, Jan. 25th, 1854. John Gregory. 

Chief Engineer of Donna Maria II. 

WILL OCEAN SCREW STEAM-SHIPS PAT ? 
To the Editor of The Artizan. 
Sib, — When Dr. Lardner ventured to call public attention to the merits 
of steam navigation, and to reduce it to a tangible commercial question, as 
a safe investment for capital, he so provoked the ire of those who are ever 
ready to speculate with other people's money, that, from the year 1836 to 1854, 
they have taken every opportunity, anonymously, to assail the distinguished 
philosopher, by frivolous observations which the Dr., after having defined 
their motives, very wisely concluded, as his letter, published in The Times of 
January 5th, will show, not to trouble himself further to notice, satisfied as 
he is, up to this date, steam communication has not realised the predictions 
of those who, for special purposes, wished the public to believe it impossible 
not to succeed as they represented it. Much in the same way have I had 
the good fortune to provoke anonymous replies to my plain remarks on the 
paying part of ocean screw steamers; but still it does not pay, and the 
makers of screws and screw engines are not one fraction the better for 
attempting to pervert my meaning by anonymous reply. Without troubling 
you as to who are the authors of the anonymous letters to which I have 
taken some little trouble to reply, circumstances have so far favoured me, 



1854.] 



Will Ocean Screw Steam-Ships JPay ? 



that I may venture to say I know them all; and I am by no means surprised 
at their covering themselves, as Dr. Lardner observes, in his letter alluded to, 
" behind a mask." 

An "engineer," of "prodigious" influence in screw propulsion, since my 
last communication, told me plainly, the screw did and would beat the 
paddle wheel; but he refused to enter into any explanation further than to 
Bay that he did not believe the screw was ever lifted out of the water by the 
oscillating longitudinal action of the vessel; and, as to its paying, he con- 
sidered the public must be mad to expect 5 per cent, for money invested in 
Such speculations : it was good for business, and the public must take care of 
themselves. I quite agree with him, that the public must be mad to expect 
5 per cent, for money invested in ocean screw steaming; and I believe the 
majority of those who have been drawn into this loose speculation, would feel 
themselves very fortunate if they could realise 3 per cent, for their money, 
which it would appear, by past experience, next to an impossibility. Among 
those who have felt discomfited by the statements which I have given you 
from time to time, are screw patentees, and they have replied openly; and I 
regret that I have not been able to give them a more favourable account of 
screw propulsion. In your last number, a screw patentee, as he signs 
himself, considers that "I have arrived at a conclusion unadvisedly," so 
far as it respects his "parabolic propeller;" but not so, " probably, if my 
operations are confined to the helical propeller." Like most persons, this 
patentee considers his plan superior to others; and so in most instances 
others think, and give to their propellers names which they conceive best 
suited to claim superiority. With me it is of very little consequence what 



On the subject of the screw revolving in air or out of the water alternately, 
for which there have been so many contrivances suggested in The Artizan to 
control the action of the engine under such straining and dangerous circum- 
stances, and which has been bo strongly alluded to in the Great Britain, by 
an experienced captain in the Eoyal Navy, who has steamed upwards of 
70,000 nautical miles in the eastern seas, as noticed in a publication addressed 
to the First Lord of the Admiralty, I beg permission to give you a prac- 
tical sketch on scale, that your readers, who may not have had the oppor- 
tunity of witnessing ocean screw steaming, may see its retarding and 
dangerous results, better than words can convey its meaning; and which 
the gentleman alluded to, in his publication, asserts to have been the cause of 
breaking the Leviathan's screw in more instances than one. 

To the best of my recollection, the oscillating ocean wave in blowing 
weather rises to an elevation of 40 feet above the level in a length of 600 
feet, with a series of smaller waves on its crest which rise to about 6 or 8 
feet, and the average wave is presumed to reach an elevation of 20 feet, 
making an undulation of 20 feet above and, 20 feet below the level; and to 
this I have made the following sketch of a screw steamer of 300 feet, being 
about the length of the present ^rst-class vessels employed in ocean screw 
steamers. 

It must be seen at once by this sketch, if the sea is moderately rough, the 
longitudinal or pitching action of the vessel must so lift the screw out of 
water as to deprive it of half its propelling power; and every unprejudiced 
observer must be also convinced that the screw must revolve very rapidly 
and waste much steam, and in striking the water, not only subject the screw 



r~\ 







^lOccO 




name you give to a submerged propeller, which, from its limited size for 
general purposes, when fplaced at the extreme end of a long vessel, I beg 
again to observe, I do not believe can be made to compete with the 
paddle wheel, for ocean purposes. That it does, all they have to show is, that 
the Atlantic screw steamers make a quicker passage than the paddle-wheel 
steamers; but, up to this date, there is an average difference of four or 
four and a-half days in favour of the latter. I beg to acquaint this patentee 
that I have a partial interest in the paddle wheel, and an entire interest in a 
screw, which I believe, like him, to be in every respect superior to anything 
in practice; and that I am not "jumping at conclusions" without giving to 
paddle-wheel and screw propulsion my most deliberate attention. I have 
carefully watched its progress in both instances, and have noted the results; 
and it is from the results that I have drawn my conclusions in favour of the 
paddle wheel ; therefore, I write " irrespective of every other consideration 
than that of public good ;" and I will not lend myself to any party considera- 
tion of this important national question, seeing how necessary it is for the 
cause of science, and the prosperity of England's commercial marine, to do 
the best I can, in conjunction with others who may be so inclined, to prevent 
it from being injured by ill-advised speculations of every kind. 



to get broken, but so strain the after part or run of the vessel as to endanger 
her safety; and this accounts why there is such a dislike to using the screw 
in blowing weather at sea. 

It has been observed, that I take the results of the screw in the Great 
Britain as data for my objection to screw propulsion. To this I answer, 
that it is not to the Great Britain, or any other particular vessel, that I am 
indebted for facts which I find objectionable to the principle, not to the form 
of the screw, which can make but very little difference in its action as a 
submerged propeller. 

Its position at the extreme end of the vessel, were it in every other respect 
perfect, is quite enough in itself to condemn it for ocean purposes; and it is 
nonsense to talk, after so much experience, of its having the slightest 
chance with the paddle wheel. I believe we have seen about its best results 
in the " General Screw Company's" vessels; and what does it amount to? 
Nothing, I repeat, which can justify the expectation of its ever being made 
a profitable investment for capital. 

I have made several calculations to prove this fact, and I will venture, 
with your permission, to make another as much in favour of the screw as it 
can be made, that it may be seen how impossible it is for a screw vessel to 



38 



Will Ocean Screw Steam-Ships Pay ? 



[February, 



compete with a paddle- wheel vessel or a sailing ship in the run to Australia, 
or any ocean voyage of such a distance. It is usual to deduct one-third of 
the tonnage of steam vessels for engine-room, &c; and if we take one-third 
more for passenger accommodation, we have one-third left for cargo, or 1,000 
tons, if she be a 3,000-ton vessel — say paddle-wheel. If we deduct one-fifth 
for engine-room, and one-third for passengers, for a screw vessel, we shall 
have 1,400 tons left for cargo; and, if we take one-third, or the same, for 
passenger room in a sailing vessel, we shall have 2,000 tons left for cargo. 



Paddle- Wheel 

1,000 tons cargo, at £8 per ton 

200 passengers, at £50 

Gross return 

55 days' passage, at £200 per diem 

Net 

5 passages per year 

Ditto for carriage of mail 

Net profit in 12 months 

Screw. 

1,400 tons cargo, at £7 per ton 

200 passengers, at £40 

Gross return 

70 days' passage, at £150 per diem 

Net ... 

3 passages per year, or 12 months' net 

Sailing Vessel. 

2,000 tons cargo, at £5 per ton 

200 passeDgers, at £30 

Gross return 

80 days' passage, at £100 per diem 

Net 

3 passages per year, or 12 months' net 

The comparison will stand thus: — 

Paddle-wheel .. 

Sailing vessel 

Screw 

Harbour and other port expenses not included. 



... £8,000 
... 10,000 

... £18,000 
... 11,000 



£7,000 

£35,000 
5,000 

£40,000 



£9,800 
8,000 

£17,800 
10,500 

£7,300 

£21,900 



£10,000 
6,000 

£16,000 
8,000 

£8,000 

£24,000 



£40,000 
24,000 
21,900 



Since my last communication, the " General Screw Steam Navigation 
Company's " screw packet Croesus, of 2,500 tons burden, has been expen- 
sively advertised to sail on the 10th January for Port Phillip ; and, if we 
may judge from the continuous placards which have been posted in London 
and other places, it would appear that no little difficulty has been experienced 
to make up her cargo, &c. She had been previously advertised to §ail in 
December; passage-money from £35 to £80, freight from £7 per ton, which, 
no doubt, is considered high when compared with sailing vessels of the 
Marco Polo class, whose charges are very little more than half, and average 
time much upon a par. 

This is what every reasonable man must have anticipated, and strongly 
confirms my predictions, that screw-ship charges must be brought to a lower 
grade, to ensure despatch and a proportionate amount of business; and then, 
as I have before observed, what is to become of them, seeing that, at the 
present high rate, they cannot compete with the superior class of sailing 
vessels? By a lengthy|description, published in The Times of the 26th ult., 



with extraordinary anticipations, as usual, in support of screw ships, in the 
Croesus 200 first and second-class passengers can be accommodated, and from 
1,300 to 1,400 tons of measurement goods, much about the same as the 
preceding calculations; consequently, it is not worth the trouble to go into a 
further comparative statement, to show what amount of business can be done 
by this line of Australian screw ships, of which the Croesus is the first. 
What amount of actual business she will do, I am not aware; but I perceive 
it is intended to take a large quantity of coal, sufficient for the outward pas- 
sage, and to bring her back to St. Vincent, to complete her coaling for the 
voyage. This, in fact, is dividing her freight into measurement goods and 
coal; or in other words, making her a compound between a collier and a 
general trading passenger vessel. The presumption is, that it will be more 
profitable to carry coal, which can be freighted from England to Australia 
for or about £4 per ton, than to purchase 600 tons at the colonies, which is 
expected to be the quantity required, beyond what she will take out, to enable 
her to reach St. Vincent on her way back. I take it for granted, most 
people will consider it more profitable to take the extra 600 tons in measure- 
ment goods at the rate of £7 per ton and upwards, if she can get it, but 
which, as I have before observed, appears questionable. The Australian and 
Victoria, belonging to the " Australia Royal Mail Steam Packet Company," 
have been also extensively advertised, but they have not been so favourably 
pushed into notice by the daily press as their more driving competitors; but 
I know not with what success their advertisements have been responded to; 
however, under the most favourable circumstances, they will not be so profit- 
able as the sailing class. Shares, on which £10 have been paid up in this 
company, are now in the market for £2; and I am sure your readers will 
think with me, there is but little chance of their regaining their original 
position. 

Unquestionably, this unfortunate failure of ocean screw steamers is not a 
subject for public rejoicing, because, as I have before observed, it is a ruinous 
waste of money which might have been more profitably employed ; and our 
maritime influence must diminish in proportion to the money lost. So far 
as my limited ability has given me the opportunity, I have endeavoured to 
place the question of ocean screw steaming before the readers of 77ie Artizan 
in a way which anonymous writers can have no just grounds to complain of; 
and I humbly hope it may help to prevent those who have an interest in 
public or private screw companies, from further loss. In my letter for the 
September number, so extensively published by the directors of the "Austra- 
lian Direct Steam Navigation Company," I observed that it was believed the 
paddle wheel would be resumed by those who had given the preference to 
the screw, so soon as the ruinous results of the screw were better known ; and 
here I will take the liberty to introduce a word or two from a gentleman 
well acquainted with the merits of the screw, which will show how far my 
remarks have been noticed by scientific men, whose object is not concealed, 
and whose wish is to see our commercial marine appropriately encouraged: — 

" I have read your letters addressed to the editor of The Artizan, with 
much pleasure and great interest, and think them in every respect most 
excellent. I do not say this much to flatter, but because, in common with 
others, I really esteem them to be so. Your strictures on the screw are most 
admirably true, and experience is daily establishing their truth. 

" The veil which has so long hung before the eyes of the shareholders of 
the ocean steam companies will speedily be withdrawn, and they will see 
things as they really are, and not through a distorting medium. Of one 
thing I am sure, your letters will be instrumental in withdrawing that veil, 
and in putting matters in a true light. Interested parties may, indeed, 
succeed for a time in misleading the public, and in perverting the facts; but 
' truth will out,' and the re-action will but be the stronger from the convic- 
tion that the previous unlimited confidence was altogether misplaced." 
I remain, sir, your obedient humble servant, 

John Poad Drake, 

Naval Architect. 

London, January \2th, 1854. 

P.S. — The Daily News of the 12th states, that the iron screw ship Crasus,. 
2,500 tons, left England with 140 passengers, and 800 tons goods cargo, 
1,400 tons of coal, with a complement of crew and officers 120, and 10,000 
letters. At the rate given in the letter, the gross return will be £11,200, 



1854.] 



Performance of the U. S. Screw Steam- Ship "Princeton." 



39 



«iet £700, without the mail, which included will not probably clear her port 
expenses. "Engineer" tells me, the original engines of the Great Britain, 
supplied by Mr. Brunei, were " Asses' engines," as the half-rated engines of 
Messrs. Penn " were giving out as much or more power," as previously asserted. 

As the horse-power of an engine is computed at a given quantity, would 
it not be more appropriate to call Messrs. Penn's " Elephant engines," instead 
of applying the term "Asses" to the engines of his less-favoured com- 
petitor? 

Up to this date there is no account of the Great Britain having reached 
Australia. She sailed in August last; but The Times of the 25th inst. states 
that the Crmsus arrived at Lisbon on the 16th, four days and three-quarters 
from Southampton, with her machinery injured, which will detain the mail. 
The Banshee arrived on the 17th, having made her passage from Portsmouth 
to Lisbon in a little over three days, and sailed the next day with the mail. 
Perhaps the screw engineer may be inclined to admit that in this instance the 
paddle wheel has beaten the screw a little more than a day and a-half, or, as 
some will think, has made the run in a little over half the time. 

January 27th. J. P. D. 



EXPERIENCE OF PRICE'S PATENT CANDLE COMPANY AS 

SMOKE CONSUMERS.* 

Dear Sir, — Your note of the 31st October asks the questions so generally, 
that I think the best answer is to give you our experience as smoke 
consumers from the beginning. We went through the usual ordeal of 
projectors with schemes plausible enough to make us try them ; and, these 
failing, we were discouraged in making further attempts, until, on establish- 
ing a branch manufactory at Battersea, our neighbours complaining of the 
smoke made us try again. 

We then began with Keymer's patent. His plan is to use anthracite, 
with a fan, the fire-bars being set in troughs of water: this furnace gave a 
splendid flame, without smoke, and got up steam very quickly ; but the 
supply of the coal becoming very irregular, and the price rising, led us, in 
1846, to try Inche's patent plan, which we were told.gave the same perfect 
absence of smoke, and with cheap coal. 

. We continue to work these original Inche's furnaces (the bars of course 
having been renewed), and have put up others more strongly constructed 
and less liable to break down, especially since the addition of clutches to 
throw them out of gear on a strain coming beyond that which they are 
calculated to resist. A person named Hazeldine was employed in putting 
up the earlier of our Inche's furnaces, who, observing that we had a 90-horse 
marine boiler with four fireplaces, in which we continued to use dear fuel, 
offered to fit up an apparatus that should work as well as Inche's, be cheaper 
in its first cost, and yet go into the small furnace space. We promised that, 
if he did as he said, we would recommend his furnace among our friends. 
We put up one, worked it several months against its three neighbours, 
which burnt coke as before, and, being well satisfied with the results, altered 
the three to his plan ; and, finding these succeed, and our former moves 
having been successful — the making no smoke, and using cheap fuel — we 
were induced to try a third — a cheaper apparatus — to effect these results, 
and ordered a large apparatus, under Hazeldine's patent, for a 30-horse 
boiler. This answered perfectly. Soon after we were recommended to try 
Hall's patent ; and after seeing it at work at the Post-office, and that the 
principle was the same as that of the other two, and that the apparatus was 
promising, we put up one of each — Inche's, Hazeldine's, and Hall's — under 
three exactly similar 30-horse boilers, having distinct feed heads. These, 
after we had measured the water let in, and weighed the coals used, led us 
to the conclusion that the only points to look to in future were, the first cost 
of the furnaces, and their liability to get out of order. Latterly, some of the 
engineers connected with the Sydenham Crystal Palace, who were con- 
' sidering what furnaces to put up, asked to see ours, and for our opinion. 
We told them that, as engineers, they were competent to judge for them- 
selves ; but that they were welcome to try any experiments, to ask any 
questions, and, on reporting the answers, that we would see that they were 

"/Society of Arts Journal. 



correct — our only stipulation being, that they should tell us the conclusion 
they came to. They chose Hazeldine's. At some new works we are now 
putting up near Liverpool we have fourteen 35-horse-pewer boilers. 
Having thought that the proprietors of Inche's patent had not behaved very 
wisely towards us, believing that they had put up furnaces cheaper for new 
customers than for us, their old ones, we told them that, unless they knocked 
off some patent royalty, we should put up all our furnaces upon Hazeldine's 
plan. They met us reasonably ; so we determined upon six of theirs and 
eight of Hazeldine's. We offered Mr. Hall, if he would charge only a 
moderate royalty, to put up one furnace under his plan, that he might be 
represented, and that we might say at Liverpool, as we can say here, that we 
work three distinct smoke-consuming apparatus, all giving perfect results ; 
but he stuck by his high royalty, and refused. 

You will not wonder, after the above, that it seems odd to us to hear of 
the impossibility of consuming smoke, and to see people, regardless of their 
pockets, sending good fuel up their chimneys to annoy their neighbours. I 
should have mentioned, that our judgment has been formed upon nineteen 
smoke-consuming furnaces at our works at Battersea and VauxhalL I 
believe, however, that one reason why none of the above furnaces have come 
into more general use is that, apparently, the proprietors have tried to make 
money by a high royalty on a few furnaces, instead of tenfold the amount 
by a small royalty on a great many furnaces. All three plans are perfect 
smoke consumers, though, of course, if the work for which steam is required 
has to be checked, and the front of the furnace is raised for the purpose, and. 
the motion stopped, on resuming work they are stoked, and for the time 
become ordinary furnaces, and give off smoke like them. 

All three are upon the same principle — a very small continuous supply of 
fuel at the front of the grate ; the smoke always being made in small quan- 
tities, combines with the air that passes through the bars, and is burnt before 
it can escape. All three have the advantage that there is no opening of 
fire-doors, and therefore an avoidance of the rush of cold air, which must 
have an injurious effect by contracting the boiler plates in addition to the 
loss of heat. The only comparison we have to give of smoke consumers 
with old-fashioned furnaces, is that our smoke consumers do as much work 
with small coal as the old furnaces did with large. We tried a smoke 
consumer, firing and stoking as in common furnaces, and found the coal 
used to be 12 per cent, more than when the grate was used as a smoke 
consumer. As I have been asked whether we have any interest in any of 
the above patents, I may mention that we have not, nor ever have had any ; 
and that our only advantage from the brewers and others who have seen our 
furnaces and asked our opinion, is, that some of them have had the grace to 
introduce our machinery oil into their works, which was as much to their 
advantage as ours. 

I am, dear sir, 

Yours truly, 

8th November, 1853. Geo. F. Wilson. 

PERFORMANCE OF THE U. S. SCREW STEAM-SHIP 
"PRINCETON."* 
(Continued from p. 17.) 

Performance with the Ericsson Screw. — The following table gives the 
result of all the steaming done with the Ericsson screw, recorded in the log; 
much more steaming was done with it than is here given, but no record was 
kept of the performance of the machinery. 

The data in the table is wanting in several elements ; the consumption of 
fuel, the proportion of the throttle open, and the condenser back pressure, are 
not given. I have been informed, however, by the engineers of the vessel at 
that time, that the throttle was carried about one-fourth open, and the steam 
pressure maintained by driving the fan blast very strongly, the back pressure 
in the condenser averaging 2 pounds per square inch. Under these circum- 
stances, the initial cylinder pressure would be about 3 pounds less than the 
boiler pressure. 

But the data in the table is chiefly valuable as giving the slip of the Erics- 
son screw in sea navigation ; and although the means are derived from a less 
extensive course of steaming than could be desired to ensure positive cer- 

* From the Journal of The Franklin Institute. 



40 



Performance of the 77. S. Screw Steam-Ship " Princeton." 



[February, 



tainty, yet they are from a sufficient number of observations taken under 
different circumstances of weather to give the results with enough accuracy 
for practical purposes. 

Summary of the Results with the Ericsson Screw. 





Performance 


Performance 


Mean 




under steam 


under steam 


of 




assisted by 


unassisted by 


the total 




sail. 


sail. 


performance. 


Total number of hours 


71 


196 


267 


Speed of the vessel per hour in knots of 








6082ffeet 


8-226 


6-912 


7-261 


Steam pressure in boilers in lbs. per sq. 








in. above atmosphere 


16-1 


15-6 


15-7 


Proportion of throttle open 


J, 

4 


i 


i 


Initial steam pressure in cylinders in 








lbs. per sq. in. above atmosphere ... 


12-1 


11-6 


11-7 


Steam cut off at from commencement 








of stroke of piston 


i 


i 


i 

3 


Back pressure in condensers in pounds 








per square inch ... 


2 


2 


2 


Mean effective pressure in lbs. per sq. in. 








of pistons throughout stroke 


15-3 


14-9 


15- 


Horses power developed by the engines 


404-23 


379-59 


386-14 


Double strokes of piston made per 








minute 


27-98 


26-98 


27-25 


Slip of the screw in per centums of its 








speed 


15-01 


25-79 


22-92 


Mean draught of vessel in feet and inches 


16 9ft 


16 lOf 


16 10| 


Immersion of the centre of the screw 








below the surface of the water 


9 9f 


9 10| 


9 lOf 


Immersed amidship section of the hull 








in square feet 


358- 


360-5 


360-5 


Displacement of hull in tons ... * ... 


1028-5 


1037-4 


1035-3 



Summary of the Results of Performance of the U. S. Screw Steam-Ship 
Princeton, with the first boilers and Stevens' Screw, under the command 
of Commodore Stockton, in the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. 





Performance 


Performance 


Mean 




under steam 


under sttam 


of 




assisted by 


unassisted by 


the total 




sail. 


sail. 


performance. 


Total number of hours 


183£ 


131 


' 3 4£ 


Speed of the vessel per hour in knots of 








6082§ feet 


8-515 


7-615 


8-140 


Steam pressure in boilers in lbs. per sq. 








in. above atmosphere 


10 


11 


10-4 


Proportion of throttle open 


4" 


J. 

4 


i 


Initial steam pressure in cylinders in 








lbs. per sq. in. above atmosphere ... 


6 


7 


6-4 


Steam cut off at from commencement 








of stroke of piston ... 


1 


i 

3" 


i 


Back pressure in condensers in pounds 








per square inch 


2 


2 


*2 


Mean effective pressure in lbs. per sq. 








in. of pistons throughout stroke 


10-7 


11-4 


11-0 


Horses power developed by the engines 


274-01 


295 92 


283-14 


Double strokes of, piston made per 








minute ... ... 


27 12 


27-49 


27*27 


Slip of the screw in per centums of its 








speed 


1-88 


13-43 


6-69 


Mean draught of vessel in feet and inches 


16 11 


16 7| 


16 9£ 


Immersion of centre of the screw below 






the surface of the water 


9 11 


9 7f 


9 9J- 


Pounds of anthracite burned per hour 






with a fan blast 


1283 


1147 


1226 


Immersed amidship section of the hull 








• in square feet 


361-8 


352-6 


358 


Displacement of the hull in tons 


1041-1 


10O7-9 


1027-4 



Summary of the Performance of the U. S. Screw Steam-Ship Princeton, while under the command of Captain Prederick Engle, U. S. Navy, embracing all 
the Steaming done between July 25, 1845, and July 17, 1849, recorded in the Steam Logs at the Navy Department. 





With the first boilers and Stevens' screw, in 


With the last boilers and Stevens' screw, in 




the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. 


the Atlantic 


Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. 








Mean of total 






Mean of total 




Undtr steam 


Under steam 


steaming, with 


Under steam 


Under steam 


steaming, with 




assisted by 


alone. 


and without 


assisted by 


alone. 


and without 




sail. 




sail. 


sail. 




sail. 


OBSERVED. 














Total number of hours ... ... 


550 


641 


1191 


252 


458 


710 


Speed of vessel per hour in knots of 6082% feet 


7-071 


6-343 


6-680 


7-580 


5-932 


6-517 


Steam pressure in boilers in pounds per square inch above atmosphere 


10-7 


11-5 


111 


12-3 


12-3 


12-3 


Steam pressure in cylinders in pounds per square inch above atmosphere ... 


5-7 


7-5 


6-6 


7-3 


7-3 


7-3 


Double strokes of piston (and revolutions of screw) per minute 


23-61 


24-11 


23-88 


25-68 


24-00 


24-60 


Steam cut off at from commencement of stroke of piston 


i 

3 


i 

3 


i 

3 


i 

3 


i 

3 


i 

3 


Proportion of throttle open ... 


•170 


•216 


•195 


•163 


•168 


•166 


Back pressure in condensers, in pounds per square inch 


31 


2-9 


3- 


2-3 


2-5 


2-4 


Pounds of anthracite coal burned per hour, with a moderate fan blast 


1290 


1511 


1409 


1253 


1245 


1248 


Tons of anthracite coal burned per 24 hours with a moderate fan blast 


13 82 


6- 19 


15-10 


13-42 


13-34 


13-38 


Mean draught of vessel in feet and inches 


17-5 


17-1 


17-3 


17-2J 


17-Of 

10 -of 


17U 
10-l| 


Immersion of centre of screw below surface of water in feet and inches 


10-5 


101 


10-3 


10-2J 


Immersed amidship area of hull in square feet 


. 376-7 


364-3 


371-8 


370-5 


365-2 


368- 


Displacement of the hull in tons 


1096-1 


1050-3 


1077-8 


1073-2 


1053-7 


1061-7 


CALCULATED. 














Slip of screw in per cent, of its speed ... 


6-46 


17-79 


12-58 


7-76 


22-76 


17-21 


Mean effective pressure on pistons in pounds per square inch 


9-40 


995 


9-70 


11-40 


11-20 


11-27 


Horses power developed by engines ... 


209-56 


226-52 


218-fi7 


276-43 


253-82 


261-84 


Pounds of coal burned per hour per square foot of grate surface 


9-627 


11-276 


10 515 


9-213 


9-155 


9-176 ; 


Pounds of coal burned per hour per square foot of heating surface 


0-533 


0-624 


0-582 


0-418 


0-415 


0-416 


Cubic feet of steam of atmospheric pressure furnished per minute, from sea 














water of twice the natural concentration, with temperature of feed water 














100° P., inclusive of loss by blowing off to maintain that concentration, and 












'■ 


of loss between valves and pistons and in steam ports, but exclusive of the 














steam required to work the fan blast 


... 


... 


3689-850 


... 


... 


3926-524 


Pounds of steam evaporated per hour, from one square foot of heating surface, 














under the above conditions 






3-363 


... 


... 


2-887 


Pounds of steam evaporated per hour, by one pound of coal, under the above 














conditions ... ... 




... 


5-777 


... 


... 


6-930 






1854] 



On the Flow of Gas through Pipes. 



41 



ON THE FLOW OE GAS THROUGH PIPES.* 
In determining the size of main pipes capable of distributing given quan- 
tities of gas, it is necessary to combine certain empirical results derived from 
experiment with certain laws applicable to the movement of fluids. The 
modes of calculation usually resorted to for determining the dimensions of 
mains will be more simply discussed by dividing the subject under three se- 
parate heads: 1st, the motion of gas through simple orifices; 2nd, its mo- 
tion through horizonal pipes; and 3rd, its motion through pipes varying 
from the horizontal direction. 

I. Motion through simple orifices. 

The theoretical laws which apply to this case are the following:— 
1. The velocity with which gas issues out of a simple orifice is as the 
square root of the head of water by which it is pressed. The gas in this 
case follows the simple law as water itself; and as the pressure applied to gas 
is usually estimated in inches of water, it is convenient to use this law in the 
form here expressed. Of course the quantity of gas discharged through any 
orifice being in proportion to the velocity, all other things being alike, it fol- 
lows that the quantity of gas passing through any simple orifice is as the 
square root of the pressure. 

Let H be the height or depth of water in inches denoting the pressure on 
the gas, and let Q be the quantity of gas discharged through any orifice with 
that pressure. Let h be any other depth of water, also in inches, for which 
it is required to ascertain the quantity q. Then 

yH. : y/h : : Q : q or -— = q (1) 

VH 
In order to illustrate this, it may be stated that the quantity discharged 
under 4 inches head of water will be twice as much as under 1 inch. The 
quantity under 9 inches will be three times as much as under 1 inch; and in 
the same proportion for any intermediate pressures. 

The rule may be thus expressed in words. Multiply the quantity of gas 
delivered under the pressure of any known depth of water by the square root 
of the depth for which the quantity is required, and divide the product by the 
square root of the depth for which the quantity is known, the quotient will 
be the quantity delivered under the required pressure. 

Suppose it has been ascertained by experiment, that under a pressure of 
3 inches of water 400 cubic feet of gas are discharged per hour through a 
certain opening, it is required to know how many cubic feet of the same gas 
will be discharged through the same opening with a pressure of 2 inches of 
water. 

\/2 X 400 565-6 

Here = = 327 cubic feet, the quantity required. 

t/3 1-732 

2. The pressure remaining constant, the quantity of gas discharged 
through a simple orifice will be inversely as the square root of its specific 
gravity. It is evident that the lighter gas will flow out with a much higher 
velocity than the heavier, and the exact proportionate velocit}' of the two has 
long been proved to follow the law just quoted. 

Let G be the specific gravity of a gas whose rate of delivery through any 
orifice in a given time is equal to Q, and let it be required to find the quan- 
tity q which will be delivered under the same circumstances when the gas 
has a specific gravity equal to g. 

1/GQ 
Here \/g : \/G : : Q : q or = q ... (2) 

Vg 

Suppose it were known that cannel coal-gas of specific gravity -550 were 
delivered out of an orifice at the rate of 400 feet per hour, and it is required 
to ascertain the rate at which a very light inferior gas of specific gravity 
•380 would pass under the same pressure through the same orifice. 
t/-550 X 400 296.64 

Here = = 494 cube feet per hour, the, quantity 

V-360 -6 

which would be delivered of the lighter gas. 

3. The pressure and specific gravity remaining constant, the discharges of 
the same gas through different openings are as the areas of the openings, or 
as the squares of their diameters. Thus, all other circumstances being alike, 

* Hughes's Treatise en Gas Works. London : J. Weale. 



an orifice of 2 inches diameter will discharge four times as much gas as one 
of 1 inch; an orifice of 3 inches diameter will discharge nine times aa 
much; and so on. 

This rule is not strictly correct in practice, being based on the theoretical 
supposition of an entire absence of friction. Since there is less proportionate 
friction in a large opening, the discharge in practice is more than that as- 
signed by theory for large openings. Many gas engineers, however, have 
estimated the size of their mains according to this law, and have not thought 
it advisable to reduce the size below that given by theory, because the excess 
allows for errors and imperfections in laying the pipes, and for other con- 
tingencies which may obviously arise. 

Let D be the diameter of any orifice through which the quantity Q can 
be discharged, then the quantity q which will be discharged through any 
other opening of the diameter d will be 

d 2 q 

— = q (3) 

D 2 
For example, suppose 1,000 feet of gas are discharged per hour through an 
orifice half an inch in diameter, required the quantity of the same gas which 
would be discharged through an orifice A\ inches diameter. 
4-25 2 x 1000 19062 

Here = = 76248, the quantity discharged through 

•5 2 -25 

the large orifice. It is probable that several hundred feet more would be 
actually discharged than the quantity determined by theory, for the reason 
already stated. 

We now come to the combination of practical results with the theoretical 
rules which have been laid down for determining what Mr. Clegg very pro-' 
perly calls the initial velocity of the gas — that is, the velocity with which it 
commences to flow through an opening, as distinguished from its velocity 
after passing through a main pipe of greater or less length. It is to be re- 
gretted that the practical experiments by which theory is to be compared, 
and in some cases modified, are here very scanty and insufficient. Mr. 
Clegg gives a table showing the quantities discharged through a very small 
circular orifice of only one-fourth of an inch diameter at different pressures, 
from half an inch up to 5 inches. On calculating the quantities which ought 
to be discharged in proportion to the discharge under the lowest pressure, the 
results are sufficiently near, as will be seen from the following comparison: — 

Table of the quantity of carburetted hydrogen gas of specific gravity -420 
which will flow per hour through a circular orifice of one-fourth of an inch. 





Quantity of Gas by 


Quantity of Gas by 


Pressure. 


experiment, in 


calculation, in 




cubic feet. 


cubic feet. 


£ inch 


80- 




1 ., 


113- 


111-7 


2 „ 


160-5 


160- 


3 „ 


195- 


193-1 


4 „ 


226- 


226-2 


5 „ 


253- 


253- 



Mr. Clegg has also another table showing the quantity of gas of specific 
gravity -420 discharged by experiment and calculation, where pressure re- 
mains constant at half an inch, and the diameter of the orifice varies from 
one -fourth of an inch up to 6 inches. 



Diameter of 
orifice 


Quantities of Gas discharged in 
cubic feet per hour. 


in inches. 


By experiment. 


By calculation. 


•25 


80 




•50 


321 


320 


•75 


723 


720 


1-00 


1287 


1280 


1-125 


1625 


1620 


1-25 


2010 


2000 


1-50 


2885 


2880 


6-00 


46150 


46080 



42 



On the Flow of Gas through Pipes. 



[February, 



The excess in the experimental results is accounted for by the propor- 
tionate diminution of friction, as already explained. 

Assuming the primary experiment, giving 80 cubic feet of gas of specific 
gravity '420 discharged through one-fourth of an inch orifice, under a pres- 
sure of half an inch, to be strictly correct, and worthy of forming a basis; let 
it be required, by way of illustration, to determine the quantity of gas of 
specific gravity -500 discharged per hour through a circular orifice 4 inches 
in diameter, under a pressure of 2^ inches of water. 

First. To find the diminished quantity due to the increased specific gra- 
vity, we have 
1/-420X80 51*84 

s= sc 73'3, the quantity discharged of specific gravity "500. 

-^•500 -707 

Secondly. To find the increased quantity due to the larger orifice, we have 

16X73-3 1172-8 

: = 18765, the quantity of gas having a specific gravity 



•25 2 -0625 

= -500 discharged through a circular orifice, 4 inches diameter. 

Thirdly. To find the increased quantity due to the pressure of 2J inches, 
we have 
\/2% X 18765 29649 

— = 41936, the required quantity of specific gravity 

■V/-5 -707 

•500 which will be discharged in one hour from a 4-inch circular opening, 
under a pressure of 2| inches of water. 

We now come to the second and more important practical inquiry, 
namely, that of determining the quantities of gas which will flow through 
mains of given length and area. 

Mr. Clegg quotes a series of six experiments, in which gas under a pres- 
sure of half an inch head of water was made to flow through various lengths 
of 6-inch pipe up to thirty-four yards. From these experiments he deduces 
the law that the quantities of gas discharged in equal times by a horizontal 
pipe, under the same pressure a,nd for different lengths, are to one another in 
the inverse ratio of the square roots of the length. Taking as a basis Mr. 
Clegg's first experiment, which gave, a discharge of 44,280 feet per hour, 
through a pipe 3 - 46 yards long, we shall find the quantity discharged through 
a pipe 34-20 yards long by this ^proportion, 

1/34-20": 1/3-46 : : 44280 : required quantity; 
44280 X v'3'46 82361 

' or = = 14083-6 cubic feet, while the quantity actually 

-V/34-20 5-848 

discharged by experiment is 14,080 cubic feet, an experiment sufficiently 
accurate for all practical purposes. This mode of calculating the discharge, 
although founded on a very scanty basis, appears to be the, p,nly one made 
use of by Mr. Clegg. Putting P for the product of the discharge through a 
6-inch pipe by the square root of 3"46 yards the length of the pipe, and L the 
length in yards of any other 6-inch pipe, the discharge per hour through L 

P 
will be equal to — — , and as in this case the value of P is known, being 

82361 
= 82361, the form becomes — =^. This formula only applies to gas of the 

specific gravity "420 under a pressure of half an inch head of water. 

Putting D to represent any other diameter than 6 inches, we have the 
quantity discharged from such a pipe 

82361 B 2 2288 D 2 



36VL \/L 

Putting g to represent the specific gravity of any other kind of gas, that of 
atmospheric air being 1, we have the quantity discharged of such a gas 

V420H fs 

= 2288 D 2 = 2288 D 2 i/-ai \f ' — 



= 2096 D 5 \/ — 

Also putting Q for the quantity of gas discharged per hour in cubic feet, we 
have 



(4) 



B = V 



Q 



2096 J ~ 

Lg 



(5) 



Mr. Clegg* has given a long series of ables, all calculated according to 
this formula, showing the quantities of gas of specific gravity -420 delivered 
per hour from horizontal mains varying in length from 100 to 10,000 yards, 
and varying in diameter from 2 inches to 18 inches, under pressures varying 
from half an inch to 3 inches of water. There appears to.be a general ten- 
dency to the belief that the actual quantities are much larger than those 
given in Mr. Clegg's tables, or, which is the same thing, those which would 
result from the formula (4). For instance, in the recent important parlia- 
mentary inquiry into the case of the Great Central Gas Consumers' Com- 
pany, their engineer, Mr. Croll, estimated that with a pressure of 2£ inches 
a quantity equal to ,173,000 cubic feet of gas would be delivered at the end 
of a 26-inch main, 2£ miles in length. ;Now, if we calculate the quantity of 
gas which would be delivered from a main of this kind according to the 
basis of Mr. Clegg's tables, we shall find it amount to less than half this 
quantity. 

We have seen (equation 4) that a general expression in the form xA =: Q 
may be derived from any experiment, and that it is only necessary to deter- 
mine the value of the coefficient x in this equation. The part A is always of 

rz 

course equal to D 2 \/ — , so that the coefficient x is equal to 
Lg _ 



D 2 t/ 



/H D 2 VH 
*9 



We shall now determine the value of x according to this equation from 

several other experiments on coal-gas. ' 

Table showing the quantities of gas discharged from a pipe $j of an inch in 
diameter, in the experiments of M. Girard at the hospital of St. Louis. In 
these experiments the density of the gas, or the value of g was *559, and 
the pressure or value of H was 1-34 inches. 

Value of x calculated 



ngth of pipe 
in yards. 


Quantity discharged 

per hour, 

in cubic feet. 


from the-equation 

X = : 


41 


99 




DVH" 

1065 


62 


83 




1096 


93 


74 




1198 


119 


57 




1045 


138 


53 




1047 



5/5451 

The coefficient according to these experiments . . 1090 
It will be observed that the value of x calculated from these experiments 
varies from 1045 to 1198, being a difference between the extremes equal to 
14 per cent. The fairest way to adjust this variation in the experiments is, 
therefore, to take the mean and to assume the coefficient established by 
M. Girard at 1090. 

The next experiments which we shall examine comprise a series of six 
given by Mr. Clegg in his work on Gas-Lighting. 

Table showing the quantity of gas of specific gravity -420 discharged per 
; hour, according to M r - Clegg's experiments, from a 6 -inch main, with a 

. pressure equal to half an inch of water. 

Value of x calculated 
Quantity discharged from the equation 



Length of pipe, 


per T hour, 


in yards. 


in cubic feet 


3-46 


44280 


4-5 


38838 


7-5 


30000 


16-5 


20270 


25- 


16460 


34-2 


14080 



dVh 
2100 
2100 

2096 
2099 
2099 
2100 



6) 12,594 



* The work by Mr. Clegg which is referred to here is the one published by Mr. Weale 
in 1841. 



1854]. 



On Soap m a Means of Art. 



43 



The coefficient derived from Mr. Clegg's experiments on a 
6-inch main 



'•'} 



2099 



Mr. Clegg gives gives a single experiment with a 4-inch main, in which 
he found that with a pressure equal to 3 inches, 852 cubic feet of gas of spe- 
cific gravity -398 were delivered from a main 10,560 yards in length. The 
coefficient derived from this experiment is 

852 X t/ 10560 X "398 

— - — 1993. 

16 x i/3 
Most of the following experiments are taker^ from a paper by Mr. Pole. 
In the last column the value of the coefficient x has been calculated as before; 
and in order to present a clear view of the way in which this coefficient varies 
with the diameter of the main, the result of the previous experiments are 
repeated in the table. 















Value of x 




Diameter of 


Length of 


Pressure, 
in 


Specific 
gravity of 


Quantity dis- 
charged in 


calculated 
from equation 


No. 


pipe, in 
inches. 


pipe, in 
yards. 


inches of 
water. 


gas, ail- 
being 1. 


cubic feet 
per hour. 


D \/~& 


1 


0-5 


10 


1-25 


•4 


120 


860 ; 
1043^ 




2 


0-5 


59 


1-25 


•4 


60 




3 


0-62 


41 


1-34 


•559 


99 


1065^ 




4 


0-62 


62 


1-34 


•559 


83 


1096 




5 


0-62 


93 


1-34 


.559 


74 


1198 


- 


6 


0-62 


119 


1-34 


•559 


57 


1045 




7 


0-62 


138 


1-34 


•559 


53 


1047 




8 


2-00 


25 


0-5 


•528 


1630 


2094 


9 


4-00 


10560 


3-0 


•398 


852 


1993 


10 


6-00 


3-46 


0-5 


•42 


44280 


2100T 
2100 


11 


6-00' 


4-5 


0-5 


.42 


38838 


12 


6-00 


7-5 


0-5 


.42 


30000 


2096 { 
2099 f 


13 


6-00 


16-5 


0-5 


•42 


20270 


14 


6-00 


25- 


0-5 


•42 


16460 


2099 j 


15 


6-00 


34-2 


0-5 


•42 


14080 


2100J 


16 


8-00 


1842 


0-7 


•4 


6000 


3042 


17 


10-00 


100 


3-00 


•4 


120000 


4382 


18 


10-00 


1760 


3-00 


•4 


30000 


4596 


19 


18-00 


1760 


1-00 


•4 


661)00 


5405 


20 


26-00 


3130 


•8 


•42 


103000 


6173 


21 


26-00 


4300 


2-25 


•42 


17500 


6990 


22 


26-00 


4300 


0-475 


•42 


80000 


7255 





Eeturning now to formula (4), according to which Mr. Clegg's tables are 
calculated, on the supposition that x is equal to 2096, we shall find on ex- 
amining the above table, that this coefficient will not correspond with any of 
the experiments made on pipes of less diameter than 2 inches or greater than 6 
inches. For instance, the formula used by Mr. Clegg would give more than 
double the true quantity delivered when applied to a pipe half an inch in 
diameter, and when applied to amain of 26 inches, would give a result less 
than one-third of the true discharge from this main. To make this more 
clear, let us suppose it be required to calculate the delivery of gas accord- 
ing to the experiments above cited. For a half-inch pipe we have two ex- 
periments, one of which gives a coefficient of 860 and the other 1043, the 
mean of which is 952. Mr. Clegg's coefficient, we have already seen, is 2096, 
and the coefficients derived from experiments on a 26-inch main are 
6173, 6990, and 7255, the mean of which is 6806. Hence if we were to esta- 
blish a rule for finding a quantity of gas delivered, 

According to experiments on the |-inch pipe, the formula would be 

925 D 2 y' — 
According to Mr. Clegg's experiments, it would be 

m 

2096 D 2 -(/— 

Xi 

According to experiments on the 26-inch main, it would be 

/H 
6806 D 2 1/ _ 

(To be continued.) 



ON SOAP AS A MEANS OF ART.* 
Bx Ferguson Branson, M.D., Sheffield. 
Several years ago I was endeavouring to find an easy substitute for wood 
engraving, or rather to find out a substance more readily cut than wood, and 
yet sufficiently firm to allow of a cast being taken from the surface when 
the design was finished, to be re-produced in type-metal, or by the electro- 
type process. After trying various substances, I at last hit upon one which 
at first promised success, viz., the very common substance called soap, but T 
found that much more skill than I possessed was required to cut the fine 
lines for surface printing. A very little experience with the material con- 
vinced me that, though it might not supply the place of wood for surface 
printing, it contained within itself the capability of being extensively applied 
to various useful and artistic processes in a manner hitherto unknown. Die- 
sinking is a tedious process, and no method of die-sinking, that I am aware 
of, admits of freedom of handling. A drawing may be executed with a 
hard point on a smooth piece of soap almost as readily, as freely, and in as 
short a timers an ordinary drawing with a lead pencil. Every touch thus 
produced is clear, sharp, and well defined. When the drawing is finished a 
cast may be taken from the surface in plaster, or, better still, by pressing the 
soap firmly into heated gutta percha. In gutta percha several impressions 
may be taken without injuring the soap, so as to admit of " proofs " being 
taken and corrections made — a very valuable and practical good quality in 
soap. It will even bear being pressed into melted sealing-wax without 
injury. I have never tried a sulphur mould, but I imagine an impression 
from the soap could easily betaken by that method. The accompanying 
specimens will show that from the gutta percha or plaster cast thus obtained, 
a cast in brass, with the impression either sunk or in relief, can at once be 
taken. If sunk, a die is obtained capable of embossing paper or leather; if 
in relief, an artistic drawing in metal. This suggests a valuable application. 
The manufacturer may thus employ the most skilful artist to make the 
drawing on the soap, and a fac-simile of the actual touches of the artist can 
be re-produced in metal, paper, leather, gutta percha, or any other material 
capable of receiving an impression. By this means even high art can be 
applied in various ways — not a translation of the artist's work by another 
hand, as in die-sinking, but the veritable production of the artist himself. 
One of the specimens sent is a copy of Sir E. Landseer's " Highland Piper," 
a rude one, I must confess, though its rudeness does not militate against the 
principle involved in its production. Suppose the drawing had been made 
by Sir E. Landseer himself ; that accomplished artist's actual drawing might 
have been embossed on various materials in common use, and disseminated 
amongst thousands, thus familiarising the eyes of the public with high art, 
and giving a value to the embossed transcript which no translation by the 
die sinker, however skilful, could possibly give it. The raised gutta percha 
impression of this specimen is from the soap itself ; the sunk impression is 
cast in gutta percha from gutta percha. The works in metal during the 
14th, 15th, and 16th centuries, owe their excellence in a great degree to the 
combination in the same individual of artist and artisan. The metal was 
finished by the artist himself, who left the stamp of his genius unmistakably 
upon it. By the plan just explained, something like a return to this combi- 
nation might be effected, and the artist would at least have the satisfaction of 
finding his own work accurately rendered, and not enfeebled, in the transla- 
tion ; for the art of casting in metal has of late been so much improved, 
that little difference can be detected between the impression on the cast and 
the mould which produced it. I wish to lay particular stress upon the fact 
that drawing touches can be thus rendered, and an effect rapidly produced, 
unattainable by modelling. The larger plaster casts were taken from draw- 
ings freely made — as the appearance of the touches will prove — in common 
brown soap. The finer kind of soap is of course better fitted for fine work; 
but should the process now described be adopted by the manufacturer — and 
I trust t may never become the subject of any patent — soap better suited to 
the purpose than any now made will doubtless be specially manufactured. 
In proof that fine lines can be drawn upon the soap as well as broad 
vigorous touches, I can state that one of Kembrandt's etchings has been 



* Dr. Branson has also employed bees' wax, white wax, sealing wax, lacs, as well as" 
other plastic bodies : and in some of these cases a heated steel knitting ne edle, or point, 
was substituted for the ivory knitting needle. — Ed. 



44 



Notes and Novelties. 



[February, 



copied on soap, the soap pressed into gutta percha, and an electrotype taken 
from the gutta percha cast, from which a print has been obtained, very little 
inferior in delicacy to the original etching. Doubtless, persons engaged in 
manufactures will see applications of the process which I have not contem- 
plated, and I leave it to their ingenuity to discover them. I would parti- 
cularly call the attention of ornamental leather and paper manufacturers, 
book-binders, and, possibly, manufacturers of china, to the process; for it 
must be remembered that soap, when made, can be run into moulds of any 
form, so as to obtain curved as well as flat surfaces for the artist to draw 
upon. It has also occurred to me that it would prove a very ready and 
expeditious method of forming raised maps, pictures, and diagrams for the 
use of the blind. The manipulation is very simple. A lead pencil drawing, 
if required, can readily be transferred to the smoothed surface of the soap, 
by placing the face of the drawing on the soap, and rubbing the back of the 
paper; every line of the drawing is then distinctly visible on the soap. The 
implements used are equally simple; all the specimens sent were drawn with 
ivory knitting-kneedles, and small ivory netting-meshes for scooping out 
larger and deeper touches. The only caution necessary is to avoid under- 
cutting. Having felt the greatest interest in the establishment of schools of 
design, so well calculated to re-connect Fine Art with manufactures, it will 
afford me sincere gratification if the simple process now pointed out — and I 
trust its simplicity will be no bar to its being carefully tested — shall be in 
the smallest degree instrumental in accomplishing the re-union. 

Sheffield, December 31st, 1853. 

P.S. — The date 1850 is on some of the illustrative specimens. — Jmtrnalof 
the Society of Arts. 

RECENT AMERICAN PATENTS. 
For sea Improvement in Ships' Side Lights; Charles Perley, City of New 

York. 

" The nature of my invention consists in the use of a circular glass or light, 
enclosed by a frame, on which are cogs or teeth gearing into a fixed rack on 
the inside of a metal box that is let into the side of a vessel. To open the 
light, it is rolled to one side within the box or case; and when it is to be 
closed, the light is to be rolled back again; and a screw ring forced into an 
elastic packing in the frame of the glass, makes a tight joint, and any water 
that by accident may run into the box in which the light rolls, can escape 
by a small opening left "in the lower part for the purpose, thereby entirely pre- 
venting any leakage from entering the ship." 

Claim. — "I do not claim sliding a glass or light sideways in a frame, as 
that has been done; but I am not aware that any box has been so fitted as 
to contain a side light and form a receptacle for leakage, passing the same 
out by a small hole or holes, thereby effectually preventing any water from 
passing into the ship. I am aware that india-rubber has been used as a 
packing for side lights; therefore I do not claim the same. What I do claim 
is, 1st, The means herein described and shown, for preventing any leakage 
from a side light passing into a vessel, by enclosing the side light in a metal- 
lic box let into the side of the vessel, and provided with a small hole or holes 
to pass out said leakage, as specified." 

For Improvements in Metallic Piston Packing .■ Henry L. Russell, Hudson 

Mich. 

" The invention consists in expanding a number of metallic bands by 
means of levers secured in the periphery of a drum, and operated by means 
of a ring fitted within said drum, and arranged as will be hereafter shown." 

Claim. — " I do not claim the metallic bands, for they are now used in me- 
tallic packing; but what I do claim is, expanding the metallic bands which 
encompass the drum by means of the levers placed in the periphery of the 
drum, and operated by means of the ring within the drum, as herein shown 
and described; the ring being prevented from moving casually, by means of 
the coil spring, and ratchet and pawl, or their equivalents." 

For an Improvement in Machine Hammers; Daniel Noyes, Abingdon, 
Mass. 

" The essential features of my improvements eonsist in a novel arrange- 
ment of mechanical devices for hammering or forging iron, whereby it can 
be brought into any desired shape or form much more expeditiously, and with 



much more regularity, than by any of the modes commonly practised in trip 
hammers for the purpose. This result I effect by means of hammers, which 
are so placed and actuated as to strike the iron to be shaped both on the top 
and on the two sides, the upper hammer having motion imparted to it from 
a crank on the main driving shaft, and the two side hammers moving hori- 
zontally, so as to strike the sides of the piece to be forged." 

Claim. — "What I claim is, 1st, A machine for hammering iron, &c, hav- 
ing the distinguishing features herein above enumerated, viz., a hammer for 
giving the blow upon the upper surface of the iron, acting in conjunction 
with two hammers which simultaneously strike the sides of the iron, substan- 
tially as above set forth; and I further claim, in a machine for hammering 
iron, the use of these two side hammers operating as specified, whether used 
in connection with the upper hammer, or without it. 2nd, I claim so ar- 
ranging the relative position of the fulcra of the hammer beams, and the 
ends of the connecting rods attached to said beams, and to the crank shaft 
and gears from which they derive their motion, as to bring the said fulcra 
and connecting rods in nearly a straight line at the time of giving the blow 
for the purpose above specified, the opposite ends of the connecting rods, just 
before giving the blow, moving in opposite directions, so as to give a rapid 
and powerful blow. 3rd, I claim causing the anvil to descend from the iron 
just before the blow of the side hammers, and to ascend just before the blow 
of the upper hammer, by means of a rod attached at one end to the under 
side of the upper hammer beam, and at the other end to a tilting arm, which 
embraces the anvil substantially, as above described." 

For an Improvement in Machines for Straightening and Curving Bails; 

George Williston, Brunswick, Maine. 

" The nature of my invention consists in placing over the part of the rail 
which is bent (by the weight of the train in passing), a curved beam, which 
has its bearings on the rail near the end of the beam; then, by a contrivance 
which embraces the rail, I turn a screw, which has power sufficient to raise 
the bent portion to its original position, where it may be secured." 

Claim. — "I am aware that a machine has been used in Bavaria, which 
acts by the pressure of a screw upon the bar to be bent; the bearing or plat- 
form being placed underneath the bar. This mode of action I do not claim; 
but what I do claim is, the combination of the screw, strap, beam, and slides, 
constructed and combined substantially in the manner described, with the 
beam placed on the top of the side rail, for the purpose of straightening or 
curving rails on railroads, without the necessity of removing the same from 
the sleepers." 

For an Improvement in the Cutting Gear of Grain and Grass Harvesters ; 

Sam'l. S. Allen, Salem, New Jersey. 

Claim. — " What I claim is, the arrangement by which the driving wheel is 
made the centre of oscillation in counterbalancing the cutter beam and cut- 
ters thereon, embracing the secondary wheel and spring, for the purpose set 
forth. I also claim the combination of the tongue with the driving wheel 
and sounding wheel, for the purposes set forth. I also claim the method of 
balancing the cutter blades on the angular bar by the sliding bar, in combi- 
nation with the blade, or their equivalents, for the purpose set forth. Lastly, 
I claim the construction of the cutter blades, as formed on the under side 
with a rasp or roughened surface, while the upper side forms a shear cutting 
edge, for the purpose of preventing choking of the fingers, and supplying an 
oil box to the cutter bar, as set forth." 



NOVELTIES. 

Corrugated Iron for Steam Boilers. — Mr. Montgomery, of New 
York, has recently introduced a novel species of boiler, formed of corrugated 
iron, which is said to possess many advantages over those formed of flat- 
rolled plates. It is stated that it more than doubles the strength, takes only 
one-half the space, is 30 per cent, less in cost, and will prove a great pre- 
ventive of explosions, as in the rolling all blisters and flaws are brought to 
light which cannot be seen in flat-rolled iron. It presents one-third more 
heating surface to the iurnace than the present boiler, and is strongly recom- 
mended by engineers connected with the naval department. 



1854.] 



List of Patents. 



45 



The New Royal Yacht. — The construction of the Windsor Castle, her 
Majesty's new yacht, has been commenced at Pembroke Royal Dockyard, 
and will be pushed forward with all possible dispatch. She is to be elected 
in the large slip from which the Duke of Wellington was launched, for which 
purpose the slip has been lengthened about thirty feet. She will be built of 
solid mahogany, upon the diagonal planking system; and large quantities of 
timber have been collected and sent round from the other yards, The prin- 
cipal dimensions are : — Length over all, 315 feet; length of keel, 300 feet; 
breadth, 40 feet; and depth of hold, 22 feet. Her lines give promise of great 
beauty of form, as well as a high rate of speed, which latter will be attained 
by Penn's oscillating engines, with twenty-eight revolutions, giving a speed 
sixteen or seventeen miles. The tonnage of this fine steam yacht is esti- 
mated at 2400 tons. 

Oil from the Cotton Seed. — An establishment for the manufacture of 
oil from the cotton seed, has been started at New Orleans. It is asserted 
that the oil is of a bland, pleasant taste, possessing all the qualities of olive 



oil, that it burns with great brilliancy, and is peculiarly fitted for using upon 
machinery, on account of its not gumming or drying. If the oil is really 
"valuable, the manufacture will soon become an important one, for the quan- 
tity of raw material is unbounded. 

Bronze foe the Sheathing of Ships. — Bobierre, a chemist at Nantes, 
who has studied the subject for years, has arrived by experiments at the fol- 
lowing conclusions: — That by diminishing the proportion of tin, the oxy- 
disable metal is less uniform in its distribution through the plates; and there 
is a consequent inequality of alteration under the influence of sea water. 
His recent researches show that sheathing of bronze is preferable, as regards 
durability and solidity, to copper or brass. The abnormal alterations that 
have been observed are due to defective manufacture. The presence of 
arsenic does not occasion alteration in this alloy, as happens for red copper. 
Bronze that will do good service contains in general 4 - 5 to 5'5 per cent, of 
tin ; that with less it alters unequally. The introduction of a little zinc into 
these alloys of copper and tin improves the product by favouring the 
diffusion of the positive constituent of the metallic mass. 



APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTION 

ALLOWED. 

Dated 13th August, 1853. 

1900. J. Gwynne, Essex-street, Strand — Black powder from 

coal, for paints, blackings, &c. 

Sated 29th August, 1853. 
J. H. Johnson. 47 Lincoln's-inn-fields— Gluten. (A 
communication.) 

Dated 5th October, 1863. 
W. Crofts, Derby-terrace, Nottingham-park — Figuring 
in weaving. 

Dated 6th October, 1853. 
C. A. Holm, 21, Cecil-street, Strand— Machinery for 
raising and propelling fluids. 

Dated 18th October, 1853. 
E. Rider, Coleman-street — Gutta percha. (Partly a 
communication.) 

Dated 19th October, 1853. 
G. Gidley, 43, Robert-street, Hoxton, and J. B. Mus- 
chanp, Claremont-house, Kensington — Making india 
rubber solution. 



2004. 
2276. 
2290. 
2404. 
2406. 

2452. 

2456. 
2462. 

2486. 

2576. 

2667. 



2071. 
2706. 



2701. 
2712. 
2741. 

2771. 

2776. 

2813. 

2815. 
2817. 

2821. 

2823. 
2825. 



Dated 24<ft October, 1853. 
E. J. M. Archdeacon, Gravel-lane, Southwark — Indi- 
cating places, &c, in directories. 
Dated 25th October, 1853. 
C. R. N. Palmer, Amwell, Hertfordshire — Accidents 

en railways. 
A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane— Railroad carriage 
axle. (A communication.) 

Dated 21th October, 1853. 
G. E. Dering, Lockleys, Hertfordshire — Galvanic bat- 
teries. • 

Dated 5th November, 1853. 
J. Barlow, and T. Settle, Bolton-le-Moors — Power 
looms for weaving. 

Dated llth November, 1853. 
W. Underwood, Handsworth, Staffordshire — Cooking 
stoves. 

Dated 2\st November, 1853. 
A. Parfltt, Newbury — Vehicles. 
W. Joyce, and T. Meacham, Greenwich — Marine steam 
engines. 

Dated 22nd November, 1853. 
W. Mee, Leicester — Braces. 

Dated 22nd November, 1853. 
R. Adams, King William-street — Fire-arms. 
Dated 25lh November, 1853. 

A. A. V. S. de Montferrier, Paris, and 4, South-street, 
Finsbury — Wheels. 

Dated 28th November, 1583. 
J. C. Ramsden, Bradford — Looms. 

Dated 29th November, 1853. 
E. J. Hughes, Manchester— Purifying, &c, the colour- 
ing matter of madder, munjeet, &c. 
Dated 3rd December, 1853. 
C. E. Green, 13, Blandford-street, Portman-square, and 
J. Bayliss, 34, Parliament-street — Machinery for 
saving life and property from fire, &c. 
C. Buck, Wellington, Somersetshire — Retarding and 

stopping wheel carriages. 
J. and J. E. S. Gwynne, Essex-wharf, Strand — Manu- 
facture of fuel, &c, and application to reduction of 
ores, &c. (Partly a communication.) 
Dated 5th December, 1853. 

B. Skillman, Crosby-hall chambers — Preparing sheets 
of paper for postal communication. 

M. A. Muir, Glasgow— Check and fancy weaving. 
T. Storey, Phcenix foundry, Lancaster — Apparatus for 
sewers. 



LIST OF PATENTS, 

Dated 6th December, 1853. 
2829. J. C. Haddan, Chelsea— Cartridges. 

2831. A. E. L. Bellford, 16. Castle-street, Holborn— Tartaric 

acid. (A communication ) 

2832. G. Ross and J. Inglis, Arbroath — Looms. 

2833. T. Miles. Leicester — Lined gloves. 

2835. R. C. Whitty, 1, Portland-place, Wandsworth-road— 
Boiler and other furnaces. 

2837. J. Bernard, 15, Regent street, Machinery for stitch- 
ing, &c. 

2839. A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane —Fire-arms. (A com- 

munication.) 

Dated tlh December, 1853. 

2840. W. Slater and R. Halliwell, Boltou-le-Moors— Spin- 

ning machinery. 

2841. L. H. Bates, Bradford — Machinery for stamping and 

cutting metal nuts, &c. 

2843. J. Getty, Liverpool — Plating of iron ships, &c. 

Dated 8th December, 1853. 

2844. W. G. Reeve, Elizabeth-street, Eaton-square — Append- 

age to horse shoes, avoiding necessity for roughing. 

2845. W. B. Adams, 1, Adam -street, Adelphi — Railway 

wheels, their axles and boxes. 

2846. W. T. Henley, St. John-street road —Electric tele- 

graphs. 

2847. T. Morau, Dublin — Accidents on railways. 

2848. B. Solomons, Albemarle-street, Piccadilly — Telescopes 

for mensurement of distance. 

2849. W. C. Jay, Regent-street— Cloak. 

2850. J. Goddard and C. Yates, Tottenham-court-road — Ma- 

chinery for motive power. 

2851. J. Robinson, Denton Mill, Carlisle — Corn and other 

mills. 

2852. J. Nelson, and D. Boyd, Selby— Scutching flax, &c. 

2853. J. Beall, Effingham-place, Cheshunt— Applying sand 

to railways. 

2854. W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Machinery for 

drilling, &c, rocks, &c (A communication.) 

2855. Dr. P. J. T. Bordone, Paris — Extracting and treating 

juice of beet-root, &c. 

2856. M. G. Laverdet, Paris — Photographic pictures. 

2857. B. Murgatroyd, Bradford— Washing and scouring 

wool, &c. 

2858. J. B. E. Ruttre, Paris, and 5, Lawrence-pountney- 

lane — Machines for producing shoddy, &c. 

Dated 9th Decimber, 1853. 

2859. P. M. Fouque, L. R. Hebert, and V. E. D. le Marneur, 

Paris, and 5, Lawrence Pountney-lane — Rudders. 

2860. A. James, Redditch, Worcestershire — Counting, mea- 

suring and weighing needles, &c. 

2861. D. Christie and J. Cullen, Bromley, High-street— At- 

mospheric counterbalance slide valve. 

2862. A. Shanks, 6, Robert-street, Adelphi — Instrument for 

measuring weights and pressures. 

2863. C. Mackenzie, Bayswater, and Dr. A. Turnbull, Man- 

chester-square — Machinery for paring fruit and 
vegetables. (A communication.) 

2864. J. Winspear, Liverpool — Coating metals, wood, &c. 

2865. R. Eccles, Wigan ; J. Mason, Rochdale ; and L. Ka- 

berry, Rochdale — Slubbing and roving frames. 

2866. J. Sutcliffe, Manchester — Steam engines. 

2867. F.Osbourn,Aldersgate-street — Distribution of manure. 

2868. J. Chisholm, Holloway — Distillation of organic sub- 

stances and products. 

2869. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields — Portable cases 

for provisions. (A communication.) 

2870. G.Morley, Birmingham — Ornamentingjapanned goods. 

2871. W. Schaeffer, Stanhope-street — Purifying spirit. 

2872. J. Bourne, Port Glasgow— Steam engines. 

2873. J. Bourne, Port Glasgow — Machinery for production of 

iron ships, &c. 

2874. J. Bourne, Port Glasgow — Construction of iron ships. 

2875. H. Bessemer, Baxter-house, Old St. Pancras-road — 

Railway axles and breaks. 



Dated \6th December, 1853. 



2876, 
2877 



2878 
2879, 



2881, 



2882, 
2883, 



2885. 
2886. 

2887. 

2888. 
2889. 
2890. 
2891. 
2892. 
2893. 



and 



A. Macpherson, Brussels — Disinfecting sewers 

converting contents to useful purposes. 
W. Muir, Britannia Works, Manchester — Machinery 

for cutting out garments. 
C. Coates, Sunnyside, Rawtenstall — Looms. 
H. L. Du Bost, 62, Rue Neuve des Petits Champs, 

Paris— Locks and keys. 
J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields — Furnaces for 

steel. (A communication.) 
E. Green. Wakefield — Boilers and furnaces. 
N. V. Guibert, Paris, and 4, South-street, Finsbury — 

Forge hammers. 
W. Thoneley, Clayton West, Yorkshire — Woven fabrics. 

Dated 12th December, 1853. 
E. O. W. Whitehouse, Brighton— Telegraphs. 
T. Hollingsworth, Winwick, Warrington — Railway 

breaks. 
W. Evans, Myrtle-street, Hoxton — Motive power. 

Dated 13th December, 1853. 

W. Redgrave, Croxley-green, Rickmansworth — Safety 
travelling cap. 

G. K. Hannay, Ulverstone — Composition grinding 
wheels, &c. 

J. Wansbrough, The Grove, Guildford-street, South- 
wark — Waterproof fabrics. 

W. F. Plummer, St. Mary's Overy wharf — Machinery 
for grinding or crushing, &c. 

G. Schiele, North Moor Foundry, Oldham — Preventing 
oscillation in engines, &c. 

A. G. Guesdron, Montmartre, Paris — Producing plans 
in relievo. 



Dated lilh December, 1853. 

2895. P. Grant, Manchester— Printing presses. 

2896. F. A. Gatty, and E. Kopp, Accrington— Printing and 

dyeing cotton, &c, 

2897. J. A. Coffey, Providence-row, Finsbury— Evaporating 

liquids. 

2898. E.Beanes, 57, Charlotte-street, Portlands-place— Manu- 

facture of sugar. 

2899. J. F. Kay, Dundee — Gas meters. 

2900. B. Fullwood, 23, Abbey -street, Bermondsey — Manufac- 

ture of cement. 

2901. J. Wibberley, Eagley, Bolton — Machinery, &c, for 

winding yarns, &c, on to spools, &c. 

2902. R. J. N. King, Exeter— Artificial bait for fish. 

2903. R. Parrock, Glasgow— Coats. 

2904. W. B. Johnson, Manchester— Machinery for making 

bricks, &c. 

Dated 15th December, 1853. 

2905. E. H. Rascol, Catherine-street, Strand— Gas retorts. 

(A communication.) 

2906. S. Messenger, Birmingham — Lamps. 

2907. T. Pugh, and W. Kennard, King-street, Snow hill— 

Lock and latch spindles. 

2908. J. B. Howell, and J. Shortridge, Sheffield— Tilt ham- 

mers. 

2909. J. P. H. Vivien, Paris, and 16, Castle-street, Holborn— 

Paper and pasteboard. 

2910. A. E. L. Bellford, 16, Castle-street, Holborn— Blasting 

powder. (A communication.) 

2912. J. B. Pascal, Lyons, and 16, Castle -street, Holborn — 

Motive power. 

2913. F. W. Branson, Oak-tree-house, Clapham — Tablets, 

labels, &c. 

2914. C.J. Morris, Kirby-street, Hatten-garden— Bookbind- 

ing. 

2915. B. Whitaker, Brighton— Toys. 

2916. A. Cochran, Krkton bleach-works, Renfrew— Starch, 

&c., to woven fabrics, &c. 



46 



List of Patents. 



[February, 



29l7. F. D. Gibory, Paris — Instruments for measuring 
heights and distances, and for levelling. 

291S. A. B. S. Bedford, Albion-place, Walworih-road, and 
T, Cloake, Saville-row, Walworth-road — Retarding 
&c. railway carriages. 

Dated 16th December, 1853. 
■2896. T. S. Truss, Cannon-street — Communication between 
engine-driver and guard. 

2919. W. Binnion. Birmingham — Lamps. 

2920. W.i G. Whitehead, Birmingham— Hats, caps, bonnets, 

&c. 

2921. W. Tranter, Birmingham — Fire-arms, bullets, and 

waddings. 

2922. A. Limousin, Paris, and 5, Lawrence Pountney-lane— 

Looms for pile fabrics, &c. 

2923. A. Meclail, Paris, and 4, Trafalgar-square— Hydraulic 

machine. 

2924. T. Williams, South Castle-street, Liverpool— Revolving 

pistol. 

2925. T. S. Truss, Cannon-street— Brakes for carriages. 

2927. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincolu's-inn-fields— Dyeing. (A 

communication.) 

2928. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-flelds— Treatment oi 

wool. (A communicntion.) 

2929. S. Norris, New Peter-street, Horseferry-road — Lighting 

and extinguishing gas lamps. 

2930. S. Smith, Horton Dye-works, Bradford — Rovings and 

yarns of wool. 

2931. A. Parkes, Birmingham — Separating silver. 

2932. R. B. Hall, Whitecross-street— Crushing, &c, quartz, 

&c. 

2934. A. L. Knox, Glasgow — Ornamenting textile fabrics. 

2935. H. Thomson, Clitheroe— Machinery, &c, for stretching 

textile fabrics, &c. 

2936. R. W. Waithman, Bentham-house, York— Bands, &c., 

for driving machinery, &c. 

Dated [7th December, 1853. 

2937. J. S. Bailey, Keighley — Machinery for wool, alpaca, 

&c., before being spun. 

2938. J. Horton, Birmingham — Metallic vessels. 

2939. G, Anderson, Rotherhithe — Manufacturing gas. 

2940. C. Bedells, Leicester — Elastic fabrics. 

2941. J. D. M. Stirling, Larches, near Birmingham — Manu- 

facture of iron. 

2942. J. Greenwood, 10, Arthur-street, "West — Preventing 

draughts of air into rooms, &c. 

2943. J. James, Cheltenham— Carts for distributing water, 

&c. 

2944. M. P. Houghton, and A. Stewart, Hillmorton — War- 

wick — Accidents upon railways. 

2946. R. Whewell, Little Boltsn— Machines for cutting paper. 

1L 
Dated 10th December, 1853. 

2947. H. Milward, Redditch— Sfeedles and fish-hooks. (A 

communication.) 

2948. J. Tribelhorn, St. Gall, and Dr. P. Bolley, Aarau, 

Switzerland — Bleaching vegetable fibrous sub- 
stances. (A communication.) 

2949. A. E. L. Belltord, 16, Castle-street, Holborn— Paddle 

wheels. (A communication.) 

2950. W. Crossby, Devonshire-street, Sheffield— Ventilation 

of granaries, &c, and grinding of grain, &c. 

2951. A. E. L. Bedford, 16, Castle-street, Holborn — Ex- 

pressing oil, &c, from fruits, &c. (A communica- 
tion.) 
2252. R. "Waywood, Newington-canseway— Portable forges. 

2953. D. Goldthorp, Cleckheaton— Propeller. 

Dated 20th December, 1853. 

2954. A. Paterson, Westminster — Cooking apparatus. 

2955. J. H. Campbell, I, King's Arms-yard, Coleman-street 

— Cutting corks. 

2956. J. L. Clark, 2, Chester-villas, Canonbury-park South 

— Insulating electric telegraph wires. 

2957. H.E. F. De G. V. Durut, Paris— Bread. 

2958. P. Wagenmann, Bonn— Parafine. 

2959. J. Boydell, Gloucester crescent — Wrought-iron frames. 

2960. E. V. F. Lemaire, 2, Rue Drouot, Paris— Tanning. 

2961. J. "Webster, 3, Cornwall-road, Stamford-street— Oils 

and varnishes. 

2962. J. Burrows, Haigh Foundry, Wigan— Metallic plates. 

2963. J. Burrows, Haigh Foundry, near Wigan— Steam 

boilers. 

2965. R. P. Huygens, Holland, and 89, Chancery-lane — 

Crushing, &c, ores. 

Dated 2\sl December, 1853. 
2697. C. J. Farrington, Hampstead— Railway signals, &c. 

2966. G. Boccius, Hammersmith— Breeding and rearing of 

fish. 
2268. H. Kohnstamm, 7, Union-court, Old Broad-street — 
Imitation leather. 

2969. T. V. Lee, 4, Loekyer-terrace, Plymouth, and 5, Bed- 

ford-row, Dublin — Bricks and tiles. 

2970. J. Dinning, and W. Inglis, Southampton — Purifying, 

&c, water. 

2972. J. Jones, Glasgow — Steam-engine governors. 

Dated 22nd December, 1853. 

2973. J. Touil, Burton-upou-Trent — Raising liquids, &c. 

2974. L. A. F. Besnard, Paris— Printing by means of litho- 

graphy. 

2975. P. A. Le Compte De Fontaine Moreau, 4, South-street, 

Finsbury, and 39, Rue de l'Echiquier, Paris — Con- 
necting rods. (A communication.) 

2976. W. H. Woodhouse, Parliament-street — Roads, ways, 

and ducts. 



2977. C. Lewis, Hull — Signal lamp. 

2978. B. Murgatroyd, Bradford— Washing, &c.,wool, alpaca, 
mohair, &c. 

2979. T. Berry, Rochdale — J» Manpnall, Heywood, and J. 
Chartwick, Heywood — Winding wool, &c. 

2980. J. Gibbons, jun., Wolverhampton — Locks and latches. 

2981. J. Shaw, Hatton-garden— Pianofortes. (A communi- 
cation.) 

Dated 23rd December, 1853. 

2982. J. Gillow, jun., Northwich— Salt. 
2984. J. Britten, Birmingham — Girders, &c. 

2984. J. O'Neil, Buiy — Drawing condensed steam and air 
from pipes. &c. 

2985. F. Bennpck, Wood-street, Cheapside — Coating silk, &c, 
with gold, &c. (A communication.) 

2986. I. D. Pfeiffer, Paris, and 4, South-street, Finsbury — 
Machine fur cutting paper, &c . 



Dated2Mh December, 1853. 

2987. R. G. Coles, Cheltenham— Locks of fire-arras. 

2988. J. Gaultier, Paris, and 4, South-street, Finsbury — 

Washing and bleaching. 

2989. G. Goutaret, Paris, and 4, South-street, Finsbury 

System of propulsion. 

2990. J.Margerison, Preston — Railway breaks. 

299i . H. Hardinge, New York — Liquid quartz or silex. 

2992. G. A. Buchholz, Gould-square, Crutched-friars— Clean- 

ing, &c. grain. ■ ■ • 

2993. J. Lewis, Salford — Drilling or boring metals. 

2994. T. Cooper, Leeds — Binding of ledgers and books. 

Dated 21th December, 1853. 

2995. T. W. Makin, Manchester— Finishing woven fabrics. 

2997. F. C. Calvert, Manchester — Treatment of naphthas, 

&e. (A communication.) 

2998. G. J. Mackelcan, Lechlade, Gloucester — Winnowing 

machines. 

2999. S. Sedgwiek and T. Dawson, 186. Piccadilly — Lamps. 

3000. T. S. Prideanx, St. John's Wood — Apparatus for regu- 

lating supply of air to furnaces, and for preventing 
radiation, &c. 

3001. T. Molyneaux, Manchesteu — Winding and doubling 

silk. 

Dated 28th December, 1853. 

3002. J. Parkinson, Bury — Governors. 

3003. J. Moffatt, Heiton — Communication between guard and 

driver. 

3004. J. Taylor, Birkenhead— Raising and lowering weights. 
3105. W. U. Coates, Ombersley — Rotary engine. 

3006. J. Alexis, Avignon — Railway break. 

3007. R. Green, Flint Glass AVorks, Brettell-lane — Insu- 

lators. 

3008. J. Mackintosh, 12, Pall Mall East— Discharging pro- 

jectiles. 

3009. J. Barnes, Church— Dyeing, &c, cotton, &c. 

3010. F. Parker, Northampton — Gaiters. 

3012. D. M'Nee, Hill-field, Kirkintillock, anl A. Broadfoot, 
128, Ingram-street, Glasgow— Printing with colours 
on cloth, &c. 

3113. T. Phi'lips, jun., Sparkbrook, and S. Phillips, Bir- 
mingham — Window-shutters. 

Dated 29th December, 1853. 

3014. H. Jackson, High- street, Poplar — Moulding bricks, &c. 

3015. E. Estivant, Givet, France — Copper tubes. 

3016. M.Phillips, Birmingham — Metallic revolving shutters. 

(A communication.) 

3017. A. F. Remond, Birmincham — Metallic tubes. 

3018. J. White, East-street, Red Lion-square — Friction joints. 

3020. C. A. Roux, Belleville, Paris, and 16, Castle-street, 

Holborn — Printing warps of cut pile, &c. 

3021. C. H. Vion, Paris, and 16, Castle-street, Holborn— Pis- 

tons and stuffing boxes. 

3022. A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Screws. (A com- 

munication.) 

Dated ZOth December, 1853. 
3025. B . Swire, Ashton-under-Ly ne — Metal tips for shoes and 
• ' clogs. 

2023. H. C. C. de Ruolz and A. de Fontenay, Paris— Metallic 
alloy. 

3027. J. Marlor, Oldham— Ascending and descending mines 

and shafts, &c. 

3028. W. Mabon, Ardwick Iron Works, r Manchester— Rivet- 

ting machines. 

Dated Zlst December, 1853. 

3029. J. Holroyd, Sowerby-bridse — Singeing textile fabries. 

3030. J. Miller, Stratford — Connecting the rails of railways, 

3031. H. V. Physick, 38, North Bank, Regent's-park— Elec- 

tric telegraphs. 

3033. J. Pym, Pimlico— Grinding ores, &c. 

3034. W. Tuxford, Boston — Thrashing machines. 

3035. A.Trueman, Swansea, and J. Baggs, London — Grind- 

ing, &c. gold quartz. 

3036. R. Waygood, Newington-causeway— Portable forges. 

3037. J. Holbrey, Bradford— Combing wool, &c. 

3038. J. Slater, Salford— Cocks, taps, or valves. 

3040. T. Brown and P. MacGiegor, Manchester — Looms. 

3041. A. Oppenheimer, Manchester — Silk velvet and piled 

goods. 

3042. B. Hunt, Brighton— Motive power. 

3043. P. Sonntag, Paris, and 4, South-street, Finsbury — Ap- 

paratus for measuring and fitting garments. 

3044. F. A. Clerville, Paris, and 4, South-street, Finsbury — 

Fire-arms. 
3015. S. T. M. Sorel, Paris, and 4, South-street, Finsbury — 
Compositions as substitutes for caoutchouc, &c. 



8. 


H. 


9. 


J. 


10. 


D. 


u. 


J. 


12. 


F. 


13. 


E. 


14. 


J. 


15. 


J. 


16. 


T. 


18 


J. 



Dated 2nd January, 1854. 

1. C. H. Collette, 57, Lincoln's-inn-fields— Sugar. (A com- 

munication.) 

2. E. D. Smith, 7, Hertford-street, May-fair— Communica- 

tion between passengers, guard, and engineer. 

3. A.Dawson, 14, Barnes-place, Mile End-road — Converting 

small coal, &c. into blocks of fuel, 

4. J. Gowans, Edinburgh— Heating and ventilating, &c. 

5. P. A. Montel, Paris— Stopping trains on railways. 

6. P. A. le Comte de Fontaino Moreau, 4, South - street, 

Finsbury, and 3?, Rue de l'Echiquier, Paris — Dye- 
ing wool. (A communication.) 

7. P. A. le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, 4, South-street, 

Finsbury — Water wheels. (A communication ) 

Dated 3rd January, 1854. 
. L. Corlett, 106, Summer-hill, Dublin— Caoutchouc 
springs. 
Madeley, Walsall — Tubes and nuts and heads of 

screws. 
Kennedy, Reading, U. S. — Manufacture of leather. 
Stovold, Barnes — Sifting gravel, Ike. 

A. T. de I eauregard, Paris — Drying cigars, &c. 
J. Willson, 477, Oxford-street — Portfolio, music books, 

&e. 

Collins, 32, St. Ann-street, Liverpool — Vinegar. 

J. Grylls, 3, Murton-street, Sunderland — Whelps for 
capstans, &c. 

Mann, Horsham — Cinder-sifting shovel. 

Dransfield and W. Robinson, Oldham — Carding en- 
gines. 

Dated 4th January, 1854. 

19. D. Hulett, High Holborn — Gas regulators. 

20. J.. Taylor, M. Wrigley, and S. Greaves, Oldham— Card- 

ing engines. 

Dated 5th January, 1854. 
Liddiard, Deptford — Prevention of smoke. 
Schischkar, Halifax, and C. F. Calvert, Manchester 
—Dyeing. 

B. White, Newcastle-upon-Tyne— Waterproof fabrics. 
H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields — Ventilating. 

(A communication.) 
. Rigby, Glasgow —Steam hammers and pile driving 

machinery. 
J. Pomme, Paris — Axles. 
, V. Newton, 66, Chancery -lane —Crushing, &c, 

quartz, &c. (A communication.) 

Dated 6th January/, 1854. 

Pearse, Cawsand, Cornwall — Navigating ships. 

, H. Edwards, Ludgate-hill— Peat, &c. for the purposes 
of fuel, &c. (Partly a communication.) 

, Tait, Glasgow — Ornamental fabrics. 

Radcliffe, Stockport — Looms. 

Healey, Bolton-le-Moors— Spinning machines, known 
asmules. (A communication.) 

. Poole, Avenue-road, Kegent's-park — Dextrine, glu- 
cose and alcohol. (A communication.) 
D. M. Stirling, Larches, Birmingham— Iron manu- 
facture. 

. V. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane— Motive power engines 
and pistons. (A communication.) 

Dated 1th January, 1854. 

38. W.E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Dyeing, &c. (A com- 
munication.) 

42. N. M. Caralli, Glasgow — Ornamental fabrics. 

41. H. S. Edwards, Paris — Textile fabrics. (A communica- 
tion. 

Dated Hth January, 1854. 
46. Z. Pettitt, Fordham, Colchester — Thrashing machines. 
48. R. Husband, Manchester — Ventilating hats. 
50. R. Howsoa, Manchester — Screw propellers. 

Dated 10th January, 1854. 

52. E. Tyer, 3, Rhodes-terrace, Queen's-road, Dalston — Sig- 
nals on railways by electricity. 

54. A. M. E. B. E. Ducros and O. Vedeau, Paris, and 16 
Castle-street, Holborn — Compounds for Dyeing. 

56. Rev. W. R. Bowditch, Wakefield — Purification of gas. 

58. A. Mitchell, Belfast — Propelling vessels. 

60. A. Dreyelle, Halifax— Combing machines, (A communi- 
cation.) 

Dated Ipih January, 1854. 

A. A. Mason, Paris — Gold or silver lace. 

W. Watt, Glasgow— Application of heat to drying pur- 
poses. 

R.A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street — Extracting gold from 
the ore. (A communication.) 

M. Vetillart, Le Mans, France— Drying woven fabrics, 
&c. 

F. Tussard, Paris, and 16, Castle-street, Holborn — Uni- 
versal pump press. 



21. 
22. 


J. 

E. 


23. 

2-i. 


D. 
J. 


25. 


W. 


26. 

28. 


L. 
A. 


29. 
30. 


J. 
H. 


31. 
32. 
33. 


R. 
J. 
J. 


34 


M 


35 


J. 


36 


A. 



LIST OF PATENTS SEALED. 

Sealed 21st December, 1853. 

1401. Robert Booty Cousens, of Halliford-street, Islington — 
Improvements in the manufacture of casks or 
wooden vessels. 

1521. John Henry Noon, of Salisbury-street, Portman-mar- 
ket — Improved method of stopping railway trains, 
and preventing railway accidents. 

1527. Noel Natalis du Chastaingt, of Paris— Improvement in 
bread making. 

1635. Thomas Kestell, of the Strand — Improvements in walk- 
ing stick umbrellas, applicable also to parasols. 



1854] 



List of Patents. 



47 



1781. William Woods Cook, of Bolton — Improvements in the 
manufacture of woven fabrics and in the apparatus 
employed therein. 

2039. Gage Stickney, of Hanover-street, Pimlico — Improved 

construction of blower. (A communication.) 

2040. Gage Stickney, of Hanover-street, Pimlico— Improved 

machinery for forging metals. (A communication.) 
2392. Capper Pass, of Bedminster— Improvements in the 

manufacture and refining of copper. 
2438. James Greenbank, and Samuel Pilkington, of Whit- 

neil, Lancashire — Improvements in machinery for 

spinning cotton and other fibrous substances. 

Sealed 23rd December, 1853. 
181. Andrew Edmund Brae, of. Leeds— Method of commu- 
nicating signals from one part of a railway train to 
another. 
1531. Peter Armand Le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, of 4, 
South-street, Finsbury — New distilling apparatus. 
(A commnnication.) 
1544. John Lyle, of Glasgow — Improvements in the manu- 
facture of figured or ornamental fabrics. 

1546. Leon Vails, of Paris— Improvements in the production 

of printing surfaces. (A communication.) 

1547. Daniel Illingworth, Alfred Illingworth, and Henry 

Illingworth, of Bradford, Yorkshire — Improvements 
in machinery or apparatus for combing wool, cotton, 
flax, silk, and other fibrous substances. 

1669. William Needham, of Smallhury-green, and James 
Kitejun., ofLambetli — Improvements in machinery 
and apparatus for expressing liquid or moisture from 
substances. 

1676. Robert Smith Bartleet, of Eedditch— Improvements in 
the manufacture of sewing needles. 

1767. John Knowles, of Manchester — Certain improvements 
in looms for weaving. 

1857. GeoreeParsons of West Lambrook — Improvements in 
steam engines and boilers. 

1896. John Clegg Boond, of Manchester — Certain improve- 
ments in Jacquard apparatus. 

2216. William Prior Sharp, John Hill the younger, and Wil- 
liam Martin, all of Manchester— Improvements in 
machinery for spinning arid doubling cotton and 
other fibrous substances. 

2508. Joseph Haley, of Manchester— Improvements in ma- 
chinery or apparatus for cutting, boring, and shaping 
metals and other substances. 

Sealed 2Uh December, 1853. 

1548. Antoine Andraud, of Paris — Certain improvements in 

railways and locomotives running thereon, which 
improvements facilitate the ascension of steep in- 
clines. 

Sealed 28th December, 1S53. 
1559. Carlo Minasi, of Camden Town— Improvements in con- 
certinas. 

1561. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford, of Castle-street, 

Holborn — Improvements in steam boilers. (A com- 
munication.) 

1562. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford; of Castle-street 

Holborn — Improvements in magneto-electro ma- 
chines. (A communication.) 
1564. Thomas Edward Irons, of Arbroath — Improvements in 
the manufacture of lasts, and in machinery con- 
nected therewith ; parts of which machinery are 
also applicable to other like purposes of eccentric 
turning. 

1581. William Charles Spooner, of Eling House, near South- 

ampton — Improvements in drills for agricultural 
purposes. 

1582. William Tasker, of the Waterloo Works, nearAndover 

— Improvements in drills for agricultural purposes. 

1598. Henry Meyer, of Manchester— Certain improvements 
in looms for wearing. 

1609. Peter Armand le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, of South 
street, Finsbury — Improvements in typographical 
printing presses. (A communication.) 

1621. Alexander Angus Croll, of Howrah House, East India- 
road— Improvements in apparatus used in the manu- 
facture of gas. 

1825. Thomas Moss, of Gainford-street, Islington— Improve- 
ments in printing bank notes, cheques, bills of ex- 
change, and other documents requiring like security 
against being copied. 

1899. Chandos Wren Hoskins, of Wraxhall — Improvements 
in the application of steam to cultivation. 

1967. Benjamin Hornbuckle Hine, Anthony John Mundella, 
and Thomas Thompson, all of Nottingham — Im- 
provements in machinery for the manufacture of 
textile and looped fabrics.. 

2206. Charles Edward Austin, of Rookwoods, Stroud — Im- 
proved reaping, gathering, and binding machine., 

2337. Bernard Couvan, of Fen'church-street — Improvements 
in giving signals on railways. 

2351. Richard Jones, and Charles John Jones, both of Ips- 
wich — Improvements in fire-arms. 

2358. John Thomas Way, of Holies-street, Cavendish-square 
Improvements in making and refining sugar, and in 
treating saccharine fluids. 

2433. James Warburton, of Addingham, York — Improve- 
ments in preparing rape-seed oil. (A communica- 
tion.) 

2442. John Baily, of Mount-street, Grosvenor-square — In- 
vention for the cure of the croup and other diseases 
in fowls and poultry. 

2455. Thomas Sumriierfield, of Birmingham — Improvements 
in the construction and manufacture of windows. 



2460. Alfred Curtis, of Sarratt Mills, Herts, and Bryan Don- 
kin, the younger, of Bermondsey— Improvements in 
machinery for cutting rags, rope, fibrous and other 
substances. 

2466. Charles Goodyear, of Avenue-road, St. John's-wood— 
Improvements in the manufacture of hoots and 
shoes. 

2475. Downes Edwards, of Ravenscliffe, Isle of Man— Im- 

provements in signal apparatus for railways. 

2476. Patrick Benignus O'Neill, of Paris— Improvements' in 

screw wrenches. (A communication.) 

2496. Aristide Michel Servan, of Philpot-lane — Improve- 

ments in treating phormium tenax, flax, and, other 
vegetable fibrous matters. 

2497. John' Johnson, of Over Darwen — Improvements in 

looms for weaving terry and other similar fabrics. 
2526. John Whitehead, and Thomas Whitehead, both of 

Leeds— Certain improvements in cutting-tools, and 

in the working of iron, brass, and other metals, and 

wood, and other materials. 
2530. Joseph Bauer, of Prague— Invention for cultivating 

and digging the soil by means of a steaih-digging 

and harrowing-machine,. 

2544. James Howard, of Bedford— Improvements in horse- 

rakes and harrows. 

2545. Richard Edward Hodges, of Southampton-row, Russell- 

square — Improvements in fastening the ends of 
springs made of india-rubber. 

2546. Charles'lles, of Peel Works, Birmingham— Improve- 

ments in metal bedsteads. 

2551. Thomas Irving, of Dalton, Kirkheaton— Improvements 

in preparing wool for spinning. 

2552. Bryan Edward Duppa, of Malmarpres Hall, Kent— Im- 

provements in colouring photographic pictures. 

2561. William Gilbert Ginty, of Manchester— Improvements 
in the mode of manufacturing the combustible gases 
resulting from the decomposition of water or steam, 
and in' the construction of apparatus connected 
therewith. 

2575. .John Rubery, of Birmingham— Improvements in the 
manufacture of open caps for sticks of umbrellas 
and parasols. 

2579. Henry Pershore, and Timothy Morris, both oW3irming- 
ham— Improvements in the deposition of metals and 
metallic alloys. 

2587. Alfred Vincent Newton, of Chancery-lane— Certain 
improved means for preventing the fraudulent ab- 
straction of property. 

2597. Thomas Dunn, of the Windsor bridge Iron Works, 
Pendleton, James Bowman, of Plaistow, and Joseph 
Dunn, of Pendleton — Improvements in machinery 
for raising, moving, and lowering heavy bodies. 

Sealed 29th December, 1853. 
1037. George Thomas Day, of Burghfield Hall, Berkshire- 
Improvements in travelling packages. 

Sealed 30lh December, 1 853. 

1574. Elias Robinson Handcock, of Pall Mall— Certain im- 

provements in mechanism to decrease friction in 
propelling machinery, ami to compensate for the 
wear thereof, and to strengthen the driving parts. 

1575. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford, of Castle-street, 

Holborn — Improvements in the construction of sub- 
marine or subaqueous tunnels or ways. (A com- 
munication.) 
1608. Peter Erard, of Marseilles— Certain improvements in 
steam boilers. 

Sealed 2nd January, 1854. 

1588. John Rollinson, of Kingswinford, and William Rollin- 
son, of Btierly hill— New or improved apparatus for 
preventing explosions in steam boilers. 

1590. Samuel Wellman Wright, of Chalford — Improvements 
in machinery or apparatus for reducing and pulveri- 
sing gold and other metalliferous quartz and earths, 
and in separating metal therefrom. 

1592. Richard Archibald Brooman, of Fleet-street — Certain 
machinery for converting caoutchouc' Into circular 
blocks or cylinders, and for manufacturing the same 
into sheets. (A communication.) 

1600. Decimus Julius Tripe^'of Commercial-road East — Im- 
provements in locks. ""■ ' 

1610. John Hood, and William Hood, of Glasgow— Improve- 
ments in the treatment or manufacture df ornamen- 
tal fabrics. 

1614. James Bradshaw, and Thomas Dawson, of Blackburn — 
Improved shuttle-skewer. 

Sealed $th January, 1854. 
1599. Marcus Davis, of 52, Gray's-ipn-lane — Improvements 
in carriages, scaffoldings, and ladders, which scaffold- 
ings and ladders are used as carriages. 

Sealed 6th January, 1854. 

1607. Thomas Newey, of Garbett-street, Birmingham — 
Improvements in fastenings for wearing apparel. 

1616. John Woodward, of Platt-street — An apparatus for 
curling hair. 

1628. William Robertson, of Rochdale — Improvements in 
machinery for preparing, spinning, and doubling 
cotton wool, and other fibrous substances. 

1633. Philipe Poirier de St. Charles, of Fulham— Improve- 
ments in apparatus for measuring and indicating the 
distance travelled by cabs and other vehicles. 

1636. Ewald Riepe, of Finsbury-square — Improvements in 
the manufacture of turret or clock tower and such 
like bells. 

1696. Jean Baptiste Jelie, of Alost, Belgium — Improved ma- 
chinery for dressing or polishing thread. 



1711. Donald Brims, of No. 159, Southwark Bridge-road— 
Improved safety apparatus for the protection and 
preservation of life on water. 

1806. Peter Armand Le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, 4, South- 
street, .Finsbury, and 39, Rue de FEchiquier, Paris 
— Improved mode of regulating the electric light. 

2042. John Clara, junior, of Liverpool— Improvements in 
the construction of iron houses, vessels, masts, spars, 
smoke-funnels, boilers, cylinders, beams, and other 
like structures or articles. 

2236. James Willis, of Wallingford — Improvements in gig 
harness. 

2388. George Frederick Chantrell, of Liverpool— Improved 
apparatus applicable to the manufacturing and the 
revivification of animal or vegetable charcoal, and 
other useful purposes. 

2458. John Fordred, of Dover, and Thomas Boyle, of Forest 
Gate, Kssex— Improvements in daylight reflectors, 
and in apparatus to be u^ed in connection therewith. 

2480. Thomas Dunn, of Windsor Bridge Iron Works, Pendle- 
ton, near Manchester, and William Gough, of 21, 
Old Crompton-street — Improvements in the manu- 
facture of veneers, and in machinery and apparatus 
connected therewith. 

1632. William Hadfield, of Manchester— Certain improve- 
ments in looms for weaving. 

(636. Matthew Gray, of Glasgow — Improvements in weft 
forks for power looms. 

Sealed 9rd January, 1854. 

1637. Ewald Riepe, of Finsbury-square — Improvements in 
moulds for steel castings. 

1641. Pierre Auguste Tourniere, of Lawrie-terrace, St. 
George's-road, and Louis Nicholas de Meckenheim^ 
of Birmingham — Improvements in the manufacture 
of soap and washing paste, and of the materials used 
therein. 

1653. William Levesly, of Sheffield— Improved method of 
making table knife blades. 

1736. William Huntley, of Kuswarp, near Whitby— Improve- 
ments in engines worked by steam, air, or fluids. 

1757. Thomas Banks, of Derby, and Henry Banks, of Wed- 

nesbury — Improvements in apparatus for retarding 
and stopping railway trains, which improvements 
are also applicable to vehicles travelling on common 
roaiis. 

1785. Peter Armand Le Comte de Fontainemorean, 4, South- 
street, Finsbury, London— and 39, Rue de l'Echiquier, 
Paris — Improved mode of producing an electric cur- 
rent. 

1919. William Hunt, of Lee Brook Chemical Works, near 
Wednesbury — Certain improvements in manufac- 
turing sulphuric acid. 

1961. William Rettie, of Aberdeen— Improved construction 
of submarine lamp. 

2065. Robert Harrington, of Witham — Improvements in um- 
brellas and parasols. 

2601. James Atkins, of Birmingham — Improvement or im- 
provements in ash pits for grates. 

2009. Alexandre Andre Victor Sarrazin de Montferrier, of 
Paris, and of 4, South-street, Finsbury— New rotatory 
steam engine. 

2613. Richard Dryburgh, of Leith— Improvements in the 
means of holding staves while being cut. 

2621. Johan Martin Levien, of Davies -street, Grosvernor- 
square — Improved construction of expanding tabie. 
Sealed 1 1 th January, 1854, 

1645. George Agar, of Witham, Essex— An apparatus for 
holding and turning over the leaves of music or 
music books. 

1650. George Dalton, of Lymington — Improvements in re- 

verberatory and other furnaces. 

1651. Felix Lieven Bauwens, of Pimlico — Improvements in 

the manufacture of candles. 

1652. Joseph Bacon Finnemore, of East-row, Birmingham — 

Improvements in sofa springs, useful for spring- 
stuffed upholstery work generally, and in the adap- 
tation thereof to mattresses. 
1658. James Fletcher, of Facit, near Rochdale — Certain im- 
provements in machinery used for spinning, doubling, 
and winding cotton, wool, flax, silk, and other fibrous 
materials. 

Sealed 15th January, 1854. 

1661. Henry Montague Grover, of Hitcham Rectory — A new 
method of finding and indicating the measurements 
of the sines and cosines of the arcs of circles or other 
peripheries. 

1663. Thomas Hill Bakewell, of Dishley, Leicestershire — Im- 
provements in ventilating mines. 

1667. Arnold Morton, of Cockerill's-buildings, Bartholomew- 
' close— Improvements in the manufacture of paints, 

pigments, and materials for house painting, paper 
staining, and, decorative purposes generally. 

1672. William, Henderson, of Bow-common — Improvements 
in the construation of furnaces for the purpose of 
obtaining products from ores. 

1707. William Boggett, of St. Martin's-lane, and William 
Smith, of Margaret-street — Improvements in ma- 
chines for cleaning and polishing knives. 

1758. Thomas Buxton, of Malton— Improved mill for grind- 

ing. 

1767. Ange Louis dn Temple de Beaujeu, of Paris, and of 
4, South-street, Finsbury— Improvements in rotary 
engines. 

1982. Eugene de Varroc, of Great Chesterfleld-street— Cer- 
tain means of depriving caoutchouc of all unpleasant 
odour, and of imparting to it various agreeable per- 
fumes. 



48 



IAst of Designs. 



[February, 1854. 



2111 
2365. 

2400. 

2432. 

2557. 

2590. 
2603. 
2628. 
2635. 
2546. 

2654. 
2662. 

2679. 
26S0. 



2694, 
2711, 



271.4. 



1584. 
1675. 
1679. 
1632. 

1683. 

1699. 
1705. 

1706. 
1745. 

1769. 
1863, 
1903. 

1914. 

2326 
2335 

2591, 



. George Robinson, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne — The novel 
application of the slags or refuse matters obtained 
during the manufacture of metals. 
Louis Achille Brocot, of Paris— Improved construction 
of astronomical calendar. 

John Elce, of Manchester — Improvements in machi- 
nery for preparing and spinning cotton and other 
fibrous substances. 

Charles Peynaud D'Azene, of 35, Essex-street, Strand 
— Improvements in the method of rendering sea 
water fit for drinking and all other purposes where 
fresh water is ordinarily used. 

James Garth Marshall and Peter Fairbairn, both of 
Leeds — Improvements in machinery for combing 
flax, tow, wool, and other fibrous substances. 

Joseph Henry Tuck, of Pall-mall — Improved machi- 
nery for obtaining and applying motive power, and 
for raising and forcing fluids. 

Edmund Hugh Graham, of Maine, U. S. — Improve- 
ments in fire-arms. 

William Rodger, of 9, Shawfield-street, King's-road — 
Improvements in anchors. 

Thomas De la Rue, of Bunhill-row — Improvement in 
the manufacture of paper. 

Alexander Cuninghame, of Glasgow— Improvements in 
the manufacture or production of sulphuric acid. 

John Hall Brock Thwaites and William Bird Herapath, 
both of Bristol — Improvements in the manufacture 
of quinine and other alkaloids. 

John Ronald, of Paisley — Improvements in fixing co- 
lours on yarns and cloths. 

John Clare, junior, of 21, Exchange-buildings, Liver- 
pool — Improvements in the manufacture of bar and 
sheet metals; in machinery cdnnected therewith ; 
and in the application of such metals to various use- 
ful purposes. 

William Taylor, of 16, Park-street, Gloucester-gate — 
Improvements in anchors. 

James Melville, of Roebank Works, Lochwinnoch — 
Improvements in printing textile fabrics and other 
surfaces. 

Moses Poole, of the Avenue-road, Regent's-park — Im- 
provements in surface condensors, and in evapo- 
rators and heaters for steam engines. 

John Gerald Potter and Robert Mills, both of Darwen 
Improvements in the manufacture of carpets. 

Alfred Bird, of Birmingham — Improvements in appa- 
ratus to be employed for the purpose of communi- 
cating signals on railway trains and railways ; which 
improvements are also applicable to other similar 
purposes. 

Frederick Levick and Joseph Fieldhouse, both of Cwm 
Celyn and Blaina Iron Works, Monmouthshire — Im- 
provements in machinery for raising coal and mine- 
rals from collieries and mines. 

John Mold, of No. 6, Portland-terrace, Westmoreland- 
road — Improvement or addition to augment conve- 
nience by transformation and facility the different 
lines required in the erection or manufacturing 
edifices or structures by apparatus, tools, or instru- 
ments suitable for the different capacities of opera- 
tivesjand general surveying. 

Sealed January Wh, 1854. 

Philip Hart, of Brierly-hill — Improvements in the 
manufacture of coke. 

George Humphrey, of Brighton— Improvements in re- 
gulating the supply of water for water closeis. 

Benjamin Looker, junior, of Kingston-on-Thames — 
Improvements in the manufacture of bricks. 

Robert Gordon, of Heaton Norris — Improvements in 
furnaces used with steam boilers, for the purpose of 
consuming smoke and economising fuel. 

Henri Joseph D'Huart, of Longwy, and of 16, Castle- 
street, Holborn — Improvements in the manufacture 
of pottery. 

Sealed January \§th, 1854. 

Henry Lamplough, of Gray's-inn-lane— Improvements 
in the preparation and manufacture of certain effer- 
vescing beverages. 

John Wallace Duncan, of Grove.end-road, St, John's- 
wood — Improvements in adhesive soles and heels 
for boots and shoes, and in apparatus used for pre- 
paring and applying the same. 

Isaie Alexandre, of Bruxelles and Birmingham— Im- 
provements in metallic pens and penholders. 

William Ireland, of Leek — Improvements in the mode 
or method of melting or fusing iron or other metals, 
and in the apparatus employed therein. 

Charles Cummins, of 148, Leadenhall-street — Im- 
proving clock escapements. 

Samuel Hall, of 16, Chadwell-street, Pentonville — 
Improvements in furnaces. 

John Henry Johnson, of 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields, and 
of Glasgow — Improvements in dyeing or colouring 
textile fabrics and materials, and in the machinery 
or apparatus connected therewith. (A commu- 
nication.) 

Edward Finch, of Bridge Works, Chepstow, and Charles 
Lamport, of Workington — Improvements in the 
masts and rigging of ships. 

William Beardmore, of Deptford, and William Rigby, 

of Glasgow — Improvements in steam engines. 
, James Webster, of Leicester — Improvements in water 
gauges for steam boilers, 

Humphrey Chamborlain, of Kempsey, near Worcester 
—Improvements in the manufacture of bricks and 
tubes or tiles. 



2605. Samuel Mead'Folsom, of Massachusetts, U.S. — Anew 
or improved instrument for ironing clothes or various 
other articles. (A communication.) 

2645. John Cameron and James Napier, both of Loughor, 
Glamorgan — Improvements in obtaining gold and 
silver from ores, alloys, or compounds containing 
such metals. 

2653. Philip Hill, of Gravel House, Coggeshall — Improve- 
ments in weaving plush and other piled fabrics. 
(Partly a communication.) 

2685. Henry Richard Cottam, of la, Sussex terrace, Hyde- 
park gardens— Improvements in the construction of 
portable houses. 

2717. William Pegg, of Leicester — Improvements in instru- 
ments for cutting out parts of garments and other 
articles, and in grinding and sharpening cutters for 
the same. 

2722. John Fielding Empson, of Birmingham — Improve- 
ments in the manufacture of wire. 

2730. Thomas William Kinder, of Dublin — Improvements in 
the construction of the permanent way of railways. 

2738. Elmer Townsend, of Massachusetts, U.S.— New and 
useful improvements in machinery for sewing cloth 
other material. (A communication.) 

2747. John Henry Johnson, of 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields, and 
of Glasgow— Improvements in carding engines for 
carding cotton and other fibrous material. (A com- 
munication.) 

Sealed 18ffi January, 1854. 

1710. Samuel Perkes, of Walbrook— Improvements in the 
construction of portable metallic folding bedsteads, 
chair-bedsteads, chairs, sofas, couches, settees, and 
such like articles for the use of emigrants and 
others ; and part of which improvements are appli- 
cable to ordinary bedsteads, sofas, couches, chairs, 
and such like articles in general. 

1717. Edward Dalton Smith, of Hertford-street, May Fair- 
Improvements in crushing and washing ores and 
earths. 

1793. John Shae Perring, of Bury — Improvements in the 
permanent way of railways. 

1808. Matthias Edward Bourd, of Crayford — Improvements 
in supplying ships or other vessels with water, air, 
or ballast. 

2668. Charles Burton, of New Oxford-street — Certain im- 
provements in hand and draught carriages for com- 
mon roads. 

2819. Charles William Hockaday, of Port Hall, Brighton^ 
Invention of a certain chemical compound or com- 
pounds, applicable as a remedy or remedies for 
scorbutic and other affections of the human body. 

Sealed I'Jth January, 1854. 

1712, Peter Armand Le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, of South- 
street, Finsbury — Invention of a new mode of fasten- 
ing buttons to garments, and an improved button, 
and also in machinery for manufacturing the same. 
(A communication.) 

17 14. Charles Breese, of Birmingham — Invention of a method 
of forming designs and patterns upon papier-mache, 
japanned iron, glass,, metal, and other surfaces. 

Sealed 20th January, 1854. 

1729. James Murdoch, of 7, Staple-inn, London — Improve- 
ment in stamping or shaping metals. 

2025. Richard Archibald Brooman, 166, Fleet-street — Im- 
provement in paddle wheels. 

2437. Samuel Lloyd, the younger, of Wednesbury — Improve- 
ment in the construction of turn-tables. 

2549. John Moffat, of Birmingham — Improvement or Im- 
provements in candlesticks. (Partly a communi- 
cation.) 

2687. Richard Stuart Norris, of Warrington, and Ebenezer 
Talbott, of Crewe — Improvement or improvements 
in the manufacture of iron. 

Sealed 2lsl January, 1854. 

1723. John Lilley, of Tbingwall— Separating the refuse vege- 

table matter contained in the stalk and leaves of 
the plantain species, and also trees grown in tropical 
climates, from the fibrous material of the same, in 
order that the latter may be manufactured into 
ropes or cordage, and for other purposes for which 
hemp and flax are used. 

1724. William Cirkett, of Manningham Mills, Bradford- 

Method of cleansing or purifying and treating soap- 
suds or wash-waters, so as to fit them to be attain 
used for the washing of wools and other siafSar 
matters. 

1725. Simon Charles Mayer, of Paris, and of 16, Castle-street, 

Holborn — Improved domino bearer. 

1728. Edward Cockey, Henry Cockey, and FrancisChristoph er 
Cockey, Frome— Improvements in the manufacture 
or production of cheese. 

1732. John Gillam, of Woodstock — Improvements in appa- 
ratus for cleansing and separating corn, grain, and 
other seeds. 

Sealed 23rd January, 1854. 

1739. John Hall, of Bedford— Improved mangle. 

1741. Samuel Barlow, junior, of Stakehill, and John Pendle- 
bury, of Crumpsall — Improvements in machinery or 
apparatus for bleaching or cleansing textile fabric- 
or materials. 

1744. Alexander Clark, of Gate-street, Lincoln's-inn-fields— 
Improvements in regulating the speed and indicating 
the power of steuu* and other motive power 
engines. 



1898. George Peel and Robert Brownhill, both of Manchester 
Improvements in air-pump buckets, and in valves 
for steam engines and other purposes. 

1963. John Whiteley, of Stapleford-Improvemcnts in warp 
machinery for the manufacture of textile fabrics. 

1989. James Hill, of Stalybridge — Improvements in ma- 
chinery used for spinning, doubling, and winding 
cotton, wool, flax, silk, and other fibrous materials. 

2171. Charles Collins, of Hertford, U.S. —Manufacture by 
machinery of tubes from leather or other suitable 
flexible substance, chiefly for covering the drawing 
rolls of spinning machinery, but also applicable to 
other purposes. 

2423. John France, of North Wharf-road, Paddington— Im- 
proved morticing machine. 

Sealed 25th January, 1854. 

William Wild, of Salford— Improvements in machinery 
or apparatus for coveting rollers used in the manu- 
facture of cotton and other textile materials, with 
leather, cloth, or other substances. 

Samuel C. Lister, of Manningham— Improvements in 
machinery for washing wool and hair. 

George Armitage, of Bradford, Yorkshire— Improve- 
ments in the construction of presses. 

Richard Christie, and John Knowles, both of Fairfield, 
Lancashire— Improvements in the manufacture of 
terry, cloth, or other woven fabrics having looped 
surfaces, and in the machinery or apparatus con- 
nected therewith. 

Thomas McSweeney, of America-square, London — Im- 
provements in the construction of ships and vessels. 

Robert Smith Bartleet, of Redditch— Improvements in 
apparatus used in sewing. 

Alexander Tariff, of Paisley— Improvements in retard- 
ing apparatus for the prevention of accidents on 
railways. 

John Colin Sharpe, of Paisley — Improvements in re- 
tarding apparatus for the prevention of accidents 
on railways. 

Stephen Barker, of Birmingham — Improvement or 
improvements in shaping metals. 

John Liddell, of Glasgow — Improvement or improve- 
ments in power-loom weaving. 

Joseph Fry, of Cannon-street-west— Improvement in 
preparing solvents for india-rubber and gutta- 
percha, and in rendering water-proof fabrics free 
from odour. 

Francis Arding, of the Albert Iron Works, Uxbridge — 
Improvements in machinery for cutting, splitting, 
and bruising vegetable substances. 

Daniel Lancaster Banks, of St. James's-place, Toxteth- 
park, Liverpool— Improvements in rotatory engines. 

Davidson Nicholl, of Edinburgh — Improvements in 
the manufacture of envelopes. 

George Collier, of Halifax — Certain improvements in 
looms for weaving. 

Samuel C. Lister, of Bradford, Yorkshire— Improve- 
ments in combing wool, hair, cotton, and other 
fibrous materials. 

Jonathan Saunders, of St. John's Wood — Improvements 
in the manufacture of rails for railways. 

John Hargrave, of Kirstall, Yorkshire — Certain im- 
proved apparatus for washing and scouring wool. 



1778, 

1794 
1S22 
1846 

1862, 
1894, 
2272, 

2328. 

2622, 
2644. 
2648. 

2718. 

2740. 
2742. 
2808. 
2810. 

2812. 
2838. 



DESIGNS FOR ARTICLES OF UTILITY. 

1853. 
Dec. 22, 3542, Henry Barlow, 9, Bloom-street, Salford, and 
John Kay, 356, Rochdale-road, Manchester, 
"Apparatus to retain Venetian blinds at 
any required elevation." 

„ 22, 3543, Charles Meinig, 103, Leadenhall-street, "A 
stand or framing for grindstones." 

„ 31, 3544, George Waide Reynolds & Co., Broad-street 
Birmingham, " Improved adjustable fasten- 
ing for stays, antigropelos, gaiters, and 
other articles of wearing apparel," 

1854. 

Jan. 2, 3545, Holden and Nicholas, Brook-street, St. Paul's, 
Birmingham, " A shot charger." 
„ 2, 3546, William Meyerstein, 47, Friday-street, City, 
" Reversible sofa bed." 
Jan. 5, 3547, Henry Hill and Richard Millard, 7, Duncan- 
non-street, London, "An adjusting arm for 
reclining chairs." 
„ 3548, Dent, Allcroft, and Co., Wood-street, Cheap- 
side, " The Windsor cravat." 
, 7, 3549, J. D. Potter, 31, Poultry, "Captain Field's 

improved parallel rule." 
, „ 3550, Hammond, Turner and Sons, Birmingham, 
" Button.'' 
„ 3551, Hammond, Turner and Sons, Birmingham, 
"Metal button." 
, 10, 3552, Stock and Son, Birmingham, " Water-closet." 
Jan. 19, 3553, Batty & Co, 101 and 102, Leadenhall-street, 
City, " A Plugged Jar and Cover." 
, 20, 3554, Henry Greaves, Birmingham, "Portmanteau." 
, 23, 3555, Waterlow & Sons, London Wall, " American 

Envelope." 
„ „ 3556, Henry Hill and Richard Millard, 7, Dnn- 
cannon-stree t, London, " A Dispatch Writing 
Case." 



ii,M, 






THE ARTIZAN. 



No. CXXXIV.— Vol. XII.— MAECH 1st, 1854. 



MEMOIR ON RIVER STEAM NAVIGATION IN FRANCE. 

By Joles Gaddrs, Engineer. 

We find in the Publication Industrielle of M. Armengaud, Paris, an 
interesting paper on the subject of river steam navigation, from which 
we extract some notes which may be useful to our readers, of whom 
there are not probably many who are acquainted with the continental 
systems.* 

Together with the development of our railways, each year witnesses 
the improvement of our river navigation, and an augmentation in the 
number and power of our steam-boats. The question may fairly be 
asked, if our constructors are out of the reach of criticism in the means 
which they adopt to produce better results ? and this question I will 
proceed to discuss. The problem to be solved presents various aspects. 
We have rivers sinuous like the Seine, narrow like the Saone, rapid 
like the Rhone, or full of moving sands like the Loire, but all unite in 
being shallow, and admitting in general of vessels drawing but little 
water. Still, unhoped-for successes have been obtained in spite of these 
difficulties, principally on the Saone and the Rhone, which have not 
less than eighty steamers. These boats attain a speed of 12§ miles per 
hour in ascending the Saone, the current of which but little exceeds 
20 inches per second (say 1$ mile per hour), and 9 - 3 miles on the 
Rhone, where the current runs from 5 to 7 miles per hour. We 
ought to render justice, in passing, to the boats of the two Lyonnese 
rivers, which,, in the conduct of their service, are not inferior to the 
celebrated omnibus steamers of the Thames. Each day five large 
boats touch as well at Lyons as at Chalons, at a quay hardly 170 yards 
long, occupied by other vessels, and where the taking in and putting 
out passengers is effected quickly, without confusion. One of the 
secrets of the order with which this is effected, is the suppression of the 
practice of allowing the passengers to land from the sponsons of the 
paddle boxes. Both landing and embarking is effected from one end of 
the ship, and thus all accidents arising from the crowding of the pas- 
sengers to one side, and endangering the stability of the vessel, is 
removed.f 

Three kinds of steamers are employed on these rivers — the tug 
boats, the goods boats, and the swift passenger boats. 

Of this last class there are three running on the Saone with great 

* We are el 'd tn find that the details of French steam navigation companies, given in 
our last number, have heen duly appreciated by some of our readers desirous of doing 
busine-s with that cl'ss of consumers. 

f This may be necessary with vessels which are twenty rimes their beam in length, but 
wonM not suit our Thames traffic, where stoppages are so frequent and the time al- 
lowed for each so short. i 



success, which may be taken as good types of their respective kinds. 
In the following table they are numbered 1, 2 and 3 : — 





No. 1. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 


Length of vessel . . . .60 metres. 


67 metres. 


80 metres. 


Breadth 


5 


4-10 


4 


Ratio of length to breadth 


i 

T-i 


i 

T5 


i 

25 


Maximum draft of water. . 


•70 


•70 


•80 


Immersed section 


3-50 


2-90 


3-20 


Horse power 


70 


120 


200 


Horse power per metre of 








immersed section 


20 


41 


62 


No. of floats in wheel . . 


14 


16 


16 


Surface two floats 


1-60 


2'90 


366 


Ratio of float to immersed 








section 


0-45 


1-0 


112 


Height of float 


•40 


•55 


•80 


Diameter of wheel over all 


4-14 


485 


4,95 


Diameter of wheel at centre 








of pressure, reckoning 








one-third off the exterior 








of each float 


3-62 


4-13 


4-m 


Number of revolutions per 








minute 


32 


34 


37 


Speed of the floats in metres 








per minute at the centre 








of pressure 


363 


440 


4S2 


Speed of vessel per minute 








in ascending . . 


265 


300 


333: 


Ratio of speed of boat to 








speed of wheel 


•73 


•68 


•69' 



No. 1 is an excellent type of the original steamers which have popu- 
larised the navigation of the f aone, and which enjoy still a reputation, 
merited, if not by their great speed, at least by their strength and com- 
fortable arrangements. That whieh characterises the first type in the 
preceding table, is its inferiority in speed. On the other hand, we 
ought to remark, first, the comparative small power of its engines, 
which only develop 20 horse power per square metre of immersed 
section, whilst No. 2 has 41, and No. 3, 62 horse power. This engine 
has two vertical cylinders, on Mr. Jackson's system,* with side levers, 

* Mr. Jackson, of the firm of Fenton, Murray and Jackson, of Leeds, was one of the 
earliest introducers of steam navigation into France; and we take the opportunity of repro- 
ducing here some notes given some years ago to the Editor by Mr. Jackson himself. The 



50 



Notes on the Progress of Naval Engineering and Architecture. 



[March, 



of the kind called " half lever " engines, from the main centre of the 
side lever being at one extremity, whilst the main side rods and the 
connecting rod are at the other. We ought to remark, secondly, its 
smaller ratio of length to breadth, as compared with the other boats, 
and thirdlyvthe higher ratio of the speed of the boats to that of the 
wheels, which is 73 for No. 1 ; -68 for No. 2, and -69 for No. 3. This 
last is one of the fastest and best boat known. We cannot choose a 
better example of its kind, with its great length, and its horizontal 
engine, working high pressure and condensing, resembling those made 
at Creusot. No. 2, constructed three years ago at Paris, is also dis- 
tinguished by its speed, its length of fine lines, and by its elegance and 
good workmanship. The engines are on the condensing principle, with 
two inclined cylinders on the locomotive system. That which distin- 
guishes this boat from the preceding one, is the form given to its ex- 
tremities. 

In this respect there are four distinct varieties to be observed. 

In the type No. 2 the lines forward are rather short and straight at the 
water line. The lines aft are much longer and very fine, but sufficient 
fulness is preserved above water to give a commodious deck. 

In a great number of boats on the Loire and the Seine, the extremi- 
ties are convex at the water line, but in the type of the boats made at 
Creusot, on the contrary, the flatness of the floor is carried further, the 
extremities are relatively shorter, with hollow water lines and knife-like 
cutwaters. 

Type No. 3 is intermediate between these two last. It owes to 
No. 2 its long and fine extremities, especially the lines aft, and to the 
type of Creusot its hollow water lines, although in a less degree. 

We do not yet possess on our French rivers, as far as I am aware, 
the American type, in which the lines forward, excessively fine, occupy 
two-thirds the length of the hull. 

We may now compare one of the boats on the Rhone with those 
which we have just described. I have chosen one of the fastest, resem- 
bling No. 2 in its lines, and type No. 3 in its general dimensions, which 
are as follows : — 

Length .. .. 80 metres. 

Breadth ... 4-10 

Ratio of length to breadth . . . . 1 19"5 

Draught of water .. .. .. 075 

Immersed section . . . . . . 307 

Horse power . . . . . . . . 240 

Do. per sq. metre of immersed section 78 

Speed in going up . . . . . . 15 kilo. 

Do. in coming down . . . . ... 32 

Do. in still water 24 = 14-8 miles. 

The wheels give on an average 34 revolutions per minute. They are 
5 metres extreme diameter, and 4 metres 20 reduced diameter, 16 floats 
each, and 3 60 square metres of two floats — that is, as in type No. 3, a 
little more than the immersed section of the boat. The speed of the 
floats at the centre of pressure is 448 metres per minute; the speed 
of the boat in going up, being 250 metres, the ratio is -051. In ex- 
periments made in still water, the speed is nearly the same as that of 
the centre of pressure of the floats, one being 400 metres, and the 



ollowing dimensions refer to a boat of a smaller class than that in the table : — Length of boat 
125 feet; beam 11 feet H inches; depth 8 feet; cylinders 24 inches diameter and 3 feet 
stroke; paddle "wheels 13 feet 4 inches diameter over floats; depth of floats 22 inches; 
bottom of boat to centre of shafts 7 feet. Two cylindrical boilers 4 feet 6J inches diameter 
and 14 feet 6| inches long. Two furnaces 1 9 inches wide and 4 feet 8 inches long. A steam 
chest on each boiler 3 feet diameter and 4 feet 6 inches high. Weight of engines and boilers 
complete, 22 tons. Draught, with 300 passengers, not more than 20 inches. The pressure 
used, if we remember rightly, was 30 lbs. per square inch, worked expansively and condens- 
ing. There was only one air-pump, 20 inches diameter and 1 8 inches stroke. At that time, 
these were probably the lightest condensing engines, for their effective power, in exist- 
ence ; but a pair of oscillating engines of 6 inches shorter stroke, might now be m?de to 
give the same power, and with a weight not exceeding 18 tons. The height of the engines 
and the diameter of the wheels are said in the above instance to have been reduced, in 
order .to admit of the boat passing under certain bridges, when the river was atits highest. 
— Ed. Artizan. 



other 448 metres per minute. On going down the stream, the speed of 
the boat attains 533 metres per minute, and exceeds that of the floats 
by 83 metres, the wheels not turning any faster in going down than 
coming up; from which it follows that, independently of the power 
exerted by the engines, the boat is carried by this river at the rate of 
84"6 metres per minute. 

The cylinders, like those of No. 2, of the Saone, are inclined at an 
angle of 4 5°. The pistons are 57 inches diameter, and 4 feet stroke, 
working at 1J atmosphere,* cut off at /„, and condensing. Steam is 
supplied by two tubular boilers, with separate chimneys, and having 1| 
square metre (16 square feet) of heating surface per horse power. 

I pass now to the boats employed to carry goods. Their number is 
considerable, chiefly on the Rhone, where they attain almost colossal 
dimensions. They are made even 140 metres long, and 450 horse 
power. The breadth is about 7 metres, with 1"30 metre depth of 
hold, which gives about 9 square metres for the immersed section. 
The ratio between the breadth and length varies from T ' ? to 9 \,. The 
horse power per square metre of section varies from 33 to 44, the 
speed being about 8 to 10 kilometres per hour in all cases. The most 
of these boats issue from the building yards of Creusot, or at least, are 
copies of them. The engineers of this establishment, more fortunate 
than Bury, Miller, Jackson, and other English engineers, have made 
the Rhone one of the most important navigable lines of Europe. 
These boats, as well as those of a similar class on other rivers, are only 
distinguished by their forms being rather fuller, to enable them to 
carry more goods. 

I need only mention, in passing, the tow-boats, properly so called, 
which abound on all our lines except the Rhone. The rapidity of the 
stream has long been an obstacle to the use of tow-boats; but we have 
"bateaux a grappins" from Verpilleux, in which the motion of the 
engines is applied to the ordinary paddle wheels, and also by the means, 
of an endless chain, to the " gray pin" which consists of a large disc 
armed with steel teeth, which takes hold of the bottom of the river, 
like a rack, and has sufficient force to carry up 600 tons of goods in 
the most rapid parts of the river.f 

To this system let us add that of the tow-boats on the Seine, in 
which a drum, worked by the engines, takes hold of a chain lying at 
the bottom of the river, and thus serves to haul the boat along. 

(To be continued.) 

NOTES ON THE PROGRESS OF NAVAL ENGINEERING 

AND ARCHITECTURE. 

By " Navalis." 

History will no longer be a mere " record of the follies and misfor- 
tunes of mankind," as Gibbon has declared, in his usual sweeping 
style. The highest state of civilisation and prosperity is now attainable 
by the more honourable but peaceful means of the industrial arts ; and 
Britain — the workshop of the world — owes her pre-eminence to the 
growth and development of her mechanical genius ; thus, the invention 
of a new industry, or the application of a new principle in the pursuits 
of commercial enterprise, constitutes an epoch in the history of her in- 
dustrial operations, and propulsion by the screw, in conjunction with iron 
shipbuilding, promise to work out as great a revolution in human affairs 
as the cotton manufacture or locomotion by steam, and stand out in bold 
relief among the most prominent features of the age. We do not com- 
mit ourselves to any special promise, but purpose giving a glance at the 
various movements and improvements in connection with our navy and 
mercantile marine, as circumstances present themselves, and fall under 
our observation. 

* This is understood to be 7$ lbs. per square inch, English reckoning. — Ed. 
t Vide Mr. Bourne's plans for the navigation of shallow rivers in India, p. 145, vot- 
1850. -Ed. 



1S54. 



Notes on the Progress of Naval Engineering and Architecture. 



51 



The first voyage of the Himalaya has astonished the public, and more 
than met the expectations of her friends. It will be remembered that 
it was first intended to make her a paddle-wheel vessel, but after the 
works had commenced, the design was altered to adapt her for being 
propelled by the screw : the result is now before the public ; and the 
company have reason to be proud of their judgment and enterprise. 

This vessel, it may be worth while to repeat, is iron-built ; and was 
constructed by Messrs. Mare and Co., of Blackwall, from the designs of 
Mr. J. Waterman, jun., and is fitted with Penn's trunk- engines, of 
700-horses power (nominal), having cylinders 84 inches diameter, with 
a stroke of 3 feet 6 inches. The propeller is a common two-bladed 
screw, 18 feet diameter and 28 feet pitch — a large pitch in proportion 
to the diameter ; but the lines of the Himalaya are exceedingly fine, 
with the resultant pressure thrown considerably aft, and approaching 
to the wave-line principle of Mr. Scott Russell. Her principal dimen- 
sions are — length over all, 372 feet 9 inches; length of keel, 311 
feet ; depth of hold, 24 feet 9 inches ; and breadth for tonnage, 46 
feet 2 inches ; registered tonnage, 3,550 tons, or an actual burden of 
about 4,000 tons ; the ratio of tonnage to horse power of engines is, 
therefore, nearly 5 to 1. The boilers are on Lamb and Summer's patent 
flue principle (vide Artizan, vol. viii.), and are stated to have yielded an 
ample supply of steam. 

The Himalaya left Southampton on her first voyage on the 20th of 
January, and proceeded against a heavy gale at the rate of sometimes 10 
knots an hour, and never less than 8J ; and, after rounding Cape Fin- 
isterre, spread canvas and proceeded to Gibraltar, at a speed of from 14 
to 15i knots, or 17 T o statute miles, per hour, and continuing on to 
Malta with varying states of the wind and weather, accomplished the 
distance, 1,000 miles, in 77 hours, giving an average speed of 13 knots 
per hour. The remaining parts of the voyage were attended with equally 
good results, having at one time, on the return home, steamed against 
a heavy north-west gale, with a most confused and heavy rolling sea, 
at a rate of from 6| to 7 knots an hour. These are extraordinary good 
results, considering that the ratio of tonnage to horse power is a little 
more than 5 to 1, while in paddle-wheel vessels, the ratio is generally 
from 2| to 3 to 1, and producing even then less favourable results; and 
it would furthermore appear, that weatherly and good sea-going quali- 
ties are not altogether incompatible with the attainment of a high 
speed : it is pretty evident that length will give longitudinal stability, 
while a comparatively small beam will give an easy roll through a small 
arc. 

The boomerang propeller has received another trial; and the inventor 
not having been limited to any special dimensions by the aperture in 
the stern, this experiment may be taken as giving a fair measure of its 
capabilities. The vessel to which it is fitted — the Manilla — is iron-built, 
by Mare and Co., for the same company as the Himalaya — the Oriental 
and Peninsular. The tonnage of this ship is 638 tons, and fitted with 
geared trunk-engines of 60-horses power, by Summers, Day, and Bal- 
dock ; having cylinders of 30 inches diameter, and 27 inches stroke ; 
and making, during the experiments, 61 revolutions per minute. The 
diameter of the boomerang is 11 feet, with a pitch of 9 feet 2 inches, 
and making, during the experiments, 113 revolutions; the speed of the 
vessel being 9'365 knots per hour, or 11| statute miles. The ratio of 
nominal horse power to tonnage is nearly 1 to 10J — a very small power 
for the tonnage ; but we must caution the student against entertaining 
the supposition that this speed was produced by an engine-power equal 
to the effect of 60 horses; for, taking the Admiralty formula, which 
allows a pressure of 7 lbs. on the square inch on the pistons, the power 
given out would be 30 2 x 7854 x 7 X 61 x 4| x 2 t 33,000 
— 82-horses power ; and very probably the pressure on the pistons was 
12 lbs. to the square inch, and the effect given out by the engines 
during the experiments equal to that of 1 40-horses ; and the ratio of 



power to tonnage effecting a velocity of 9*365 knots per hour would, 
therefore, be about 1 to A\ ; thus, the matter sinks into a case of ordi- 
nary significance. 

The reports of trial-trips in the hands of non-professionals are too 
apt to lapse into perpetrations of unmitigated puffery ; and the figures, 
generally speaking, should be taken as measuring the greatest effect 
which can be forced from the machinery, rather than as the measure 
of working efficiency. If the actual power of the engines, and of the 
screw shaft, were given with the speed of the vessel, these reports 
would supply reliable data, which would be useful to the professional 
student, and be a fair measure of the capabilities of both the machinery 
and the vessel. 

The Manilla is one of the vessels that have been chartered by the 
Government for the conveyance of troops to Malta ; and we cannot help 
thinking that they exhibit a large amount of assurance in chartering a 
vessel propelled by an instrument which cannot yet be said to have 
been fully submitted to the tests and strains of ocean navigation. 

The last great experiment in ocean steam navigation — the abridging- 
the Pacific by a line of screw steamers — is now on the eve of commen- 
cing. The Australasian Pacific Mail Steam-packet Company's steamship 
Emeu is the pioneer of a fleet of six screw-steamers, which are destined 
to establish the direct route to the Australian colonies via the Isthmus 
of Panama. The Emeu was constructed by Mr. Robert Napier, of 
Glasgow. Her dimensions will befound at anotherpagi.. She has been 
fitted especially for comfortable passenger accomodation (this is a good 
sign: there is something exceedingly inhuman inhaving poor sea-sick pas- 
sengers stowed upon a shelf like so many jars of pickle, and calling that 
a sleeping berth). The Emeu steamed from Greenock to the Needles, 
a distance of about 570 miles, in 46| hours, giving an average speed of 
10J knots per hour. She is fitted with Griffith's patent propeller; but 
being lightly laden, the screw had not sufficient hold of the water for 
producing the most favourable results. After rounding Land's End-top- 
sails and foresails were set, and a speed of from 12i to 12| knots per 
hour was effected. 

It was intended by the company to have sent her out on a further 
trial trip across the Bay of Biscay, to test her sea-going and steaming 
qualities, prior to sending her to the scene of her future important 
operations between Sidney and Panama. This trip, however, has been 
extended to Malta by the Government, the Emeu and her sister vessel 
the Kangaroo having been chartered by the authorities for "particular 
service." 

Liverpool continues to execute its share of first-class marine engineer- 
ing. Since the dissolution of Bury and Co>, the principal part of the 
work has been divided among the Messrs. Preston and Co., Phcenix 
Foundry ; Macgregor and Co., Vauxhall Foundry ; and Benjamin Hick 
and Son, of Bolton. The Messrs. Preston and Co. fitted engines (to 
Liverpool-built ships alone) to the extent of nearly 2,000-horses power, 
during last year. We lately noticed some decent examples of direct- 
acting engines by Hick and Son, with the air-pumps double acting, 
and moving at the same velocity as the piston, with the link motion 
in its improved state, and an ingenious mode of taking the thrust of 
the screw shaft by a series of conical-shaped rollers mounted in a frame 
somewhat similar to the rollers of a railway turntable in miniature. 

The Sardinian frigate-of-war, Carlo Alberto, at Shields, is now nearly 
completed, and in the course of a few days will proceed to the Thames, 
to take in her armament. There is something peculiarly original in the 
design of her engines, which are horizontal ^and direct-acting ; each 
piston has four rods, which extend beyond the cranks, and are fixed to 
the air-pump plunger; the air-pump is open at the end next the crank, 
and the main conneeting-rod is jointed to the centre of the plunger, and 
returns and takes hold of the crank pin — thus the air-pump may be 
called the parallel motion of the engine. This arrangement, together 



52 



Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 



[March, 



with their link motion, we apprehend, will make a very compact pair of 
engines. 

There are many other notable points in the arrangements of the Carlo 
Alberto, but which, to do justice to, we must defer until another oppor- 
tunity. 

A Government examination has been instituted as to the eligibility of 
mercantile steamers for war purposes in case of emergency. Only six- 
teen could be found which could be rendered fit for temporary service 
as war steamers — the questions of speed and passenger accommodation 
having sunk all other considerations (notwithstanding the terms of- the 
mail contracts, which stipulates that they must be capable of bearing 
armament) ; and thus our fine fleets of mercantile steamers are no more 
fit for the working of heavy ordnance than "the house that Jack 
built;" but we may as well give the report of the committee in full : — 
" Our opinion is, that the ships of these companies can never be 
regarded as efficient substitutes for regular men-of-war ; and that 
opinion is based on the following considerations : — 1. Their sharp form 
of bow to promote speed, continued upwards as it is to the height of the 
portsills, renders it impossible to point and elevate guns in the line of 
keel. 2. Their rake of stern would render it dangerous to fire a gun 
when elevated, more particularly when trained from a fore and aft line. 
3. These vessels having been designed entirely for steam propulsion 
and passenger accommodation, all other purposes have been made sub- 
servient to those ends. We find, too, that no attention has been paid 
to the importance that should be attached to the exposure of the 
engines, boilers, and steam-chest to shot, which, though in some degree 
unavoidable in all paddle-wheel steamers, appears to exist in these 
vessels to a most dangerous extent. After taking a deliberate view of 
the whole question submitted to us, we have arrived at the conclusion 
that the ships referred to, provided they could be spared, would serve 
the purposes of armed troopships, and might occasionally be used, in 
the event of war, in our colonies abroad." 

The committee do not appear to have extended their inquiry as to 
the possibility of rendering our smaller steamers into gun-boats for 
light predatory warfare, in case the state of affairs should become more 
complicated. 

The English language is still destitute of a practical treatise on iron 
shipbuilding. Mr. Grantham's communicati on to the Polytechnic Society 
of Liverpool is, we believe, the only printed work upon the subject ; and 
this is more a disquisition on the relative merits of wooden and iron- 
built ships, than an exposition of the principles and details of construc- 
tion. 

Of a similar character is the recently issued circular of Mr. Hodgson, 
consulting engineer, of Liverpool, upon the comparative annual cost of 
the working of a wooden and iron-built ship of 1,000 tons each. His 
estimates are as follows : — 

Prime cost of a wooden ship, at £16 10s. per ton, will be £16,500; 
of an iron-built ship at £13 10s. per ton, will be ,£13,500, or a differ- 
ence of <£3,000 in favour of the iron- built ships; then for a wooden 
ship : — 

£16,500 at 3 per cent, for insurance. . . . £495 

Do. 5 do. depreciation . . 825 

Do. 5 do. interest .. .. 825 



Total 

and for an iron-built ship : 

.£13,500 at 3 per cent, for insurance. . 
Do. 2 do. depreciation 

Do. 5 do. interest .. 

Total 



£2,145 



.£405 
270 
675 

£1,350 



which, deducted from the first total, leaves a balance of £795 in favour 
of the iron-built ship; but a wooden ship of 1,000 tons trading to the 
East, will not carry more than 1,500 tons, which, at £5 per ton for the 
voyage out and home, will give £7,500 ; while an iron ship of 1,000 
tons, built from the same external lines, will carry 1,800 tons, which, at 
£5 per ton, will give £9,000 ; from which deducting £7,500, leaves a 
balance of £1,500 in favour of the iron-built ship — giving a total 
balance of £2,295 in favour of an iron ship. 

We quote these figures with some degree of confidence, as Mr. Hodg- 
son is a practical iron-ship builder, and is constructing iron vessels at 
£13 per ton — 10s. less than the datum upon which his estimates are 
based. 



INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 
26th October, 1854. 

The following paper, by Mr. Samuel Lloyd, jun., of Wednesbury, 
was read : — " On an Improved Turn Table." 

In the construction of turn tables three leading principles have been 
followed; either the bearing has been on the centre only, with no 
bearings at the circumference ; or with bearings at the circumference and 
none at the centre; or a combination of these two modes has been 
adopted by allowing the weight to rest in part upon the centre, and in 
part upon the bearings or rollers at the circumference ; this last con- 
struction has been most frequently adopted. Most of the turn tables 
first laid down on railways were made to rest on fixed rollers, for the 
sake of economy ; but although fixed roller turn tables are the cheapest 
kind in first cost, and were much used on the first railways made, live 
roller tables have been generally adopted latterly, from the greater ease 
with which they turn ; — as in the fixed roller turn table the weight 
bears on the axle of the roller, producing rubbing friction, but in the 
live roller table it bears upon the circumference of the roller, producing 
only a rolling action without any rubbing friction, except in the guiding 
ring. Some fixed roller turn tables have however of late been construc- 
ted, with much larger rollers than those formerly used, which has the 
effect of perceptibly lessening the friction ; but these tables seldom 
continue long in good working order, in consequence of the rollers 
indenting the top table. This is an objection to which ail roller turn 
tables are subject, but those with fixed rollers most especially, from the 
top table always resting upon the rollers in these, in the same position, 
thus receiving the pressure always on the same points; and as the 
amount of surface in contact between them is very small — the whole 
amount of surface in contact between the surface of the rollers and the 
top table being not more than three square inches, as shown, if so much 
— the rollers soon wound the under surface of the top table, so that the 
latter becomes indented over every roller. As soon as this takes place, 
considerably more power has to be exerted to turn carriages upon them, 
as the resistance to be overcome is greatly increased by the whole 
weight having been lifted out of each of the hollows formed from the 
above cause. 

But, in addition to the increase of friction occasioned by these inden- 
tations, they cause also great unsteadiness, making the table rock, and 
thus clatter and hammer against the rollers as each pair of wheels 
passes on and off its two opposite sides. This deteriorating action goes 
on to a greater or less extent in almost all roller tables, often occasion- 
ing the top to break, if it is not very strongly made ; this rocking is 
often greatly increased, and occasionally entirely' originates, from the 
centre pin being too tightly screwed down, so as to take the weight en- 
tirely off the rollers on one side of the table. 

This defect has led to the construction of turn tables with a centre 
pin that acts merely as a centre guide, without taking any weight. 
Turn tables of this class, if made with radiating rollers, have the ad- 



1854.] 



Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 



53 



vantage of remaining very solid for a time after they are put in ; but 
frequently this is not of long continuance, for all roller turn tables are 
unsteady, if the rollers are not all correctly turned to the same diameter, 
and cottered or screwed up exactly to the same distance from the 
centre; each roller being a portion of a cone, its outside diameter is 
greater than its inside, and if either of the rollers is screwed up too 
tightly, the table rides on it. This is sometimes occasioned after a few 
months' wear, by the pressure of the table top continually exerting a 
force tending to drive the rollers upon which it rests outwards, which is 
sure to be the effect if either of the nuts which screw them up becomes 
slack. This pressure tending to force the rollers off the roller-path, 
causes considerable friction against the guide ring at the boss of every 
roller, and is one cause of the heaviness with which even live roller 
turn tables work, causing railway labourers in goods stations, whenever 
they have the chance, to wrench them round by horse power. 

In an improved construction of roller turn tables extensively adopted, 
the weight of the table top is nearly counterbalanced by a weighted 
lever, which constantly tends to lift the centre pin without actually 
doing so, making the table much easier to turn, by diminishing propor- 
tionately the pressure on the rollers ; the rollers also are not fixed as in 
common turn tables, but in an inclined position, with their upper sur- 
faces level, for the purpose of preventing the level of the table top from 
being disturbed by the surge of carriages passing over. In some turn 




tables the rollers have been made with rounded edges, and level roller- 
paths, with the view of lessening the friction of turning, and increasing 
the steadiness of the table by resting it on a plane instead of a cone ; 
but these rollers have not been found to be durable, and the roller-path 
becomes worn liollow by them. A more successful plan for diminishing 
the friction has been the use of spherical balls instead of rollers, travel- 
ling round in a live ring, to prevent the balls from rolling off, but 
allowing them room to shift their position on the roller-path as they 
move round, which prevents them from wearing the roller-path into 



grooves ; and as the balls travel in a circle, sometimes in one direction 
and sometimes in the contrary direction, they continually present a 
fresh portion of their surface for the bearing, which preserves them from 
being worn unequally. 

There is one objection to these tables, but which applies still more 
strongly to roller turn tables, namely, the extreme difficulty of turning 
them in frosty weather, when the dirt on the rollers and roller-paths 
become frozen ; horse power is then often required to stir them, or a 
fire has to be lighted to thaw the congealed mud collected on them. 

Centre-bearing turn tables, of which many are in use, are practically 
free from this objection, and also from the one before referred to t 
namely, the bearing surface becoming indented, from the small extent 
of surface in contact with the rollers. In these the whole weight is 
carried by the centre pivot or ball; any side pressure, resulting from the 
weight to be turned not being balanced exactly upon the centre, being 
carried by two sets of horizontal rollers, that travel with the top table 
round the centre pillar, and are fixed to the jacket. 

This description of turn table has two important advantages — great 
ease in turning and smoothness of motion, and great durability — num- 
bers of them having continued in use for many years without requiring 
any repairs. The ease with which they turn is owing to the great lever- 
age obtained by the power being applied at the circumference of the 
table, and to the resistance being confined to the centre ball and the 
rollers round the centre pillar, instead of being at the cir- 
cumferen i e as in roller tables, in which it acts at nearly 
as great a leverage as the power ; so that, while no 
leverage is obtained when the power is applied in turning 
a carriage at the outer edge of a roller table, a leverage 
of fourteen to one is gained in a centre-bearing turn table, 
even if half the resistance be supposed to take place at 
the horizontal rollers, and only half at the centre pin. 

Centre-bearing turn tables, as usually constructed, have 
most of them two defects, namely, great extra cost of 
foundations, and unsteadiness and liability to deflect; 
the last being the most serious defect, which renders 
them objectionable for any situation where much traffic is 
likely to pass over them ; their deflection upon trains 
passing over them being caused by the whole of the 
weight of each carriage acting at a great leverage to 
strain the working parts of the table while running on and 
off. To meet this defect, a number of supplementary 
rollers have usually been fixed at the circumference, for 
the purpose of catching the weight and preventing any 
undue deflection when the weight is passing on and off 
the edge of the table — these rollers being fixed a 1 itle 
below the level of the table top, so as not to touch the 
top and come into action until the top gives way by de- 
flection, or by canting on one side. This plan has, how- 
ever, the objection of being unmechanical, as it implies a 
certain degree of failure in the machine before it can 
come into full operation. 

The unsttadiness of the centre-bearing turn tables 
described above may be considered as the principal cause 
of their disuse, notwithstanding their superiority over roller tallies in 
ease of turning ; another cause being the expense and depth of the 
foundations requisite. 

The action of a turn table upon the improved plan is as follows : — 
The centre pillar is fixed on a blo( k of stone or other suitable founda- 
tion, within which is fixed a toggle-joint or other lever, which is con- 
nected with the centre pin. 

Figs 1 and 2 show an improved mode of construction, by which the 
same result is obtained of supporting the table top by its circumference 



54 



Ireland — Its Industrial and Commercial Prospects. 



[March, 



when out of use, and upon its centre when in use. The action of the 
lever, bb, in this table is merely to raise the table sufficiently to disen- 
gage the blocks, hh. When the table is not in use the lever is iu the 
position shown at bb ; but as soon as it is necessary to turn a carriage, 
the table top is eased off the four blocks, hh, at the circumference, under 
the main-line rails, by being raised from i to f ths of an inch by the 
action of the knuckle-joint lever, f ; by this time the stud, i, which is 
fixed upon the long lever, bb, having traversed to the end of the slot 
in which it works, carries the rod, K, with it — thus withdrawing the four 
blocks, hh, from under the outer ring, ee. The long lever is now at 
the position shown in the drawing, or at the bottom of its stroke ; the 
centre joint of the knuckle-joint lever, f, has now passed from one side 
of the centre line of the table to the other. The table top is exactly 
at the same level when the long lever is at the bottom of its throw as 
when it is at its top ; the difference being that when the long lever is 
up, as shown by the dotted lines, dd, the table top is supported en- 
tirely at its circumference on the four blocks, which may be made of 
any convenient size ; and while it is down the weight is on the centre 
pin, c, when carriages may be turned with ease and rapidity. By 
means of the stud, i, traversing the slot in the rod, k, during the first 
part of the motion, the table top is eased off the bearing on the blocks, 
hh, before the rod, k, is set iu motion to withdraw the blocks; and by 
the same means, in lowering the table, time is allowed for the blocks 
to be pushed home before the table top is lowered upon them, so that 
the blocks are relieved from the weight whilst they are being moved. 
Fig. 2 is a plan of this turn table, showing the position of the long 
lever, bb, and the horizontal rollers, gg, that work round the centre 
pillar, a. At the end of the lever, l, a weight is fixed to balance the 
weight of the table top to within a few cwts. ; the balance weight not 
being made heavy enough to raise the table top without the exertion of 
a slight pressure on the handle, d. Other modifications of this im- 
proved table might be described ; but as the principle of them is all the 
same, viz., to carry the weight upon the centre pin when the table is 
being used, and upon the circumference when not in use, it is not ne- 
cessary in the present paper to do so. 

This mode of construction insures a solid turn table, one very easy to 
turn, and a very durable one ; the working parts do not get deteriorated 
by the passing of trains, and are so placed that dirt cannot collect upon 
them ; the extent of bearing surface at the circumference is greatly in- 
creased, and prevented from becoming indented as in roller tables ; a 
smooth and easy motion is obtained by turning entirely upon the centre, 
as no inequality of bearing surface has to be overcome ; also, less oil is 
consumed for the centre-bearing than for rollers, and the working parts 
are more easily oiled. In roller tables an increased load increases 
greatly the resistance to turning, and after some years' wear they work 
more heavily ; but in centre- bearing tables much less difference is ex- 
perienced. Also, the cost of foundation, instead of being more, is 
rather less than that required for roller turn tables with a live ring and 
rollers, as a continuous ring of masonry is not required round the cir- 
cumference, but only six or eight blocks of stone, one under each arm 
of the centre pillar, in addition to the centre stone, which is required in 
both descriptions of turn tables. 

Mr. Woodhouse inquired whether any of the tables had been put 
down, and where they were at work ? 

Mr. Lloyd replied that none of the plan with the lever had been put 
to work yet ; the first one was not yet ready for trial, but a consider- 
able number (about sixty) of the first plan, without the lever, were at 
work very satisfactorily, many of them on the Syston and Peterborough 
line. They answered very well for goods stations, but not for the main 
line, because they deflected too much at the outer edge for the trains to 
run over them ; they were found to keep in order very well, and some 
of them had been ten years at work. 



Mr. Gibbons thought there might be found a difficulty in getting the 
blocks to slide in always to their places under the table top, in the pro- 
posed lifting table. 

Mr. Lloyd observed that there was only about 1 cwt. left unbalanced 
of the weight of the table top, so that there was very little work for the 
lever to do in lifting the top to the extent that was required for libera- 
ting the blocks, and pushing them into their places again. The whole 
weight of the top might be three tons for a twelve-feet table, but it was 
nearly all balanced by the weighted lever, so that little more than the 
friction had to be overcome in lifting the top ; the table was not lifted 
with a carriage on, as in previous plans of lifting tables, and was only 
to be lifted in the act of making it solid for the main line to let trains 
run over it, and in setting it free again, but was not lifted in the process 
of turning. The table top was only to be blocked for main-line trains 
to run over, and was to be left free without supports at the circum- 
ference when turning, and whilst carriages were pushed on and off the 
table for turning. 

Mr. Cowper thought the height between the upper and lower rollers 
where they bore against the centre post was so small (making a great 
leverage at the circumference of the table), that a small play in the 
rollers would cause a considerable deflection at the edge of the table ; 
so that it appeared liable soon to get out of level with carriages ruuning 
on and off, if the top were not always blocked solid. 

Mr. Lloyd replied that the rollers at top and bottom had the means 
of ready adjustment by screws, and no difficulty had been found in the 
tables at work, though they had no bearing at the circumference, while 
carriages and waggons were constantly being run on and off for turning. 
The only injurious deflection arose when trains of carriages passed 
over them ; all those laid down were twelve feet diameter. 

Mr. Sampson Lloyd observed that the centre post tables were found 
to have very little wear, and worked quite successfully ; some of them had 
been in work ten years without any bearing at the circumference ; the 
deep pillar engine tables had lasted very well for many years. The 
sliding blocks and lifting motion was a recent invention, for the object 
of making the table solid in the main line, when trains had to run over. 
The chairman remarked that in another plan of turn table, wedges 
were employed to make the top solid for the main line. 

Mr. Woodhouse said that four wedges were pushed in by a lever, one 
under each line of rails, to give an additional bearing when the train 
passed over. He found the tables with live rollers answered much 
better than fixed rollers in goods warehouses and stations; the fixed 
roller tables worked very stiff. 

Mr. Lloyd observed that the tables with a centre bearing only had 
an advantage in keeping all the working surfaces clean ; the roller-path 
in ordinary tables was exposed to get dirty, increasing the resistance to 
turning. 

The chairman proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. Lloyd for his paper, 
which was passed; and expressed a wish for the results to be communi- 
cated of the practical working of the new turn table. 

IRELAND— ITS INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL 
PROSPECTS. 
The patriotic exertions of Mr. Dargan, in connection with the Dublin 
Industrial Exhibition, have made the regeneration of Ireland the subject 
of much discussion by the English press, and awakened a strong chord 
of sympathy among the Saxons ; we trust they will also have the effect 
of arousing the Celts from their present apathy. The Exhibition was 
most valuable to Ireland, as the means of attracting thousands of 
Englishmen, who would not otherwise have gone ; the immediate result 
of which will be the removal of many ungenerous prejudices, and the 
ultimate result a vast increase of intercourse between the two kingdoms ; 
and it now seems to be admitted on all sides that Saxon capital and 






1854.] 



Ireland — Its Industrial and Commercial Prospects. 



55 



energy are the desiderata for the development of the resources of Ire- 
land. From an article under the above title, in Knight's British Alma- 
nack and Companion for 1854, we gather much that is useful on the 
present condition and future prospects of this country; and we propose 
abstracting from it such information as we think will be most interesting 
to our readers. We have already observed (vol. x., p. 2), that the 
great decrease in the population of the sister-country, through emigra- 
tion and other causes — a decrease, amounting in the decade of years 
from 1841 to 1851 to 1,513,294 — has to an extent depopulated whole 
districts, and afforded an opportunity of " planting the Saxon race 
where the Celt has faded away." 

With respect to the profitable employment of English capital in 
Ireland, we have already gone somewhat into detail as to the cultiva- 
tion of flax and the beet-sugar manufacture ; to these, with the produc- 
tion of peat-chemicals, the writer of the article now under consideration 
directs attention, as important elements in the future prospects of 
Ireland : — 

" Flax is now one of the most important growths to which the 
attention of Ireland can be directed; for as the Ulster manufacturers 
have boldly adopted the use of steam machinery in spinning and 
weaving, there is an ample market for Irish flax in.the making of Irish 
linens, provided the flax he sufficiently good and cheap. Knowing that 
the Irish farmers conduct the flax-culture very inefficiently, a number 
of influential persons established a Flax Society about a dozen years 
ago, with a view both to the improvement of the culture, and to the 
employment of surplus population. They sent agents among the Irish 
farmers to instruct them in the methods of flax-culture adopted in 
Belgium ; they sent other persons to Belgium to study the operations 
on the spot ; they published small tracts, giving plain and easy instruc- 
tion on the subject ; and they afforded advice wherever and whenever 
it would be most acceptable. The flax-culture in Ireland appears to 
have risen from 1841 to '44, fallen from "44 to '48, and risen again 
from '48 to '53. The number of acres under flax-culture in 1847 and 
1851 shows a striking advance ; 58,312 in the former year, and 140,536 
in the latter. This last acreage is considered adequate to the produc- 
tion of one-fourth the flax now worked up in Ireland ; and there cer- 
tainly is no reason, so far as the quality of the soil is concerned, why 
Ireland should not grow the whole of the flax she requires ; the difficul- 
ties of transport from place to place, and the imperfections in the pre- 
paration, are the chief drawbacks. At 5 cwt. per statute acre, and at 
^45 per ton of prepared flax, the present growth might be equal to a 
value of a million and a half sterling; but the great point is, by 
effective preparation, to bring the fibre up to a value of £45 per ton. 
One matter which the Society have had difficulty in impressing on the 
minds of the Irish farmers is, the desirability of saving the seed ; they 
ret the stems with the seeds attached, as their forefathers did before 
them ; whereas the rational mode, adopted on the continent, is to 
ripple the seeds off first, and then ret the flax afterwards. By this 
latter method the seed is saved either for sowing or for making linseed 
oil. That this is no trifling matter, may be seen from the fact that the 
Society estimate the loss of Irish flax-seed, from the improvident 
custom of retting without rippling, at very little short of £300,000 
per annum. Perhaps, in time, the farmers may be brought to see this. 

" The flax-theories, which have occupied the attention of practical 
men within the last few years, relate not so much to the cultivation, 
as to the processes intervening between the culture and the spinning. 
Some improvements have been discussed, brought about by pickling 
the seeds, or chemically treating them, so as to produce better or larger 
crops ; but we are not aware that this system has yet taken root, as an 
admitted improvement. That the retting can be improved, is now in- 
disputable. This retting is the separation of the fibres from the stalk 
or woody boon within the stem of the plant ; it is ordinarily effected by 



exposure of the flax to water or to dewy grass, then drying, then 
crushing the inner boon, then separating the fragments of boon from 
the fibres, and then cleansing these fibres for the spinner. Now the 
inventions of Mr. Schenck, Mr. Claussen, and others, have had relation 
to one or more of these intermediate processes. Mr. Schenck says 
that, by steeping flax in hot water instead of cold, he can ret it as< 
effectually in three days as in three weeks by the old process ; and the 
Irish Flax Society think that it would be advantageous for men of capital 
to establish retteries, or factories where flax could be retted on a large 
scale; the retter buying the raw flax from the farmer, and selling the 
dressed flax to the spinner. This seems to be the turning-point in the 
flax industry of Ireland ; so long as the farmer rets his own flax, he 
must continue to do it in a slow and inefficient manner, because he has ' 
no capital wherewith to buy good apparatus ; but if one establishment 
were formed, with a good assemblage of modern machinery, it might 
ret as much flax as many farmers could grow ; a small profit would pay 
the retter, while the farmer would very likely be better off than before. 
It is analogous to the establishment of gassing, calendering, pressing, 
packing, and other establishments in the textile districts; where it is 
found more profitable for all parties in the end, that one should do all 
the gassing for several, another do all the calendering for several, and 
so on, than that each manufacturer should do all for himself. The 
Irish flax-farmer meddles with too much, when he attempts to ret his 
own flax ; but this he must continue to do until increasing confidence 
induces capitalists to establish retteries, each in the centre of a flax- 
growing district. Mr. Claussen's plans relate to the cottonising of flax, 
or so changing the character of the fibre that it may be worked by : 
cotton machinery ; but English capitalists have not yet seemed disposed 
to take up the matter in earnest; and the patents are, we believe, about' 
being worked on the continent rather than in this country. So far as ' 
Ireland is concerned, the flax-manufacture may be considered in this 
light — that the farmers require a little more knowledge of the Belgian: 
modes of culture ; that they ought to ripple the seeus instead of wasting 
them ; that the retting should be done in well-appointed retteries in- 
stead of by the farmer's own humble means ; that the flax-refuse should 
be applied more than it has yet been as manure ; and that improved ' 
media of communication, commercial and locomotive, should be made 
between the grower and the retter, and between the retter and the 
spinner. 

" The adoption of machinery for flax-spinning and weaving was a 1 
change of great importance in the industrial proceedings of Ireland. 
About thirty years ago, when spinning by machinery was prevalent in 
England but not in Ireland, English-spun flax began to undersell Irish- 
spun flax in the Irish markets ; and the manufacture which had pre- • 
viously been carried on in the south and west became almost extin- 
guished. Had not Ulster resolutely adopted the use of the new ma- 
chinery, there can scarcely be a doubt that the linen manufacture would: 
have declined almost to extinction in the whole of Ireland. As it is, 
the flax-mills have risen to about 70, with 500,000 spindles. The- 
whole of the persons employed, in various ways, in flax-spinning and 
weaving, are about 200,000 ; and the sunk and floating capital about- 
£3,000,000. In 1819, with the aid of all sorts of bounties and pro- 
tective duties, Ireland exported only 40,000,000 pounds of flax yarn; 
whereas in 1849, without any such protection, the export reached 
75,000,000 : a small increase compared with that in England, bu still 
important for Ireland. Of woven linen and flax goods, Ireland now 
sells to England and other countries about 100,000,000 yards annually,: 
worth something about .£4,000,000 sterling, after supplying her own 
home demand. Taking all the textile manufactures together, Ireland 
has about 100 spinning-mills; in 1850 there were 91 — viz-, 69 for flax, 
11 for woollens, and 11 for cotton; the whole having 2,646 horse- 
power of steam, and 1,886 horse-power of water-wheels. The persons 



56 



On Compound or Trussed Cast-Iron Beams or Girders. 



[March. 



employed were 24,725, of whom two-thirds were females. Flax is 
evidently the material to which the spinning and weaving operations of 
Ireland will mainly be directed in future. 

" The peat of Ireland is among the most embarrassing, but at the 
same time interesting, substances to which the attention of her in- 
dustrial speculators can be directed. No less than 3,000,000 acres of 
ground are covered with it ; and what is this substance ? It is a sub- 
stance of vegetable origin, long soaked with water which had no outlet, 
and which did not completely evaporate by the heat of the sun. The 
vegetable substance is in every stage of decomposition, from the natural 
wood of roots and fibres, to the completely black vegetable mould. 
This peat, more or less changed by chemical action or by the action of 
the air, is a good manure; but in Ireland it is not always easy to 
transfer the peat to where it is most wanted. Carried into the labo- 
ratory, and treated with all the nicety of chemical processes, it yields a 
singularly large variety of substances ; among these are tar, a watery 
liquid, and gases; the tar yields paraffine, heavy oil, and light oil; 
the watery liquid yields ammonia, carbonic acid, acetic acid, pyrolig- 
neous acid, and pyroxylic acid ; while the gases comprise oxygen, hy- 
drogen, nitrogen, and carbonic acid. Some experiments made on the 
subject led to the assertion a few years ago, that from 100 tons of peat 
may be obtained 300 tons of paraffine, 100 gallons of heavy oil, 200 
gallons of light oil, 52 gallons of pyroxylic spirit, 1 ton of sulphate of 
ammonia, sufficient acetic acid to manufacture 13 cwt. of grey acetate 
of lime, and 6,269 cubic feet of inflammable gas. 

" Circumstanced as Ireland has been, it is scarcely to be wondered 
at that such favourable estimates as this should be eagerly grasped at. 
Many plans have been proposed, and partially acted on, for making 
peat commercially valuable. In many of the Irish bogs the surface is 
cut away for fuel, or as a compost for manure, and the spongy mass 
beneath is then reclaimed by drainage for agricultural purposes. Six- 
aevenths of all the bogs in Ireland are comprised within a belt marked 
by Howth, Wicklow, Sligo, and Galway, as the corner points ; and 
within this belt most of the operations have been carried on to render 
peat useful. The quantity consumed as fuel is very great, but the 
quantity of bog land reclaimed by drainage is not yet considerable. 
Lord Meadowbank, fifty years ago, devised a mode of converting peat 
into good manure ; but it is too complex for a poor population to 
adopt. More than one patent has been taken out for compressing peat 
into a dense mass for fuel ; it is said that peat is superior to coal in the 
readiness with which it yields charcoal or coke, and that the charcoal so 
produced is better than wood-charcoal. The Shannon steamers con- 
sume plain dried peat as fuel, at an expense much lower than that of 
coal brought from England ; and the peasants use dried peat almost 
universally ; but the prepared peat-fuel has only come to a limited 
degree into use. It would be very pleasant to record the success of the 
attempts to manufacture chemicals from peat; but it is now known 
that the hopes entertained three or four years ago were much too 
•anguine. Still, here is the storehouse of material, the 3,000,000 
acres ; and when railways and capital spread in Ireland, we may yet see 
the bogs a source of wealth to the country." 

In the section devoted to the production of sugar from the beet- 
root, the writer, after stating that " the fitness of Ireland to produce 
beet-root in quality or quantity sufficient for sugar, is one of the indus- 
trial questions now waiting for solution," gives a succinct history of the 
manufacture from the time of the first Napoleon down to the com- 
mencement of the Irish Beet-Sugar Company's operations at Mount- 
mellick, " where," the writer informs us, " the apparatus is of an im- 
proved and efficient kind." 

" The beet-roots have the tops and tails cut off; they are converted 
by a rasping-machine into a soft, pulp ; the pulp is pressed through 
woollen bags, and is again pressed by powerful hydraulic machines ; 



the juice is raised by steam power into defalcators, where it is purified 
and clarified ; it flows through powdered charcoal, where it is filtered ; 
it is evaporated in a copper vessel ; it is again evaporated until the 
sugary particles form ; the syrup is heated to thicken, and then cooled 
to granulate ; it is whirled about in a centrifugal machine, to separate 
the molasses ; and what remains in the machine is good, plain, brown 
moist sugar, which can be converted into white lump sugar by a pro- 
cess of refining. More than .£10,000 was expended on the factory, 
which appears to be in every respect a well-planned structure. The 
company's works are adequate to the consumption of 300 tons of beet 
weekly ; but the great drawback is, and long will be, that the culture 
is not yet sufficiently advanced in Ireland to insure a good supply being 
brought to the factory at a low price. Uuless the sugar-makers render 
it profitable, the farmers will not grow beet ; unless the farmers grow 
beet plentifully, the sugar-makers cannot carry on their operations pro- 
fitably; and thus each party is to some extent waiting for the other. 

" The statements respecting Irish beet-sugar have been so hopeful, 
that in 1852 the Government directed Dr. Kane to make inquiries on 
the subject ; and a blue-book, which has appeared consequent on those 
inquiries, contains much useful information. One of the results arrived 
at by Dr. Kane is this : — ' That the quantity of sugar present in Irish- 
grown beet is in no way inferior to that usually found in the beet-roots 
used in the sugar manufactories of the Continent ; and that, in some 
cases, the percentage of sugar yielded by beet approaches to that 
afforded by the sugar-cane as usually cultivated.' Mr. Sullivan, in a 
pamphlet relating to this subject, had previously attempted to show that 
sugar might be made in Ireland, and sold profitably at a lower price 
than Brazilian and Cuban sugars. Dr. Kain cautiously abstains from 
offering a decided opinion on this point, involving as it does so many 
elements of a variable character. His concluding remarks are, how- 
ever, important. He considers the beet-sugar manufacture in Ireland 
as ' eminently calculated to be of service, not only as creating a new and 
extensive source of manufacturing employment, but also that, as the 
material used can only be profitably obtained by means of improved 
agriculture, and that an important element in the profits of the manu- 
facture would be the employment of the scums and pulp, either as 
manures or as food for cattle, the manufactories of beet-root sugar 
should exercise a powerful influence on the agriculture of their districts, 
inducing a greater variety of cultivation, a more thorough preparation 
of the soil, and a more careful economy of manures.' " 

(To be continued.) 

ON COMPOUND OR TRUSSED CAST-IRON BEAMS OR 
GIHDERS.* 

By W. Fairbairn, C.E., FJt.S., &c., &c. 

In a Government Report several important facts were recorded, bearing 
directly upon the dangerous nature of trussed girders, or that description 
of girders where attempts are made to increase their strength, and to 
maintain them in form, by the use of wrought-iron bars fastened at 
the upper ends, and acting in a diagonal direction on the bottom of the 
beam. Of the safety of these tension-rods I have always had serious 
apprehensions; but as many other persons, of highly distinguished 
attainments, hold a different opinion, it may not be considered irrele- 
vant if I adduce my reasons for the view which I take, and the experi- 
ments upon which those reasons are founded. 

If we take a cast-iron beam of the section of greatest strength, and 
endeavour, by means of truss-rods, similar to a b c in the following 
sketch, to increase its powers of resistance, we shall find that, under 
certain circumstances, they introduce an antagonistic force, which has 



* " On the application of Cast and Wrought Iron to Building Purposes, By W. Fairbairn. 
C.E., F.K.S., &e., &e. London : J. Weale, 1854. 



1854] 



On Compound or Trussed Cast-Iron Beams or Girders. 



57 



an injurious influence; or that, in other words, the beam would be safer 
without the truss-rods than with them. 

To some, this may appear paradoxical ; but in order to ascertain how 
far the statement is entitled to credit, let us assume the flanges, a, a, 
fig. 1, to be oue-si.\th of the area of the flange, b, b ;* and under the 




Figi- 
impression of still further adding to its strength, let us suppose that two 
truss-rods, a b, b c, fig. 1, are applied one on each side of the beam, 
to assist in supporting the weight w. 

Experimentalists having found that wrought -iron possesses great 
powers of resistance to extension, while cast-iron presents great powers 
of resistance to compression, it became a matter of inquiry how far, and 
under what circumstances, cast-iron and wrought-iron might be em- 
ployed together in the construction of beams, so as to embrace the ad- 
vantages arising from these peculiar properties of the two materials. 
Th's inquiry gave rise to the construction of truss-beams, where the 
wrought-iron is solely employed to give strength to the bottom part of 
the beams by its tensile resistance, while the cast-iron in the top part 
of the beams is solely .employed to resist the force of compression. 
Now, if a truss-beam could be constructed so that the two materials 
might be brought to act in perfect concert with each other, this con- 
trivance would, no doubt, effect a considerable economy of material ; 
but we shall hereafter show that this is impracticable. 

In a perfect truss-beam (supposing it possible to have such a thinir) 
the cast metal should be upon the point cf rupture at the same moment 
that the tiuss-rods are about to yield to extension. If too great a ten- 
sion is given to the rods, they will break before the beam has arrived ;.t 
the condition of rupture ; on the contrary, if too small a tension is given 
to them, the beam will break before they have arrived at their condition 
of rupture. In the absence of exact data, we should say, in order to 
avoid danger, that the tension of the truss-rods had better be too low 
than to ohigh ; for in the former case they would yield up a portion of 
their tensile resistance, and then leave the remaining portion of the 
load to be borne by the beam itself. Experiment I., shows the diffi- 
culty of adjusting the tension of the truss-rods ; for in this c;>se they 
yielded to extension, and then the beam broke with a weight which it 
would have nearly sustained by its own resisting powers. In order to 
discover the best tension for the truss-rods, it is necessary that we 
should consider more minutely the distinctive properties of the two 
metals composing the truss-beam. 

The two kinds of material are very different in their physical as well 
as in their mechauical properties. Cast-iron is a hard, rigid, crystalline, 
unmalleable substance, which presents a great resistance to a force of 
compression, but a comparatively small resistance to that of extension ; 
and from its low degree of ductility, it undergoes but little elongation 
when acted upon by a tensile force. On the contrary, wrovgk' iron is 
a flexible, malleable, ductile substance, which presents a great resistance 
to a force of extension, but a somewhat less resistance to that of com- 
pression : from its high degree of ductility, it undergoes a considerable 
elongation when acted upon bv a tensile force. When the two metals 
are released from the action of a tensile force, the set of the one metal 

* These proportions are found by experiment to constitute the strongest sectional form. 
See Sir. Hodgkinson's Experiments, Manchester Memoirs, vol. v., Second Series. 



differs widely from the set of the other. The flexibility of wrought- 
iron is from eight to ten times greater than that of cast-iron. Under 
the same increase of temperature the expansion of wrought-iron is con- 
siderably greater than that of cast-iron. While wrought-iron yields to 
a stroke, cast-iron is readily broken by a severe collision, or by any 
violent vibratory action. 

The following generalisations of an extensive series of experiments 
will give an exact comparative view of these properties of cast-iron and 
wrought-iron. 

Table I. — Mean elongations by tensile forces within the limits requi- 
site to rupture cast-iron, viz., about 7i tons V er square inch of the 
transverse section. 



Name of the 
Metal. 



Cast-iron....... 

Wrought-iron 



Mean elongation, the force being 
1 ton per square inch. 



isi3o P art or " t ' ie whole. 
[ length of the bar ... / 

iiim P art 0I " tne whole I 
[ length of the bar ... 



Proportion of 
elongition. 



Sets with 7 tons per 
square inch. 



}j of the whole 
elongation. 

tIj of the whole 
elongation. 



From this table it appears, that for forces of extension below 7h tons 
per square inch, the mean elongation of cast-iron is about 2J times 
that of wrought-iron. When the cast-iron is about to undergo rupture, 
its ultimate extension is about 3 times that of the wrought-iron. 
Moreover, the set of the cast-iron, within this limit, is considerably 
greater than that of the wrought iron. 

Table II. — Mean elongations and sets, with tensile forces equal to 
two-thirds of the forces requisite to produce rupture in each case 
respectively. 



Name of the 
Metal. 


Force per 

squareinch. 

in tons. 


Elongation 

on 10 feet of 

the bar, in 

inches. 


Proportions 

of 
elongations. 


Set. 


Propor- 
tions 0. 

sets 


Proportion 

of sets to 

elongation. 


Cast iron .. 

Wr ught- 
iron ... 


5 . 
15 


•114 ) 
•275 ) 


1:8* 


1 "013 1 

) 

f -133 j 


1 : 10 


) 1 



From this table i: appears, tliat when the parts of the truss-beam are 
duly waded, the conditions are reversed : that is to say, the elongation 
of the wrought-iron becomes 2\ times that of the cast-iron, and the set 
of the former becomes 10 times that of the latter. 
Table III. — Mean values of the tensile forces requisite for producing 

equal elongations in cast-iron and wrought-iron bars 10 feet long, 

with the corresponding sets. 



Jlean elongations 
on 10 feet, 
in inches. 


Ca>t-iron. 

Force per sq. in. 

in tons. 


Wrought-iron. 

Force per sq. in 

in tons. 


Cast-iron. 
Set in inches. 


Wronght-iron. 
Set in inches, i 


•005 
•024 
•04 


•26 
111 
2 


•56 
2 5 
4 5 


•0012 
•0031 


Not perceptible 
■0005 


■05 


2-5 


5-6 


' -0043 


•0007 


•062 


3 


6 76 


•0056 


•0009 


•087 


4 


9 


•009 


•0027 


•129 


5 5 


124 


•0159 


•014 


•145 


5 9 


13-26 


•019 


•043 



This table establishes the following remakable law relative to the 
forces requisite for producing equal elongations in cast-iron and 
wrought-iron bars. Within the limit of 6 tons tensile strain per square 
inch for cast-iron, and 13| tons for wrought-iron, the tensile force ap- 
plied to wrought-iron must be 2\ times the tensile force applied to cast- 
iron, in order to produce equal elongations. 
(To be continued.) 



58 



Notes by a Practical Chemist. 



[March, 



NOTES BY A PRACTICAL CHEMIST. 

Test for Quinine. — The suspected substance is put into a test 
tube, and drenched with water, but so that a large part may remain 
undissolved. Of this liquid, a few drops are put into a watch-glass, and 
solution of chlorine added, until it becomes rather yellowish. Ferrocy- 
anide of potassium is then added in fine powder, when, if quinine be 
present, the liquid acquires a pale rose red, which soon passes to a deep 
red. 

Use of Red Sulphate of Indigo in Dyeing. — H. Haeffely 
lias successfully applied the red sulphate of indigo (phenicine) to dye- 
ing worsted and silk. This compound is produced by allowing sul- 
phuric acid to act upon indigo for a few minutes, and then throwing 
the mixture into a large excess of water. A red precipitate is thus 
formed, which, when well washed on a filter, differs entirely from the 
blue sulphate of indigo in composition, properties, and tinctorial 
powers. With this the author has produced shades superior in all re- 
spects to those yielded by the ordinary indigo extract, and also purples 
resembling those produced by logwood and cudbear. The dye is not 
applicable to cotton. 

New Test for Iodine. — The liquid supposed to contain iodine as 
an iodide, is placed in a test-tube, and a few drops of sulphuret of car- 
bon added, and a very dilute aqueous solution of bromine is then intro- 
duced. The bromine only decomposes iodides, without acting upon 
bromides and chlorides, and on agitation the free iodine dissolves in the 
sulphuret of carbon, communicating a violet, or, if in very minute 
quantities, a rose-coloured tinge. The use of an excess of bromine 
must be avoided, and the original liquid, if alkaline, must be previously 
neutralised with weak nitric acid. S. 

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

" P. R." — It is, to say the least, highly doubtful whether proteine 
has ever been prepared in a state of purity. The speculations of Liebiz 
and Mulder, though highly ingenious, are somewhat premature. They 
will, however, doubtless pave the way to important discoveries. 

" Medicus." — Indigo is produced in the human system, and appears 
in the urine. 



On some peculiar Reductions of Metals in the Humid 
Way.* By Professor Wohler. — The following experiments were 
made for Professor Wohler by Hiller. The observation first made by 
Bucholtz, that long crystals of metallic tin are formed when a rod of 
that metal is inserted in a solution of protochloride of tin, and the 
latter carefully overlaid with water, was first of all further tested. It 
appeared that, for the production of large crystals, the solution of chlo- 
ride of tin must be acid. Of the tin immersed in the solution, there 
was always more dissolved than was made up by that which crystallised. 
In one experiment the proportions were as 7 : 6. 

These crystals are formed at the point of contact between the two 
fluids. If the solution be neutral, they appear below this in the solu- 
tion of the protochloride, and remain bright. 

Copper, inserted into a neutral solution of nitrate of copper, covers 
itself entirely with brownish -red crystals of protoxide of copper, and 
afterwards with sharp crystals of metallic copper. The copper is dis- 
solved, especially at the point of contact of the fluids. The same 
phaenomenon is produced, but in a less degree, with sulphate of copper. 
In solution of perchloride of copper, the copper is covered with crystals 
of the protochloride. 

A rod of zinc, under similar circumstances, covers itself with gray 
granules of metallic zinc, especially at its lower end. In this case also 
the zinc is dissolved at the point of contact of the fluids. 

Cadmium behaves in a similar manner in the solution of its nitrate ; 

* We are indebted to the Chemical Gazette for this and the following notes. 



the reduced metal is more pulverulent, and therefore much more readily 
oxidised in the air than the reduced zinc. 

Lead, in a solution of neutral nitrate or acetate of lead, furnishes 
small shining crystals of lead. 

Bismuth precipitates the metal from a solution of protochloride of 
bismuth, if the latter has been overlaid first with muriatic acid, and 
afterwards with water. 

On silver, immersed in a concentrated solution of nitrate of silver 
overlaid with water, metallic silver is deposited in a dendritic form, 
always originating from a few scattered points of the surface of the 
silver. — Ann. der Chem. und Pkarm., lxxxv. p. 253. 

On the Crystalline Hydrate of Oxide of Iron. By MM. 
Limberger and Wittstein. — It is well known that the officinal 
hydrated oxide of iron becomes crystalline under certain circumstances, 
and is then less efficacious as an antidote in poisoning by arsenic. 

Limberger has observed that this result is produced not only by the 
lapse of time, but much more rapidly when this preparation is exposed 
to a temperature below the freezing point of water. At 21° Fah., the 
change is effected during the freezing. 

The peroxide of iron, which has thus become crystalline, has a much 
paler colour than the amorphous substance, and is but slightly soluble 
in acetic acid of specific gravity 1'030, but readily soluble in acetic acid 
of specific gravity l - 0/59. If to this solution 8 volumes of water be 
added, a portion of the iron separates in a few days as a reddish-yellow 
deposit. 

Wittstein has further tested these statements. The hydrated oxide 
employed in the experiment was analysed, and had the composition 
Fe 2 03, 3H0. 

After this had been frozen in the pasty state during a night at a 
temperature of 17° Fah., and the mass had become quite solid, the 
hydrate appeared distinctly crystalline under the microscope. It had 
then the following composition on analysis : — 

0xide of iron 10 ' 46 } , representing Fe 2 O', 3H0, 

Water 3*60 5 v 5 

and consequently the same quantity of water as before it was frozen. 

Wittstein then tested this frozen oxide in its behaviour with tartaric 
and citric acids. Equal quantities of gelatinous amorphous peroxide 
were put into three test-tubes, two of which were then exposed for a 
night to severe frost, and again thawed. Into the tube which had not 
been exposed to the frost, containing amorphous hydrate, a couple of 
crystals of tartaric acid were dropped, and an equal quantity into one 
of the other tubes ; into the third tube the same quantity of citric acid 
was introduced, and all these tubes were placed in a room in which the 
temperature during the experiment was from 50° to 61° Fah., and 
shaken from time to time. In the first tube complete solution had 
taken place in the course of half an hour ; in the second it required six 
hours; and in the third nine hours. From this it appears that this 
frozen hydrate is certainly less soluble in organic acids than the amor- 
phous hydrate, but still more so than that which has become crystalline 
by long keeping. The cause of this is very probably to be found in the 
circumstance previously ascertained by Wittstein, that the latter only 
contains the half of the original water, whilst the frozen hydrate still 
retains the whole of it. — Wittstein' s Vierteljahrsschrift, ii. p. 373. 

On Aldehyde-ammonia. By Professor Wohler. — Colour- 
less crystals of aldehyde-ammonia are not decomposed by concentrated 
solution of potash. The crystals, as is well known, become brown 
when exposed to air and light ; they also dissolve in the setherial mix- 
ture in which they have been produced, forming a clear brown fluid. 
When this brown mass was distilled with caustic baryta, a considerable 
quantity of ammonia and a volatile substance of peculiar odour passed 
over ; the residue consisted of formiate of baryta. — Ann. der Chem. und 
Pharm., lxxxvi. p. 3/5. 



1854.] 



Design for Marine ^Engines. 



59 



On the Red Colour produced with Quinine and Ferro- 
cyanide of Potassium. By A. Vogel. — This red colouration, 
which, according to an observation of the author's already published, 
may be employed as a test for sulphate of quinine, sometimes fails 
(Fresenius). The author now gives the following process, by which 
the colouration is produced with certainty. Sulphate of quinine is put 
into a test-tube, and water poured over it, but so that a great portion of 
the crystals remain undissolved. Of this fluid, which is to be kept 
shaken to keep the sulphate of quinine in suspension, a few drops are 
poured into a watch-glass, and a sufficient quantity of solution of chlo- 
rine added to it to produce a clear fluid of somewhat yellowish colour. 
To this chlorinated solution of quinine finely-powdered ferrocyanide 
of potassium is then added, until it acquires a pale rose-red colour. 
The pale red colour soon passes to deep red, and with especial rapidity, 
when a little more powdered ferrocyanide of potassium is added. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 



DESIGN FOR MARINE ENGINES FOR A SECOND-CLASS 
STEAMER OF 300 HORSE POWER. 

By Joan Gregory, Chief Engineer, " Donna Maria II." 
(Illustrated by Plate xis.) 

To the Editor of The Artizan. 
Sir, — The great advantage possessed by this engine over all others 
hitherto introduced, is the economy of space — no mean advantage, 
when it is considered that the machinery occupies the most effective part 
of the ship. The extreme length occupied by my engine is 8 feet, breadth 
18 feet 4 inches, and there is ample room to facilitate repairs and ex- 
amination — objects highly appreciated by all practical engineers. As 
an illustration of the truth of my statement respecting the small space 
required by these engines, in comparison with those now in use, I annex 
a table showing the power and the space occupied by five modern 
direct-acting engines, and also four beam-engines, all by celebrated 
makers : — 



Employ. 



H. M. R. Navy . . 



Brazilian Navy 
West India Mail 
Company .... 



Name of Vessel. H. P. 



Retribution 
Thunderbolt 
Vulture .... 
Black Eagle 
Amazon .... 



Clyde, Tay, Tweed 
and Teviot . 



Sort 
300 
476 
260 

300 



30(i 



Makers of 
Engines. 



MaudslayS; Field 

R. Napier 

Fairbairn 

John Penn 

Hick 

Oaird 

Gregory 



Length. 


Breadth. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


23 6 


24 


15 9 


17 6 


12 3 


19 « 


10 9 


21 6 


16 


17 6 


27 


23 6 


8 8 


18 4 



R )om in 

Superficial 

Feet. 



554 
275 
239 
231 
280 



634 
160 



It will be observed from the above table, the engine designed by me 
occupies less space in breadth of vessel than the oscillating engine — a 
great advantage in vessels of war, as they are thus enabled to have wide 
bunkers, carrying a greater quantity of fuel, and the machinery receives 
additional protection from shot. The engine being fixed in the centre of 
the vessel, and upon one bedplate, is not so liable to be affected by the 
straining of the ship, and, in fact, acts so as to strengthen the vessel. 
A great objection exists in the application of oscillating engines in 
paddle-wheel war steamers, owing to the entire beam of ship being 
taken up, and the engines cannot be protected from shot by bunkers. 
In screw vessels the defect of the oscillating engine is the great space 
occupied in length — just the reverse of paddle-vessels. I consider my 
engine will effect a saving of 25 to 30 per cent, in weight over the 
oscillating, thus carrying a great amount of fuel without increasing the 
draught of water. I also calculate a saving in space over the oscillator in 
length of vessel of 50 per cent, power for power, when applied to screw- 
ships. It will be at once perceived, that a vast increase of piston area by 
this power is obtained, by a small increase of cylinder diameter, in my 



plan of engine. Taking the average power and space occupied by the 
nine engines in the above table, the power is 459 horses power, and the 
space 388 square feet. 

Plate XIX represents a design for an engine of 150 horses power ; apair 
of which, with a passage of 2 feet width between, will only occupy a space 
of 160 square feet, being 8 ft. 8 in. long by 18 ft. 4 in. wide. This en- 
gine is a combination of Messrs. Maudslay and Field's annular engine, 
with Messrs. Fawcett and Preston's method of connecting the piston 
to the cranks, I having inserted a forcing-air pump in the centre 
of annular cylinder. It will be observed, that long connecting 
rods are obtained, and only three working parts in each engine, 
viz. : — the two lower ends of side rods in slides, and the joint 
on top of air-pump. These three centres are in the same plane, 
and all vibrate alike. I think the great simplicity of this engine, 
and the small space occupied, may render it worthy of attention. As 
many of your readers may imagine that great condensation will take 
place owing to the position of the air-pump, it is requisite to observe 
that an annular air space, 2J inches wide, is carried round the air-pump 
barrel. It is well known that confined air is one of the best non-con- 
ductors of heat; and it must also be borne in mind that the condensed 
water in air-pump will always be about 120° Farenheit — much warmer 
than the surrounding atmosphere. 

Fig. 1 is a side elevation ; fig. 2 a vertical section ; and fig. 3 is a 
horizontal plan of the engine ; a a is the annular cylinder, with its 
annular piston, i i ; b is a cylinder of brass secured in the centre of 
cylinder, thus forming the air-pump — both its upper and lower ends 
are open ; C is the condenser which runs at both sides under the cylinder 
as far as the delivery-valve e; d is thefoot-valve ; / is the hot well, and g 
the waste water pipe ; h is the steam slide and casing ; j is the piston of 
air-pump, with its India rubber buffer ,?£ ; 1 1 are two guide-rods fastened 
to top of air-pump piston, and working through the two brass guides, m, 
thus removing all tendency of canting the piston from the angular action 
of air-pump connecting rod, n, which is attached to the underside of top 
cross head and to a joint on top of piston, o, the X cross head to which 
the two piston rods, p p, are attached, and the four rods, q q, descend 
to the slides, x, working between the two guides, y y ; the upper cross- 
head, r, with its short connecting} rod, s, is attached to the crank, ti 
fixed to main shaft and supported by the entablature, u, the wrought- 
iron columns, v v, supporting the same ; w w are connecting rods, one 
on each side of the cylinder, working from centre of slide and attached 
to the upper cross head, r; z is the expansion-valve; A, main steam 
pipe leading from boiler ; b b, deck beams supporting the entablature. 
By reference to plan, fig. 3, it will be seen that in centre of X cross- 
head a longitudinal slot is made to admit the vibration of air-pump 
connecting rod. 

Fig. 4 is an enlarged view of the buffing apparatus applied to air- 
pump piston. Upon the underside a flanged bag of India rubber is 
secured, and protected externally by a perforated brass disc : this 
disc enables an air-tight, joint to be made on the underside of the 
bucket, it being secured thereto by screw bolts. The action of the 
buffer is as follows : — The bag containing air at the external pressure, 
when exposed to the vacuum, will expand upon the same principle as 
the shrivelled apple in the receiver of an air-pump, meeting the water 
on the down stroke. From its being elastic, the shock so much com- 
plained of in high-speed engines when the piston arrives at the bottom 
of the stroke, will, in a great measure, if not entirely, be removed; 
and the delivery-valve is closed and the foot-valve open while the 
crank is passing the tangential line, the air pump piston being 
stationary, and in connection with the condensors ; by the expansion of 
the buffer, any uncondensed vapour will be discharged. The buffer is 
also beneficial in working below the foot and delivery-valves. That 
India rubber valves are beneficial, no one will deny, and they are 



60 



The Parabolic Propeller. 



[March, 



found to wear well, therefore I do not apprehend any practical ob- 
jection can be brought against this very simple and inexpensive inven- 
tion; J is the piston; k the buffer protected by the grating e. 

By the insertion of these plans in your widely-circulating journal 
you will oblige, 

Yours very truly, 

John Gregory, 
London, Feb. 8tk, 1854. Chief Engineer of " Donna Maria II." 

[Since receiving the above, Mr. Gregory has suggested that "the air- 
pump rod should be a straight rod, without joints attached, from the top 
side of the air-pump piston, to the underside of the crosshead, thus 
dispensing with the lower joint and the slot in crosshead, and the two 
guides, which will reduce the engine to two working parts."] 



BRITISH MANURES. 
To the Editor of The Artizan. 
Sir, — Referring to the various communications which have, from 
time to time, appeared in your journal on the subject of British manures, 
and the preparations of fertilisers to compete with or supersede foreign 
guano, I venture to request the favour of your insertion of this com- 
munication, as a contribution of the results of many years' practical 
experience in the deodorisation and treatment of sewage and other 
refuse matters in the preparation of manures. 

The Manchester Sewage Guano Company commenced operations in 
the year 1850, in the preparation of manures, which they called 
"Sewage Guano." The company, under the superintendence of two 
of the directors — one a practical chemist, and the other a practical 
engineer — prepared and sold manures manufactured by the following 
and other processes, viz : — 

1st. The filtration of sewage through animal and vegetable charcoal. 
2nd. The precipitation of the solid matters of sewage by lime, lime- 
water, &c. 

3rd. The evaporation of the water in urine, night-soil, ammonia, &e. 
4th. The desiccation and deodorisation offish, blood, flesh and other 
animal matters. 

5th. The mixture of the concentrated products and other chemical 
materials with animal and vegetable charcoal, which absorb to an extra- 
ordinary extent the concentrated liquid thus prepared, and which, when 
mixed with the solid parts of the fish, flesh, bones, blood, &c, in the 
.proportions which experience has proved to be the best, form the Man- 
chester sewage guano. 

Dead horses, sheep, &c, &c, diseased flesh, meat and fish, seized by 
the city authorities, have been worked up without causing any nuisance 
by the process. 

Various chemical analyses have been made of this manure, which is 
found to contain a larger proportion of ammonia, phosphates, urates 
and other fertilising properties, than an. equal amount in value of 
foreign guano. 

The company have recently erected new works at a large expense, 
with the requisite conveniences of steam-power, tanks, drying stoves, 
evaporating pans, retorts, sheds, &c. ; and, although they have not yet 
had the gratification of receiving any return in the shape of profit, they 
feel confident, from the fact of the demand for their manures having 
last year been greater than they could supply, that a reasonable profit 
may be fairly expected from their future operations. 

The company have never taken out a patent ; and, although they 
naturally refrain from publishing the jwirtieulars of the various processes 
adopted, they would gladly see a host of competitors arising for the 
manufacture of a British manure from waste materials, wDich are now 
the cause of nuisance, sickness and excessive mortality. 



The experience of the Manchester Sewage Guano Company may be 
valuable in exciting more vigorous efforts in the right direction, for the 
attainment of the desirable object in view, which may with truth be 
considered the great agricultural and sanitary question of the day, viz. 
the preparation of a valuable fertiliser from the refuse and injurious 
waste materials of our towns. 

There is abundant room for every well-directed effort; and heartily 
wishing success to all who earnestly set about the accomplishment of 
the desired object, and thanking you for the aid you have given to the 
cause, 

I am, sir, your obedient servant, 

John Thompson. 

THE PARABOLIC PROPELLER. 



To the Editor of The Artizan. 
Sir, — Had your correspondent, who signs himself a "Naval Architect," 
condescended to have grappled with the substance of my letter, instead of 
fencing with the name of my invention — whieh.per se, is of little consequence 
to any person — and endeavouring to smother its merits in the conceits of 
others, and amongst them one of his own, the public, and particularly that 
part of it interested in the question, would have been enabled to draw their 
own " conclusions" on the subject. 

I have some reason to complain of the manner your correspondent has 
treated me personally in the matter. I signed my own name as well as 
that of my propeller, and he had no right to class me with his "discom- 
fited " anonymous adversaries. Discomfited, indeed! 

I have no reason to doubt his having given to paddle-wheel and screw 
propulsion his "most deliberate attention," and I only wished him to give 
the same attention to parabolic propulsion. My invention is not a screw, 
nor any part of a screw; and if, instead of its name being ridiculed as a 
nothingness, it had led to an investigation of its principles, and tracing its 
properties in its performances, it would have been found to be, what in fact 
it is, a submerged paddle-wheel; and I fancy your correspondent's bantling 
would be as well nursed by a submerged as an emergent paddle-wheel. 

In submitting my proposition to your correspondent, it was severed 
from screw propulsion; and I had no design, nor any intention, that he 
should lend himself to "any party considerations." I sought only elucida- 
tion of the Truth. I seek it now, though it may,, perhaps, be below the 
dignity of a "Naval Architect" to aid an humble individual like myself in 
its development. I submitted to his consideration the principle and per- 
formances of a propeller, which, in hands of sufficient power to override 
strong prejudices and powerfully established interests, would leave him 
without an adverse argument on the subject; and I am not one to accept 
dogmatisms for truths. It may or it may not be " nonsense" of the screw 
'having the slightest chance with the paddle-wheel" — with that question I 
have nothing to do. I am only interested in the superiority of my own 
invention. 

One word on the sketches illustrating the pitching and falling of screw 
vessels. They would have been complete, accompanied by the rolling of a 
paddle-wheel steamer; and the effect and danger to the ship and machinery 
by one wheel being immerged to its axis in water, whilst the other is pad- 
dling the wind, may be estimated by the expense and pains taken to secure 
the ship amidships. The cumbrous paddle-boxes and their adjuncts may 
not be worth a consideration. 

It is so long since I had any share in the management of ships, that I am 
unable to judge of the accuracy of the expenses, as stated, for navigating 
steam and sailing vessels respectively; but one element of calculation for sail- 
ing-vessels strikes me as rather singular, that sixty-five men should navigate a 
ship of 1800 tons. I never knew of a ship in the East India trade manned 
with less than five hands to every 100 tons; but perhaps this matter is 
managed differently now to what it was twenty-five years ago. 

I beg to enclose a tabulated statement of some of the performances of my 
propeller. It forms the basis of my position, and every fact can be vouched 
for. If you will be kind enough to give it insertion in your next publication, 



1854.] 



The late Appalling Shipwrecks. 



61 



it will afford the public in general, and the scientific world in particular, an 
opportunity to decide whether the screw or the parabolic propeller is bett 
adapted to practical purposes. 

Since the table was formed, I have received intelligence that one of my 
propellers, 7 feet 8 inches diameter, 9 feet 6 inches pitch, and its three blades 
23| square feet area, has absorbed the power and reduced the speed of 
engines of 40 inches, cylinders 3 feet stroke and 12 lbs. pressure per square 
inch of the pistons, from upwards of 40 revolutions to 23 revolutions per 
minute, and the speed of the ship equal to the speed of the propeller; but 
as a greater speed of the vessel is of more consideration than the economy 
of fuel, another propeller has to be made with a foot less pitch to accomplish 
that object. So much for your correspondent's ideas on the " limited size 
for general purposes" of submerged propellers! So much for facts against 
opinions! and so much for those who are interested in the question for their 
government! 

In your number for January last, in reference to another propeller — of 
which, as an infringement of one or both of my patented propellers, more 
by-and-bye — you allude to " Macassar oil." I beg to assure you, Sir, there 
is nothing of that composition to gloss over my statement whatever, may be 
its character as a " Rowland for an Oliver." 
I remain, Sir, 

Your very obedient servant, 

Ewill, February \Zih, 1854. R. Hodgson. 

Results of the Performances of the Parabolic Propeller, as compared with 
the Screw. 



Ships' Names. 



Parab. 



Corkscrew 

Fleeha 

Secret 

Augusta 

Fairy 

Minister Thoibecke 



Revolutions 
of Engines 
per minute. 



Screw 



70 
100 

■a 

1 



Parab. Screw 



36 
:1 
73 

II:. 

34 
;l 



Speed of Shi): 
in knots 
per hour. 



6-5 
7"5 

8-0 
7-0 
9-5 
8-25 



5-5 

6-5 

7-0 

6-25 

9-0 

7-5 



Computed 

power to 

arrive at the 

same speed 

with the 

Screw. 



Revolutions 
of Kngines. 



59-4 
1-532:1 
108-9 
161-0 
400 
1-331:1 



Riitio of 
computed 

power 
■xerted for 

the 
Parabolic 
Propeller. 



P 1 Ce.itage 



60 6 
43-5 
64-2 
62 1 
67 5 
75-1 



Average 



DIFFERENCE 



ty Cent. 



39-4 
56-5 
35-8 
37-9 
32 -5 
24-9 



6)227-0 



37 -S3 W 
[cent, in favour of the Parabolic Propeller. 



THE SCREW v. PADDLE. 
To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sie, — I have read in your useful journal, several letters by your inde- 
fatigable correspondent Mr. J. P. Drake, wherein he shows that the screw, as 
a propeller, has not hitherto given such satisfactory results as the paddle- 
wheel has done; from which circumstance Mr. Drake arrives at the conclu- 
sion that the screw is inferior in principle to the paddle-wheel, and never can 
compete with it successfully as a propeller. 

Now, as far as I am capable of judging between these two modes of pro- 
pelling, I should give a very decided preference to the screw, which, if made 
scientifically, and applied under the stern of vessels properly constructed, 
would, I believe, give out for their propulsion a much larger percentage of 
the power applied than the paddle-wheel is capable of imparting. The 
drawback on the paddle-wheel, arising from its varying action on the water, 
is not, under the most favourable circumstances, I believe, overrated at 10 
per cent, of the power applied; and when the wheel is deeply immersed, as 
at the commencement of a long voyage, 20 per cent, of the power applied 
is lost; whilst in rough weather and in heavy swells, 50 per cent, at least is 
expended in biiffetting with the waves: whilst the screw admits of being 
made so perfect, and applied in such a manner, that its effective power shall, 
under all those circumstances, be equal to about 95 per cent, of the power 
applied to it. 

All the screw propellers that have come under my notice, were liable, in a 
greater or less degree, to the following objections, namely: — The screw has 



been too large in diameter, and, consequently, liable to be frequently raised 
out of the water, and thereby to cause great sacrifice of speed and power. 

The boss or centre of the screw has been of such a form as would cause 
it to absorb from 20 to 30 per cent, of the power applied to the screw, in 
overcoming the vacuum in its wake; and to reduce this evil, the boss has 
generally been made small, and the vanes proportionally thick at the root , 
consequently, more power would be absorbed in passing them through the 
water than would have been required, if the boss had been large and the 
vanes thin. 

The vanes of a screw propeller should not, in my opinion, form an angle 
of less at any part than 40° to the course of the vessel; for, although the fric- 
tion of the vanes through the water is but small, the amount of power usually 
wasted upon the unfavourable angle of the inner end of the vanes, must be 
rather considerable; and the vibration consequent on that low angle, with 
the lashing of the propeller above the water, must be very destructive to the 
vessel and machinery, and unpleasant to passengers. 

In addition to the above drawbacks on the efficiency of the screw-propeller, 
may be added the vacuum in the wake of the stern-post and the auxiliary 
stern-post, together with the resistance presented by the front of the auxiliary 
stern-post, and sometimes by that of the boss of the propeller. When the 
above impediments to screw steaming shall have been removed, and but few 
things can be done more easily, screw ships will, I have no doubt, supersede 
paddle ships. 

The weight, cost and room occupied by screw machinery, including en- 
gines and boilers, will be less than one-half those of paddle machinery of 
equal propulsive power, and their durability greater. 

I trust the time is near at hand when, by means of improved steam gene- 
rators and surface condensers, together with improved screw-propeller and 
lines of vessel, steam-ships will obtain a higher speed, and navigate thrice 
the distance they now do, with a given amount of fuel. 

Your insertion of the above in the next number of The Artizan, will 
oblige, 

Yours truly, 

Richakd Roberts. 

Globe Works, Manchester, 22nd February, 1854. 

THE LATE APPALLING SHIPWRECKS. 
To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir, — If the philosophy of man was such as the unreflecting mass are too 
ready to presume it to be, we should not be so repeatedly called upon to 
sympathise with suffering humanity in the shape of shipwreck, without 
taking something like effectual steps to relieve society from its painful recur- 
rence; but year after year rolls on, and such scenes as we are now called 
upon to deplore, in the instance of the San Francisco, Tayleur, and Olinda, 
take place without producing any effect on our Government or the public 
further than a passing event, to be forced out of notice by some more or less 
appalling tragedy; and the age in which we live is not long in supplying 
what we too frequently anticipate with passive indifference. Such immense 
loss of life and property, one would think, the Board of Trade or the Admiralty 
should take some notice of; but public boards are not much inclined to give 
themselves more trouble than they can avoid; and it is to be regretted the 
British public are now so much used to this sort of thing, that little or no 
hope presents itself in the shape of a speedy cure; not that the task is 
difficult to devise means to reduce the number of shipwrecks — in fact, I will 
go so far as to state, science and mechanical skill will not produce more to 
render ships more secure against danger for the next fifty years than have 
been provided for the last thirty. But how, in the face of interests at 
variance with improvement, is the world to be put in possession of that 
which the common interest of man daily tells us we so much require, but 
cannot under existing circumstances obtain? 

The primary cause of the loss of the San Francisco is stated to have been 
the excessive dip <f the paddle-wheels in the water as to cause the engines to 
break down, and thus leave the ship a helpless and ungovernable log, to be 
dashed in every direction which the boiling sea might take her. 

It would appear she was so constructed that she became unmanageable, 



62 



The late Appallmg Shipwrecks. 



[March, 



and " brooched to twice," as shown by the graphic statement of one of the 
survivors, whose heart-rending account was published in The Times of 
January 27th. 

Instead of keeping in a line with the sea, her tendency to brooch to 
exposed her to the dangerous result which decided her luckless fate ; and 
this I can readily comprehend, if she was constructed upon the lines of the 
America and Golden Age, with the preponderence in the after instead of the 
fore-body. However such a form may answer for river steamers, it is fraught 
with peril for ocean purposes, particularly for steamers with no head sail. 

When driving before the wind, with not a stitch of sail to preserve her 
course, the preponderating after-body destroyed her steering qualities by the 
natural efforts of the stern to take the lead; and, as a shrewd observer 
remarked, " she was sent to sea with her wrong end foremost." And here I 
beg to call your attention to my illustrative remarks published in The Artizan 
of August, 1853, when it will be seen at once how ill-calculated such a 
formed vessel is to be kept " before the wind " in such terrific weather as 
that which overwhelmed the San Francisco. 

With all deference to the American constructor, whose enterprising 
spirit I so much admire, I make this remark from experience, and hope it 
will not be considered intrusive in him who gave to the late Henry Steers his 
first lesson in ship construction, on which I will take an early opportunity to 
speak more fully. In crossing the Atlantic in the autumn of 1827, I was 
overtaken by the equinoctial gales, in a " tub of the old school," and for eight 
days it was quite impossible for anyone to keep the deck but the men who 
were lashed to the helm. Like in the instance described, " the sea was a 
complete mass of foam, boiling and swelling like a caldron," and the ship 
flying before it " under bare poles," at a rate of nearly two knots per hour 
more than she ever made with sail under the most favourable circumstances. 
Fortunately, she was not inclined to brooch to; and there was a considerable 
difference between the two bodies, the preponderence being before the middle 
of her length, as usual with ships which have weathered the storm with com- 
parative safety. The sea was raging at that fearful rate as to make it 
impossible to bring her head to the wind; and the captain, an experienced 
sailor, who had crossed the Atlantic thirty times, was like a man lost in 
astonishment at the sight before us. We had crossed from the Banks to the 
Bay in the time named ; but I do not believe we should have had the same 
chance had she been built with the "wrong end foremost." Had the San 
Francisco's wheels been fitted on the raising and lowering principle, she 
would have started with the paddles dipped in proportion to the engines' 
power; and, it is more than probable, she would not have given the world a 
practical proof of the necessity of attending to this important regula- 
tion. The gale was nearly in a direction with the vessel's course; and, 
although too strong to admit of sail of any kind, her paddle-wheels would 
have kept her before it, as it is very evident she was built with great strength ; 
so much so, that her prudent commander considered it right to scuttle her 
before he left, and thus prevent her from being the cause of further devasta- 
tion by floating in a track through which ships are constantly passing. 

The next frightful catastrophe to which public attention was called, was 
the total wreck of the Tayleur, an iron emigrant sailing ship of the first 
class; and the work of death was by no means less terrific than in the in- 
stance of her predecessor. 

Her loss was first attributed to the inefficiency of her crew; but the verdict 
of the jury goes to prove that she was also an unmanageable ship, as she would 
not answer her helm, and could not be brought about, as the captain states, 
without going " to leeward at least five miles, andit was at least one hour before 
she was in trim on the other tack." 

The whole of the evidence goes to show that the Tayleur, like the majority 
of ships of the new school, was built by the " rule of thumb;" and time and 
opportunity only is wanting to show that over-long ships do not work better 
in 1854 than they did fifty years since; but past experience seems now 
to be quite lost sight of in ship construction. 

Her destruction was aggravated by the appalling brevity of the time 
which swept hundreds of helpless creatures from this to another world, 
without the chance of escape, although the shore was so close that some of 
the crew with daring intrepidity leaped upon the rocks and were saved. 

Like the ill-fated Birkenhead and Orion, the Tayleur was ingulphed and 



buried in the deep in a few minutes; and it is really astounding to think 
with what effrontery the fatal results are glossed over and extenuated by 
men who must know it to be palpably false, when they state, that wood- 
built ships would have disappeared in the same or shorter space of time. 

They were all new vessels, and I will venture to say, that the oldest and 
worst wood-built ship afloat would have hung together and kept above water 
more than sufficiently long to allow every one on board the Tayleur and 
her precursors to escape. As the editor of The Times justly observed, her 
"alacrity in sinking was like a cannon ball ;" and surely no man in his com- 
mon senses can be made to believe that a wood-built ship would sink with 
such alacrity as either one or the other of those ill-fated iron vessels. 

The Birkenhead and Orion sank in water nearly as calm as a mill pond ; 
and it was not many months after the tragic account of the Birkenhead 
reached England, that her Majesty's wood-built ship Rhadamanthus struck 
upon the same reef, and was got off comparatively uninjured. 

Then, as now, extenuation was attempted, and the Birkenhead was as- 
serted to have been the strongest iron-built ship in Her Majesty's service. 
If we take her weight as a criterion, she certainly was, being heavier than 
any other iron ship of the same class, but her thickest plates were not quite 
one inch; but, taking them at one inch, which the greatest champion of iron 
ships states to be equal to five inches of oak, we find that she was not so strong 
as the Rhadamanthus at the bilge on which she grounded, the solid thickness 
of her bottom at that part of the vessel being above or about twenty inches, 
consequently four times as strong as one inch of iron. The Artizan for May, 
1852, contains some remarks which I made at the time the Birkenhead tra- 
gedy was before the public; with an extract from my letter of the 21st April, 
1851, to Sir Francis Baring, then First Lord of the Admiralty, in which I 
felt it to be my duty to caution him against sending the Birkenhead to sea 
in her dangerous and unprotected state; but she was sent to sea notwith- 
standing, and lost, and who was responsible? No one; although I ventured 
to assume that " Sir Francis Baring only could be considered responsible for 
the ill-fated catastrophe, should it unfortunately occur." 

My very heart bleeds when I think of the callous indifference with which 
such events as those before us are received by men in authority, and with 
what facility the momentary impression is removed from the public mind, 
ever ready as it is to receive in due form something equally astounding, 
and equally quick to be forgotten. The futile efforts to make it appear that 
the case of the Great Britain in Dundrum Bay is analogous, would not be 
worthy of notice, had not the unthinking public been induced to entertain it. 
The Great Britain was fast bedded on a beach which prevented her sinking; 
and when she was full of water, the ponderous material of which she was 
built became as a mass — almost a part and parcel of the breach — out of the 
reach of further danger; and every precaution was taken to preserve her by 
the construction of a breakwater sufficient for the purpose. Had she been in 
deep water she would have sunk with the alacrity of a cannon-ball ; and she 
was no more safe when brought in contact with the rock, than would have 
been a glass bottle, comparatively speaking; for iron of one inch thickness 
cannot possibly resist concussion more effectually when applied to such a 
mass and weight as the Great Britain. 

Nor is it in touching the ground that iron ships are only exposed to danger, 
as we have instances of their breaking in two in the open sea, and sinking 
to the bottom like a cannon ball, at a moment's notice; for, to the best of my 
recollection, the Elbfeldt disappeared instanter, without giving warning to the 
unfortunate sufferers who were sent to the bottom of the Channel in her. 

The editor of The Times seems to think that, as the Birkenhead " broke her 
back, just as you might break a slick across your knee," the same as the last- 
mentioned vessel, " science had not contemplated tltis contingency ." To this, 
I answer— In 1836, 1 had anticipated this result and provided for it, by 
placing the plates diagonally, so as to relieve the rivets from the strain to 
which they are subjected when put in a line perpendicular to the keel, and 
by the introduction of a strong horizontal string or tie as high up from the 
water as it could be placed; and it is well known to the Admiralty and those 
who have advocated the return to iron shipbuilding, since it was condemned 
for " war purposes," that I have further provided for their safety, by an im- 
pervious ceiling; but who shall force the Admiralty or the owners of iron 
ships to adopt this precaution, when so little interest is taken in such 



1854J 



Institution of Civil Engineers. 



63 



subjects, further than a passing event, to be pushed aside by some 
more or less painful calamity? The Olinda, an iron screw-vessel also 
of the first class, quickly followed in the train of the San Francisco 
and Tayleur, but not with the same heart-rending results. She left Liver- 
pool with a valuable cargo and a full complement of passengers for South 
America, having made one voyage to the Brazils and back, and was also a 
new, but not an untried vessel. 

It appears that she soon became a complete wreck, and the cause asserted 
was to the want of power in the screw to keep her from driving with 
the wind, against which she had been " for several hours unable to make 
head." Why she should have trusted to the screw to keep her from the 
shore, does not appear in public; but it is* quite clear, that to its inefficiency as 
a propeller, her owners are indebted for the loss. There is something of a 
character connected with the loss of the Olinda which has commanded the 
attention of the Board of Trade, as stated in The Times of the 11th instant; 
and it is to be hoped that the public will be put in possession of the inform- 
ation obtained, although "the inquiry is being conducted privately." 

That it is the duty of the Board of Trade to investigate cases of ship- 
wreck when there is anything unusual associated with it, everyone can 
readily believe; and no 'one can doubt that it is th« duty also of a public 
board to make the facts, brought out by inquiry, an open question, that 
scientific men may be able to comprehend the causes clearly, so as to be 
able to provide a remedy. 

On rendering iron ships seaworthy, I have ventured to call their attention 
in several instances, but it did not appear they were in any way inclined to 
meet the question; however, it is to be hoped the recent losses have 
awakened a feeling of a more favourable character, and that the Board of 
Trade do now see the necessity of giving to the subject appropriate con- 
sideration. 

I do not mean to imply that wood-built ships are so perfect and free from 
danger as not to require further improvement; but I do mean to imply, 
that had the Board of Trade or the Board of Admiralty shown the slightest 
wish to encourge improvement in the construction and building of wooden 
ships, irrespective of political or party motives, England at this moment 
would have been in the possession of ships much superior to every other 
country. France has produced some of the best examples which have 
graced our navy for fifty years and upwards; and although we have been 
slow in profiting by possession, we have profited, as all our modern ships 
partake more or less of the French example. 

America also has given us some splendid examples of another class, and 
of late we have been driven to admit it; still, I beg again to repeat, had 
England's Admiralty and England's Board of Trade given to the subject 
of ship improvement that consideration which, as a national question it so 
implicitly required at their hands, we should have been much in advance of 
them all. 

That symptoms of a change for the better is now about to manifest itself, 
by the abolition of party patronage, I can venture to hope is not so falla- 
cious as many seem to consider; at the same time I cannot shut my eyes to 
the difficulties which it will have to encounter. That it may be productive 
of all the good professed, I most anxiously wish; and so far as it may have a 
tendency to prevent such a reckless waste of life and property as have been so 
recently made known, the public, I will venture to hope, feel equally 
anxious, and will not, I trust, be disappointed by further unjustifiable 
neglect. 

I remain, Sir, 

Your obedient humble servant, 

John Poad Dkake, 

London, February 15th, 1852. Naval Architect. 

p.S. — Since the date of this letter, public attention has again been called to 
the "alacrity" with which iron ships sink, in the instances of the East India 
Company's war steamer Medusa, and the Osmanli, screw- steamer, with the 
Melbourne and Port Adelaide mails. They both sank with fearful rapidity, 
giving to those on board scarcely time to escape, although their position in 
other respects was far from dangerous. Why not guard against such losses, 
by the introduction of a completely water-tight ceiling, with which, had they 
been fitted, they most probably would have been saved ? at least they would 



have been kept above water long enough to secure the bulk of valuable pro- 
perty. The Board of Trade has had the question of safety to iron ships 
officially brought under their notice, as well as that of the Board of Admiralty, 
for some time; and the cause of humanity calls loudly for their prompt atten- 
tion to this important subject. J. p. D. 



ON THE FLOW OF HIGH PEESSUKE STEAM THKOUGH A 
PIPE OPEN TO THE ATMOSPHERE. 

To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Dear Sir, — As a junior subscriber of your journal, I beg to ask if any 
of your mathematical readers can give me a ready and simple method of 
solving the following question : — 

Having given the number of cubic feet of water a steam-boiler will eva- 
porate per hour, and the pressure of steam maintained in the boiler in 
pounds above the atmosphere, to find the area of an orifice opening directly 
into the atmosphere, to take away the steam as fast as it is generated — as an 
example: A steam-boiler evaporates 50 cubic feet of water per hour, under a 
uniform pressure of 50 pounds above the atmosphere — Required the area of 
an orifice to take away the steam? 

I remain, yours truly, 

A. B. 

Leeds, January Wth, 1854. 

INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS.— January 31, 1854. 
James Simpson, Esq., President, in the chair. 

" On Macadamized Roads, for the Streets of Towns," by Mr. J. Pigott 
Smith, Assoc. Inst. C. E. 

The lengthened experience of the author, as Surveyor to the Corporation 
of Birmingham, having under his charge about 150 miles of street road, and 
50 miles of turnpike road, enabled him to express confident opinions on the 
comparative cost, durability and general qualities of paving, and of broken 
stone, for roads and even for streets, subject to a considerable amount of 
heavy traffic. 

The parties chiefly interested in having good roads, were shown to be the 
owners of carriages and horses, and the ratepayers, at whose expense the 
roads were originally constructed and subsequently maintained. For both 
these classes " cheap roads " (i.e., those of small first-cost) were contended, 
generally, to be the dearest; horsepower being uselessly expended, carriages 
destroyed, and constant repairs to the surface of the road being necessitated. 
Any undue increase of tractive power was shown to fall, indirectly, on all 
who purchased any commodities conveyed through the streets, and the 
annoyances and hindrances to commerce, arising from ill-paved, or ill-kept, 
muddy, dirty and noisy streets, were patent to all. The necessity was thence 
deduced for having the roads and streets so constructed that the surface 
should be firm, even and smooth, without being slippery, and free from mud 
or dust or loose stones. 

To attain this, the foundation should be of firm material, well consolidated, 
and perfectly drained, then covered with stones, broken to uniform dimen- 
sions, well raked in and fixed by a binding composition of grit, collected 
during wet weather by Whitworth's sweeping-machine, and preserved for 
the purpose. This binding being regularly laid on and watered, if in dry 
weather, would, in great thoroughfares, consolidate the new metal in a few 
hours, preserving the sharp angles of the stones, which assumed all the regu- 
larity of a well-laid pavement, with a considerable saving of material, and a 
firmer crust than by the ordinary method, of allowing the vehicles to pass, 
for many days, over the uncovered surface of the new stones, grinding off 
the angles, with a deafening noise, and forming dust or mud, to be carried 
on to the footpaths and into the houses and shops. 

Instances were given of the advantages of this system, of using the grit for 
binding, which should, however, be that collected by the sweeping-machines, 
and not mere slimy mud. 

A street in Birmingham, subject to great traffic, had been thus perfectly 
made and consolidated in five days; whereas, under the ordinary system, 
three months would have been required to produce the same effect. 

The repairs are capable of being effected at any period of the year. Under 



64 



JRoyal Scottish Society of Arts. 



[March, 



no circumstances were the street surfaces permitted to be worn down, and 
they were never stopped, as was the case for lifting and repaving. 

Rules were then given for keeping the surface in perfect travelling order, 
for picking off all loose materials, for sweeping and never scraping, for pre- 
serving the profile of the surface, and getting rid of all lodged water, for 
light watering in dusty weather, and heavy watering wh?n there was adhe- 
sive mud, that could not he otherwise removed by the long brushes of Whir- 
worth's sweeping-machines, which were contended to be indispensable for 
keeping roads and streets in good repair, and for preventing the nuisances 
of mud and dust. 

The system employed in London, of heavy watering without removing 
the mud, or of scraping and of hand-sweeping and lifting by shovels into 
carts, was shown to be bad and expensive. The loss of 6peed, and extra 
power required to be exerted by horses drawing carriages over street surfaces 
in the state of those in London, were shown to be as much as twenty-five per 
cent., as compared to the work done in Birmingham. The employment of 
of a better system, combined with the use of the sweeping-machines, bad been 
productive, at Birmingham, of an economy of nearly one-third of the mate- 
rials employed for the construction and repairs of the streets and roads. 

Instances were given of the actual results of the system of washing and 
sweeping parts of the Quadrant, Regent Street, where the method had been 
satisfactorily proved to have produced superior effects; but prejudice had in- 
duced obstinate adherence to the old system, to the annoyance of the public. 
and with the derision of all foreigners who visited the metropolis. The 
actual state of all the leading thoroughfares could vouch for the justice of 
the criticism on the present metropolitan system. 

The greatest amount of wear and tear of macadamized street surface, in 
Birmingham, was shown to be four inches per annum; the average nvght be 
therefore taken at two inches ; the cost of maintenance was fourpence per 
superficial yard, and that of watering and cleansing was twopence, giving a 
total of sixpence per yard per annum. 

Paving costs fifteen shillings per yard; it required to be renewed once in 
fifteen years, and the cleansing cost about one halfpenny per yard. Paving 
was, therefore, evidently about double as expensive as macadamizing, at 
Birmingham. 

It was, therefore, contended, that macadamized roads and street surfaces, 
if properly constructed and carefully managed, well wster-cleansed for mud 
and watered for dust, brushed, or swept by machinery, maintained with an 
uniform surface, and not permitted to become degraded, were well adapted 
for towns and cities of average traffic, and for many localities in and around 
the metropolis. 

February 7th, 1854. ' 
In the discussion upon Mr. Pigott Smith's paper, " On the use of the 
Macadamizing System, for the Streets of Large Towns," numerous details 
were given of the comparative prices of the materials in the country and in 
the metropolis, the method of laying them down, the successive employment 
of set paving stones, in large thoroughfares, than in less-frequented streets, 
and ultimately breaking them up for macadamizing; thus giving the materials 
an alm< st uidimited duration. The use of the grit, as collected by the sweep- 
ing-machines, was admitted to he advantageous for binding the metalling 
quickly, and preventing the abrasion of the angles of the stones. It was, 
however, shown, that the traffic of country towns was so vastly inferior, in 
amount and weight, to that of the metropolis, especially since the introduc- 
tion of the heavy railway and other vans, travelling at considerable speed, 
n ion comparatively narrow wheels, that a system of forming streets or roads, 
which would endure in one case, was not applicable for another, and hence 
the present bad condition of Parliament Street and other streets which had 
been macadamized, and which it was contended could only be maintained, 
even in their present state, at a cost greatly exceeding that of the paved 
streets of the City. 



The Paper read was a "Description of the Navigation and Drainage 
works recently executed on the tidal portion of the River Lee," by Mr. N. 
Beardmore, M. Inst. C. E. 

The first part contained a general description of the ancient navigation of 



the River Lee, and of the gradual improvements introduced into the class of 
liarges frequenting it, ar.d the burthens carried by them. Allusion was made 
to the difficulties and continual delays which had prevailed, up to a very 
recent period, in the tidal portion, forming the junction with How Creek and 
the Thames, at Limehouse; difficulties which were aggravated by the navi- 
gation being the common supply for five tidal mills. 

The new works consiste'l of stop-gates, across the main channel of the Lee, 
near Ohl Ford Lock, established for preventing the water from being drawn 
down, by the tidal mills, to the eastward ; also a lock for a similar purpose 
and to pass barges on St. Thomas's Creek, near Bow Bridge ; and a new 
overfall, to pass surplus water to the Three Mills. 

Three large new flood-gates, each* 18 feet in width, were constructed near 
Four Mills, with a new tidal lock, adjacent to the spot, in order to pass ves- 
sels into Bow Creek; the ancient system being to pass craft by a single pair 
of gates, only available by drawing down the head water, and, frequently, 
during neap-tides, the water did not rise high enough to enable the gates to 
be opened at all. 

The remaining new works consisted of a lock at the east end of the Lime- 
house Cut, to retain the water, when, in consequence of floods, the Brom- 
ley flood-gates were required to be opened ; the lock being of such a width 
as to allow vessels of 21 feet beam to enter the cut; the former lock being 
only capable of admitting barges of 13 feet 6 inches beam. 

In consequence of the treacherous nature of the material at the Bromlev 
end of the Limehouse Cut, it was necessary to excavate the cut, to give flatter 
slopes, and also to build retaining walls of Kentish rag, for the towing path. 

The paper concluded by alluding to other considerable works which had 
been recently executed, at the lower end of the navigation, where it formed 
ajunction with the Regent's Canal Basin, thus giving access to Armstrong's 
hydraulic coal lifts and cranes, with the dock conveniences and the wider 
locks, recently executed by Mr. W. Radford, for the Regent's Canal Com- 
pany. 



ROYAL S< OTTISH SOCIETY OF ARTS. 

DIPPING AND APPARENT LIGHTS. 

At the meeting of the Society on Monday, the 23rd of January, 1854, a 
paper " On Dipping and Apparent Lights for sunk reefs and pierheads of har- 
bours, with descriptions of an apparent light erected in 1851, by the Com- 
missioners of Northern Lighthouses, on a sunk lock in the bay of Storno- 
way," was read, by Thomas Stevenson, E<q., F.R S.E., Civil Engineer. 

The author alluded to the great and well-known difficulties and expense, 
and, in some cases, the impossibility of constructing lighthouses upon sunken 
rocks. To remedy such difficulties, the author proposed two methods, which 
he termed dipping and apparent lights, in order to make lighthouses on the 
shore answer the same ends as if they were placed on the isolated rocks at 
sea. 

The author described the plan of dipping lights as being applicable to 
cases where the rocks or shoals, whose position required to be indicated, were 
surrounded with sufficient sea-room to enable vessels to pass to and fro with- 
out approaching near to the rocks themselves. The dipping light, instead 
of throwing its beam of parallel rays to the horizon, in the same manner as 
ordinary lights, throws it downward at some given angle of depression, to 
suit the distance of the rocks from the shore, so that, whenever a vessel 
crosses the margin of safety, the dipping light is seen, and she has ample 
time to change her course. 

The apparent light is useful for sunk rocks in narrow sounds, where the 
fairway is not broad, and where the dangers must be passed very closely; 
also for pierheads at the mouths of artificial harbours, and such like situa- 
tions. The apparent light at the entrance to Stornoway Bay, in the He- 
brides, is erected on a sunk rock, distant about 630 feet from the lighthouse 
on the shore, and consists of a hermetically sen led lantern, containing certain 
forms of optical apparatus, upon which a beam of light is thrown from the 
lighthouse ashore. The effect of this apparatus is to re-assemble the rays 
in a focus, from which they again diverge, presenting to vessels entering the 
bay the appearance of a real light on the beacon, when, in fact, there is 
none. So dangerous was this sunken rock, that many thought the lighthouse 









1854.] 



Report of the Chief Engineer of Panama Railroad Company. 



65 



should be built upon it, instead of on the shore. By means of the apparent 
light, however, every end has been gained that could have been secured by 
the lighthouse, while the great expense of construction and of after main- 
tenance has been saved. From the very small power which is used at Storn- 
oway (a Holofshotral apparatus of only twenty inches diameter, with a 
burner one inch diameter), the author concludes that such a plan could be 
applied to very much greater distances. The optical power at Stornoway 
could, were it necessary, be increased about a hundredfold, if fitted with a 
holofshotral apparatus of the first order. If the electric light were employed 
in connection with such powerful apparatus, the limits of visibility would, of 
course, be still further extended. The apparatus necessary for illuminating 
floating buoys on the same principle was also explained, and the paper was 
concluded with extracts from letters from ten different shipmasters, who 
certified to the utility of the beacon-light in all weathers. The distances to 
which it had been seen varied from one to one and a half miles — distances 
greatly beyond the wants of the locality. 



IMPROVEMENTS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF PAPER. 

Mr. Cowan, M.P., then gave a sketch of the various changes and improve- 
ments in the manufacture of paper during the last thirty years. He first 
described the old mode of manufacture in vats, now fallen almost entirely 
into disuetude, and replaced by the paper-machine. There were twelve or 
fourteen processes, he said, in the old vat mill, requiring a period of three 
weeks to produce the paper; whereas, now it was manufactured in almost as 
many minutes. The paper-machine at present in use was invented early in 
the century by Fourdrinier, a Frenchman; but, being patented also in this 
country, it did not come into general use till the patent expired in 1822. 
Since that period various important improvements in the manufacture had 
been introduced, such as the strainer and the sand strap, which cleared the 
pulp of all knots, dust, and extraneous matter. The manufacture of " laid" 
paper by the machine, which was at first thought impossible, had been in 
operation for the last six years, and as fine paper was produced by it as for- 
merly could have been turned out by the hand. With regard to the material 
used in the manufacture, waste-cotton from the mills, which formerly was 
considered quite useless, money being often paid to get rid of it, was now 
largely used in the production of such paper, particularly newspapers. Straw 
was another material which had lately been successfully tried. The paper 
produced from it was pleasant to look upon; it took a clear impression from 
types, and, as it did not require to be damped, considerable time was saved 
in printing upon it. Mr. Cowan showed some specimens of straw paper 
from Maidstone, with a copy of Bradshaw's Continental Guide for December 
printed on paper made from that material. Straw available for the manu- 
facture could be had at about £2 per ton ; it was, however, loaded with an 
excise duty of £15. Four years ago, when in the south of France, the 
Messrs. Montgolfier had shown him paper made of untanned leather, to be 
used as cartridges for cannon, for which purpose we used in this country 
flannel bags. On returning home he sent a specimen of it to the Right Hon. 
Fox Maule, then Secretary of War, who, however, told him that there was 
an objection to its use, from portions remaining in the piece after discharge, 
rendering the next charge liable to ignition. Mr. Cowan then exhibited a 
variety of beautiful transparencies, closely resembling porcelain, produced on 
paper by Mr. Saunders, of Dartford. Mr. Cowan concluded by stating, that 
in the county of Edinburgh, which was a considerable seat of the paper manu- 
facture, there were about twenty-four machines in operation. Supposing these 
machines travelled at the average rate of 36 feet per minute (some of them 
travelled at 50), and supposing that they worked fifteen hours a-day (some of 
them went day and night), this would be equal to about 147 miles of paper 
per day, about 5 feet broad. He believed that there were about 360 machines 
in Great Britain, producing daily about 2160 miles of paper. Considering 
the great results of the paper-machine in producing an abundant and cheap 
supply of paper for every purpose — in affording the means of enlarging the 
newspapers, in bringing paper-hangings within the reach of the humbler 
classes, and in giving an impetus to popular literature — he considered that it 
was one of the most useful and important inventions of modern times. 
9 



REPORT OF THE CHIEFENGINEER OF THE PANAMA 
RAILROAD COMPANY. 

[We have much pleasure in extracting, from the Journal of the 
Franklin Institute, the report of the Chief Engineer of the Panama 
Railroad. The importance of this route has already engaged the atten- 
tion of capitalists, as a means of communication with Australia, the 
West Coast of South America, the Sandwich Islands, California, &c. 
In addition to the Royal West India Mail Company, four other lines 
(three English and one French) have been organised to ply between 
Aspinwall and England, and connect with other lines from Panama to 
Australia. — Ed.\ 

Report of the Chief Engineer. — The period of the year having ar- 
rived when it is usual to prepare for the operations of the approaching 
dry season, I beg leave to present to your Board the following report 
upon the condition and prospects of your road : — 

The whole length of the road from ocean to ocean, as finally located, 
is 49 miles, of which distance, the portion from Aspinwall, the Atlantic 
terminus, to Barbacoas, where the line crosses the Chagres River, 23£ 
miles, has been in operation the past sixteen months (since July, 
1852). 

Nine miles of this division were originally laid on piles and cribbing, 
which were the means adopted for crossing the low grounds and swamps 
through which this part of the line passed ; all of which, with the ex- 
ception of about 1000 feet, is now filled in with earth. This track at 
present lies on firm embankments. 

During the past year many of the original trestle structures for 
crossing the streams have been replaced by substantial culverts or 
bridges, with masonry abutments and iron superstructures, which style 
of work is being adopted throughout the whole line as rapidly as cir- 
cumstances will admit. 

During the past year, also, many portions of the track have been bal- 
lasted, and a large number of the original spruce and native soft wood 
cross-ties have been replaced with others, of lignum-vitse and other 
hard and durable woods, which will be continued throughout the whole 
road. 

These improvements being completed, as they shortly will be, and 
your iron, which is of the bridge pattern, being of very superior quality, 
weighing 60 lbs. to the yard, it cannot fail to be seen that you will soon 
have as perfect a road as can be found in the United States, as it is 
already of fair average character. 

The erection of the bridge over the Chagres River has been impeded 
by various causes, amongst which may be mentioned an untimely flood 
in April last, which carried away the main span, when nearly completed. 
This span is now securely placed, and the whole bridge will probably be 
completed by December 1st. The substantial stone piers and abut- 
ments are already finished. 

From Chagres River to the Obispo, 7i miles, the grading is nearly 
finished, and three miles of track are laid. 

By December 1st, or as soon as the bridge is completed, the road 
will he open for the trains to Gorgona, 5§ miles from Barbacoas, the 
present terminus ; and by January 1st, to the Obispo, 7i miles, or in 
all, 31 miles from Aspinwall, the Atlantic terminus. 

Within the past few months the mule road from Cruces to Panama 
has been under repair, and it is now in a very passable condition. It 
is still in the course of improvement by a force of 150 labourers, which 
will be maintained upon it during the present wet season. 

A branch road is under construction from the line of the railroad, 
near the Obispo to the Cruces road, by which means, when the trains 
reach this point, the passengers and freight will be transferred directly 
from the cars to the mules ; the river route, which is now so tedious 



66 



Report of the Chief Engineer of the "Panama Railroad Company. 



[March, 



and disagreeable, will be avoided ; and the transit will be readily made 
from ocean to ocean, in twelve hours. 

Noting now, that the grading of the remaining portion of the road 
is commenced along the Obispo, as well as at Panama, the Pacific termi- 
nus, and that eight miles of this distance is already cleared from the 
timber, and prepared for working operations, we have the true state of 
the work at the present time. 

Recapitulating, then, the substance of the foregoing, it appears, that 
out of the 49 miles, which will be the whole length of the road from 
ocean to ocean, 23? miles are already in operation, and in good condi- 
tion ; and that by the 1st of January, 1854, 7| more, making 31 miles, 
will be in operation, leaving 18 miles to be constructed, and that these 
18 miles are already commenced at both ends, upon which large forces 
are fast accumulating. 

I now come to the plan of operations for the future, or rather, for the 
approaching dry season, and the prospect before us, the scene of which 
will be the division of 18 miles above mentioned, extending from the 
lower crossing of the river Obispo (the line crosses this river twice in 
the space of one mile) to the Pacific terminus of the road to Panama, 
upon which division, as I have just stated, the work is already com- 
menced, both alone the valley of the Obispo, and at Panama. 

In this distance we cross the summit ridge, the maximum grade on 
the Atlantic slope being 61 feet per mile, and on the Pacific slope, 70 
feet per mile, and the total rise, 250 feet above high tide of the Pacific. 

In any other country, the ground over which the line passes would be 
considered favourable. The heaviest work is at the summit, where a 
cutting is encountered 1,300 feet in length, and 24 feet in greatest 
depth, containing 30,000 yards of favourable excavation. 

The time requisite for constructing this division must, of course, de- 
pend upon the amount of labour which can be thrown upon it. 

Supposing that the work is of the same average character as the 
eight miles below, constructed by Mr. Story, which it is, both in regard 
to the amount of work, or number of yards per mile, and character of 
soil, and taking the fact, that these eight miles were graded in about 
ten months, with an average force not exceeding 900 men, the 18 miles 
now to be constructed, can be graded in six months, with a force 

of, say 3370 men 

Temporary bridge and track will require . 300 

Masons and quarrymen .... 200 

Repairs and completion of road below Barbacoas 500 

„ „ „ above „ 200 

Total force required . . 4570 
say 5,000 men to complete the road in six months. 

It would, perhaps, be thought more appropriate by some persons, to 
estimate the number of men required to do this work by the number 
of yards contained in it, and the number of yards considered as a fair 
day's work per man (which has been done, and found to, substantiate the 
above) ; but on the Isthmus, where a day's work is a very uncertain quan- 
tity, it is more satisfactory to estimate from what has been done under 
similar circumstances, and, estimating in this way, it appears that the 
road can be completed, from ocean to ocean, by August 1st, 1854, by 
the number of men mentioned above. 

The question now comes appropriately : — Can this number of men 
be obtained ? 

In answer to which, I would make the following statement : 

The force on the road now is— 



Native labourers, Jamaica men and Coolies . 
White men . . . 

Total 



1200 
390 

1590 



Arrangements which can be depended upon are made 
for bringing to the work, from the Province of Car- 
thagena, and adjacent country, by January next, 
New Grenadian natives ...... 

Further arrangements are made for bringing from other 
parts of that Republic 1000 men, from which may 
fairly be expected 

Your Board has odered from China (Coolies) . 



2000 



500 
1700 



And from Ireland 1000 

Total . . 6790 

In addition to which, you are forwarding to the work from this 
country about 150 labourers and mechanics monthly. 

As to the character of the labourers above enumerated, it may be 
well to say a few words. 

Irish labourers are not so efficient on the Isthmus as in cooler and 
healthier climates ; yet, for a period of from four to six months, which 
is the term of their engagement, they perform a fair amount of work. 

The Coolies are are at first feeble and inefficient, but being steady 
workmen, temperate, and but little affected by the climate, as they be- 
come accustomed to the use of the tools, and acquire strength from 
regular and wholesome food, they make useful workmen, 

The natives from the province of Carthagena are as accustomed to 
the pick, shovel and wheelbarrow, as are Irishmen. For the past nine 
years, this portion of the labouring population of New Granada has 
been under ray employment. Many of them have grown up from boys 
to the use of these implements. They are an elastic, hardy race, and in 
all respects the most efficient common labourers that can be employed 
on your work. They are also, excepting the Coolies, the most eco- 
nomical. 

An exact estimate of the cost of work on the Isthmus, even after the 
years of experience I have had in that country, I should not pretend to 
make. The reason for which is obvious. The line of the railroad 
affords nothing which can be used in its construction. All materials 
are imported there. Even the timber for the cross-ties is carried 
there from this country, or from distant parts of New Grenada. The 
workmen, whether native or foreign, are conveyed there for the express 
purpose of that work, at a cost of from fifteen to fifty dollars each. 
Sickness, although bearing no comparison to the exaggerated reports 
which have been circulated in regard to that work — not even amounting 
to the average sickness on the public works in many of our Western 
States — is a serious item of expenditure. The following estimate, how- 
ever, I consider sufficient to cover the cost of reaching the Pacific in 
the mode contemplated, the items of which are derived from the pro- 
file of the line as located, and the prices are such as have been found 
sufficient on the work already done on your road. 
571,000 cubic yards of excavation and embank- 
ment at Ds. 1-40 Ds. 799,400 

28,000 ditto ditto rock, Ds. 4.00 112,000 

18 miles of track, including cross-ties, Ds. 7>300 

per mile 131,400 

Temporary bridges 94,000 

Grubbing and clearing 10,000 



Cost of completing the 18 miles now under 



construction 



Ds. 1,146,800 



To which add cost of repairs, and expenditure 
on construction of unfinished work between 
Aspinwall and Obispo , 



280,000 






Total expenditure required to reach the Pacific 



terminus 



Ds. 1,426,800 



1854. 



Progress of American Invention. 



67 



The iron for the whole road is on the ground, having been purchased 
at an entirely early period of the work, and therefore does not enter 
into an estimate of expenditure yet to be made. 

G. M. TOTTEN, Chief Engineer. 
New York, November 1853. 

PEOGEESS OF AMEEICAN INVENTION.* 

An improved Core Spindle, formed by casting or otherwise, making a long 
iron bar, whose section is a cross, and then wrapping the same from end to 
end with wire, which thus takes the form of a helix. This spindle is then 
coated with loam by means of a machine noticed in one of my previous re- 
ports, and, it is obvious, will serve as the nucleus of a core which will be 
more pervious to the air and less apt to blow than those ordinarily employed. 

A simple improvement in Anvils bids fair to obviate an important practical 
difficulty in their construction. This difficulty has its origin in the heat re- 
tained for a long time in the immense mass of metal behind, or rather below 
the centre of the steel face in the process of hardening, which heat prevents 
the rapid cooling of the steel face, and generally leaves a soft spot near its 
centre. By forming the body of the anvil with a cavity of some size extend- 
ing from its bottom nearly to its face, a portion of the metal at the centre is 
dispensed with, and facility for the introduction of a stream of cold water into 
the centre of the mass, and almost upon the bottom of the face, is afforded 
during the process of hardening. The centre of the mass is therefore cooled 
almost as rapidly as its exterior, and a sound and equally hard face is, in 
consequence, a matter of easy attainment. 

Nut-making Machine. — A heated iron bar, about the width and thickness 
of the intended nut, is advanced over a die box of the exact shape of the 
periphery of the nut to be made. A die then descends, severs a blank from 
the bar, and forces it into the die box. This die is bored out precisely to the 
same size as the aperture required in the nut, and, as it carries the blank 
along, forces it, still enclosed in the box, against a cylindrical punch, which 
punches out the hole, carrying the disk it severs, and finally entering, itself, 
into the aperture in the die. 

This die, with the nut now punched out, and upon the punch in front of it, 
still advances until it brings the nut in contact with the face of another die, 
which, like itself, fills the die-box, and commences to move in the same direc- 
tion as the first die is travelling, but with a less velocity. 

The nut is therefore submitted to powerful pressure between these two 
dies while still on the punch, and all cracks incident to the cutting or punch- 
ing of it are thoroughly welded up, while the exterior of the nut is forced so 
strongly into the moulded faces of the dies that, when discharged from the 
machine, it is nearly equal in smoothness to a nut that has been planed. 

Actual experiment has proved that the compression is an essential part of 
the operation, and that nuts merely severed and punched are not only rough 
in appearance, but are so filled with cracks as to be unable to withstand the 
strain to which they must be subjected. 

Tliimblesfor Ship-rigging. — A machine which forms perfectly the thimbles, 
so termed, used in large quantities in the rigging of vessels, has been patented . 
These thimbles are metallic rings, or short cylinders, whose outsides are 
grooved, and whose insides are convex to the same extent that the exterior 
is concave. In the machinery for making them, two shafts are so arranged 
as to revolve at the same time and in the same direction, and have a com- 
mon axis. They are also so fitted that, while revolving, they can be made 
to approach or recede from each other. The contiguous ends of these shafts 
are each provided with a forming disk, whose diameter is least upon that 
side of it which is at the end of the shaft, and gradually increases in a con- 
cave curve to the other side, which is of a diameter equal to the greatest 
inside diameter of the thimble to be formed. Each disk exactly fills one- 
half of a finished thimble, and when their adjacent sides are, by the motion 
above ascribed to the shafts, brought in contact, they entirely fill a finished 
thimble. A hammer, whose face is an exact counterpart of about one-quarter 
of the outside of the thimble, is arranged in such manner as to strike re- 
peated blows upon a piece of iron sufficiently heated, and thrust in between 
it and the disks above cited. 



* Extracted from the Examiners' Reports in the " Report of the Commissioners of 
Patents for the year 1852. Part I. Arts and Manufactures. Washingtou, X853." 



In the working of the machine a lever is moved which brings the disks in 
contact. A piece of iron, in length equal to the circumference of the thim- 
ble to be made, is then introduced between the disks and the hammer. The 
disks then revolve, and the hammer forces the iron into the groove, and at 
the same time bends it into a circular form. 

As the disks revolve, new surfaces are brought under the action of the 
hammer, and a thimble is finally formed, closely enclosing the two disks. 
These are then separated by the action of the lever, and as they revolve on 
horizontal shafts, the finished thimble drops down between them. 

The thimbles formed by this machine are not only cheaper, but better 
finished, smoother, and more regularly shaped than those made by hand. 

In another machine, emanating from the same inventor, the forging of iron 
into a certain class shapes, is performed with expedition and certainty. In 
this machine a roller is mounted upon a carriage, in such a manner that a 
large portion of its periphery projects outwards, free from the carriage. 

Two such carriages, each with a roller, are located opposite to each other, 
and are capable of being moved by machinery back and forth through a cer- 
tain distance; each roller being opposite to the other, and located between 
its own and the other carriage. These carriages are, by means of guides, 
forced to move in curved lines of any given shape, and these guides can, 
while the machine is in motion, be forced to approach or recede from each 
other. 

An iron rod, properly heated is, while the carriages are in motion, placed 
in a check or tongs capable of revolution on a centre in such manner that 
the rod passes between the two carriages and their rollers. The carriages are 
now caused to approach, and as they approach they reciprocate, and then- 
rollers touch the rod ; the latter commence to revolve and draw out the iron. 
The rod is also revolved continuously or through a given arc, and then 
stopped and moved again. By a continuation of these motions, figures of 
revolution, generated by various curves or figures of polygonal cross section, 
and regularly irregular longitudinal section, are forged out with great speed 
and precision. 

An automatic machine for performing, on a large scale, the well-known 
metallurgic operation of spinning up cups, platters, and such like articles, from 
a flat disk in a lathe, is also worthy of notice. In this machine large copper 
kettles, known in the shops as brass batteries, and usually shaped by repeated 
blows of a small hand hammer, are formed with great rapidity, and with a 
beauty and finish never attained by the hand-made article. A species of 
burnisher, sometimes provided with a friction roller, is forced, by means of 
curved slots acting in connection with screws and guides, to travel in tolerably 
close contact with the exterior of a revolving conical mandril formed of cast- 
iron. The flat sheet of metal is clamped upon the apex of this conical former, 
revolves with it, and is gradually, by the action of the burnisher, forced 
to conform exactly to its shape. Several formers, each deviating more from 
a disk, and approaching more nearly to the form of the finished kettle, are 
used before the operation is completed, in order to bring the metal gradu- 
ally, and by successive stages, into its new shape, and to avoid all straining 
that might be injurious to the finished article. 

This contrivance is now in use. Its productions will speak for themselves, 
and will, on account of their superior beauty, have the preference over the 
old article, even if the inventor should not reduce the price to that extent 
which the labour-saving qualities of bis machine would fully warrant. 

Machine for sorting Pins — This machine sorts pins from a confused mass, 
arranges them in certain order, and finally sticks them into a fillet of paper. 
This fillet is long, and in width only a little greater than the length of a pin ; 
one end of it is delivered to the machine, which, in addition to the duties 
above mentioned, crimps this fillet, holds it in position for the reception of 
the pins, and finally rolls it up in coils whose periphery is nearly cylin- 
drical, and from one of the heads of which project the heads of the pins. 
This coil forms in effect a pin-cushion, sustains and packs the pins quite as 
well as the ordinary method of papering, and has the further advantage that 
it presents to the user the heads only of the pins, while it enables him to 
withdraw them with more ease than if put up in the ordinary manner. The 
machinery is comparatively simple, and is interesting, as showing how great 
an amount of ingenuity may be profitably expended in improving one single 
branch of the manufacture of such a very simple article as a pin. 

An arrangement of the flues or tubes in steam boilers. In it the flame 



68 



Notes and Novelties. 



[March, 



enters a flat horizontal flue, and passes thence down through tubes into 
another flue, directly below the upper one, and from thence to the stack. 
Each of these tubes is surrounded by water, and contains within it, and con- 
centric to it, another tube filled with water, which is in connection with the 
water space above the crown sheet of the upper flue, and the water space 
below the bottom of the lower flue. The spaces through which the products 
of combustion pass from one flat flue to the other, are annular. A great 
amount of surface is thus secured in a comparatively small boiler. 



NOTES AND NOVELTIES. 

Roberts' Patent Metallic Casks. — We have often been struck at the admired disorder 
which reigns absolute on the decks of emigrant vessels on the eve of departure. The part 
which you envy most for a promenade is probably occupied by the life-boat, forming a store 
for sails and tackle above, and the covering to a most uninteresting menagerie below ; while 
you can scarcely walk fore and aft for the clumsy water-casks which crowd the decks of a 
vessel about to commence a long voyage ; these casks, as they get empty, have their hoops 
driven off, and the staves separated and lashed together one within another, and packed 
away ; this is termed " shaking them ;" (rather a comprehensive operation for such a mild 
term); and when the vessel returns, the casks are again " set up " by coopers. But Mr. 
Roberts proposes the use of wrought-iron casks, of various forms, according to particular 
cases, and which can be easily set up by unskilled labourers at a considerable saving of time 
and expense ; and the material admitting of a variety of forms, the space on decks or else- 
where can be considerably utilised. 

, The following are the advantages claimed over those in ordinary use: — 1st. Great 
strength and durability, at only a small increase of cost and weight. 2nd. The empty casks 
may be stowed into one-sixth the space they occupy when full. 3rd. The empty casks may 
be set up perfectly tight, by common labourers, in one-sixth the time occupied by skilled 
labourers in setting up wooden casks. 4th. Each of the improved casks is divisible into 
two or more casks, whereby greater facility is afforded for compactly stowing them, especi- 




Pig. 1. 

ally in the irregularly-formed holds of vessels; and as the first tier may be composed of 
semicircular casks adapted to lie flat on the floor (if there be one), the time and expense of 
bolstering them will be saved, and the chance of their being displaced by the pitching of the 
vessel will be very remote. 5th. The capacity of the improved cask is a larger proportion 
of the space it occupies than the capacity of the wooden cask is to the same space ; the pro- 
portion of the former being to the space occupied, about as 1 is to 1'7. 6th. The improved 
casks will not waste their contents by absorption or leakage, whilst they will admit of being 
emptied of coagulated substances, by the application of heat, without injury to the cask or 
waste of its contents. 7th. The improved metallic casks have the further advantage, that 
they admit of being taken apart and thoroughly cleansed by scalding, and consequently of 
the same cask being used at different times for various purposes; more especially if the 
casks are tinned or otherwise coated internally with a suitable mineral or vegetable sub- 
stance. A A, fig. 1, is a longitudinal section of the cask, showing the manner in which 
the two parts are bolted together, by their flanches, against the diaphragm, B, whose use is 
to strengthen the cask, and, if required, to form one end of a semi-cask ; the joint is made 
tight by means of some yie'ding substance inserted into a groove (not shown in the drawing) 
in the flanches. c, e, are the bungholes, by one of which the liquid may enter the cask, w .ilst 
the air escapes by the other ; d is an aperture in the diaphragm, to allow the liquid to fill 
both halves of the cask simultaneously, and e is another for the escape of air. F, F, F, F, F, 
a series of semi-casks, drawn in section, show the manner in which they are to be stowed 
one in another. 

Machine-making and Iron Shipbuilding in Sweden.— The capabilities of the great 
machine-works at Motala, in Sweden, are now exciting much attention. This establish- 
ment has become the largest in the country, and employs between 800 and 900 men. During 
the last ten years it has built 38 steamers— in the whole, 1814 horse power, and it has fitted 
them all with machinery. It has also constructed 25 steam-engines (2456-horse power) for 
vesselsbuilt elsewhere ;) and 18 land-engines (164 horse power), besides an infinity of ma- 
chinery; tools, presses, cranes, canal-bridges, &c, of all kinds. At this moment it has under 
work a steam-engine (300 horse-power) for the ship of the line, Carl Johan ; four iron 
steamers (70 horse-power each) for the Hull and St. Petersburg line, via Gotha canal; an iron 



steamer for Norrdland (160 horse-power) ; a ditto for Sundsvill (80 horse-power) ; a pro- 
pelling ditto for Norrkoping (80 borse-power) ; an iron steamer for Holland (100 horse- 
power) ; a ditto for Upsala (60 horse-power) ; a steam-engine of (24 horse-power) ; another 
of 100 horse-power; and a multitude of other items. 

New Life-Boats. — A trial of a new life-boat took place on Tuesday last, 
on the canal at Limehouse, in the presence of several experienced gentlemen 
in the construction and management of life-boats. The boat in question 
was designed by Mr. J. Peake (see The Artizan, vol. xi., p. 43), assistant 
master-shipwright in her Majesty's dockyard, Woolwich, and was built by 
the Messrs. Forrest, for the National Institution for the Preservation of Life 
from Shipwreck, who purpose to place the boat at Ardrossan, on the coast 
of Scotland. Having been hove keel up, by means of an iron crane, the 
boat self-righted at once, and freed herself of the water she had thus neces- 
sarily shipped, in thirty seconds. The rapidity with which the boat emptied 
herself of the water, by means of self-acting delivering valves, was perfectly 
astonishing. One moment she was full of water — the next hardly a drop 
remained on her platform. On a trial of the stability of the boat, she bore 
seventeen persons on her side, to bring the gunwale down, with the tubes 
shut to the water, and twelve men were required to bring it awash, with the 
valves open. It will thus be observed, that the self-righting power of the boat 
has hardly diminished her stability. The trials were in every respect satis- 
factory, and the boat possesses also much strength, and appears to be well 
adapted for the important services which she will soon probably have to per- 
form. The boat is 27 feet long, and costs, with her necessary gear, about 
£150. Many similar boats, we understand, have during the past year been 
placed by the Shipwreck Institution on various parts of the coast. Being 
somewhat different in appearance and construction to those with which our 
boatmen and fishermen have hitherto been accustomed, it has been difficult 
in some places to reconcile them to the new life-boats. This prejudice is, 
however, speedily being removed, for the life-boats on the same plan sta- 
tioned at Lyme Regis, Hauxley, Barmouth, and Aldborough, have, during 
the late awful gales, been eminently successful in saving the lives of a con- 
siderable number of shipwrecked persons; and their crews speak of their 
performances on those occasions in the highest terms of admiration. Never- 
theless, it is lamentable to reflect that, during the past month, 700 poor 
fellows perished from shipwrecks on our coast — a fact loudly calling for 
every exertion to be put forth to lessen so frightful a sacrifice of human life. 

The Great Britain. — We have heard, from authority which may be 
relied on, that a private joint-stock company has been formed for the purpose 
of establishing a line of powerful screw-steamers between Liverpool and 
Australia. The Great Britain will be one of the ships of this line, and all 
the others will be built on the same principle. Messrs. Gibbs, Bright, and 
Co. will be the principal shareholders and managers. A charter has been 
obtained from the Board of Trade. — Liverpool Times. 

Compliment to Mr. Fairbairn. — Paris, Feb. 7. — Last year the National 
Institute of France honoured Mr. Fairbairn, the eminent engineer of Man- 
chester, by electing him one of its corresponding members, and that gentle- 
man is now here for the purpose of taking his seat in the Academy. On 
Saturday last he received an Imperial command to attend at the Tuileries, 
and was honoured with a lengthened interview. His Majesty made minute 
inquiries as to the progress of mechanical science in England, and at parting 
presented Mr. Fairbairn with a diamond box, marked with the Imperial 
initials as a mark of esteem and a recognition of the eminent services the 
engineer had rendered to science. No one knows better than the Emperor 
how to time a compliment which will be widely appreciated by the middle 
classes in England. 

Manufacture of Locomotives in America. — Messrs. Norris and Son, 
Philadelphia, manufactured, during the year 185:5, at their extensive works 
on Bush Hill, 102 locomotives— 22 more than in 1852,. and a much larger 
number than any other establishment in the world during the same period. 
They were sent to the following destinations:— To roads in Pennsylvania, 
31; in Indiana, 12; in Georgia, 10; in New Jersey, 10; in North Carolina, 
9; in New York, 5; in Ohio, 5; in South Carolina, 4; in Virginia, 3; in 
Louisiana, 3; in Maryland, 2; in Alabamn, 1; in Chili, South America, 4; 
Island of Cubn, 2; and 1 to Japan, by order of the United States Govern- 
ment. The Messrs. Norris employed 629 men and 132 apprentices— 761 
during the year; and paid out nearly half a million dollars in labour alone. 



1854] 



Dimensions of Steamers. 



69 



A New Metal. — A very remarkable discovery was announced to the 
Academy of Sciences by M. Dumas in its last sitting. He stated that M. 
Saint-Clair Deville had succeeded in obtaining from clay a metal as white 
and brilliant as silver, as malleable as gold, and as light as glass. It is 
fusible at a moderate temperature. Air and damp do not affect this metal, 
which is called aluminium; it retains its brilliancy, and is not affected by 
nitric or sulphuric acid, either strong or diluted, if the temperature be not 
raised. It is only dissolved by very hot chlorhydric acid. Several speci- 
mens of this metal were exhibited to the Academy; and, on the proposition 
of Baron Thenard, it was voted unanimously that a sufficient sum should be 
placed at the disposal of M. Saint-Clair Deville to enable him to make 
experiments on a large scale. 

Clayton's Patent Brick Machine. — The Messrs. Waring (Brothers), 



railway contractors), having expressed a wish lately to ascertain for them- 
selves what result could be effected by the machine with the softest clay, the 
patentee acceeded to their request. The machine was set to work in the 
presence, and under the entire direction, of the above-named gentlemen, 
with one horse, an unskilled labourer, and two boys. The clay, a very 
rough kind, being made to the softest consistency possible, the horse was 
started, and permitted to travel at its own speed continuously for five 
minutes, when Messrs. W. stopped him; and, after examining the bricks (of 
which 101 were made, being at the rate of 12,000 per day often hours), pro- 
nounced them to be good and clean. These gentlemen then expressed to 
Mr. Clayton their entire approval of the machine, and stated their object was 
to be fully convinced of its general utility and capability to work clays of 
any stiffness and quality, previously to ordering several of them for use on 
certain foreign contracts. 



IMENSIONS OF STEAMERS. 



DIMENSIONS OP H. M. LINE-OF-BATTLB SCREW 
STEAM SHIP " HANNIBAL." 



Designed by the Board of Construction. Built at Deptford 
Dockyard by the late Master-Shipwright, Mr. C. Wilcox. 
Launched January 31st, 1854. 



Dimensions. 

Length from fore part of figure-head to 
the aft side of taffrail 

Length on the upper deck 

Length of the keel for tonnage 

Breadth, extreme 

Breadth for tonnage ... 

Breadth moulded 

Depth in the hold 

Depth from the upper side of taffrail to 
the underside of the'false keel 

Depth from the upper side of the figure- 
head to the under side of the false 
keel 

Burden in tons, old measurement 
Burden in tons, new measurement. 

Burden in engine room 

Register tonnage ... 



ft. Inches. 


252 


o* 


220 





179 


6* 


58 


■1* 


57 


4* 


56 


5* 


23 


Hi 



57 



And her armament. 



28 

38 

24 

1 



8-inch ... 
32-pounders 
32-pounders 
68-pounder 





51 




Tons. 




3136 $ 




2658 




1112 




1546 


Cwt. 


ft. in. 


65 


9 6 


56 


9 


42 


8 


95 


10 




pivot 



91 guns. 



DIMENSIONS OP AUSTRALIAN PACIFIC MAIL STEAM 
PACKET CO.'s SCREW STEAMER " EMEU." 



Built and Engined by Robert Napier, Glasgow. 



Dimensions. 
Length on deck at half depth. 
Breadth of beam 
Depth of hold at ditto... 
Length of engine space 

Tonnage. 

Hull 

Engine room, C.H.M. ... 

Register, N.M 

Ditto, O.M. 



ft. inches. 
250 

36 5 

28 



Tons. 

1250 

444 

1660 



Over-head beam-geared engines; flue boilers; 
diameter of cylinders, 64 inches; length of stroke 
4 feet; diameter of screw (Griffiths' screw), 12 
feet 4 inches; diameter of ball, 4 feet; pitch of 
screw 15 feet; two blades. Four boilers; length 14 
feet 6 inches; breadth, 11 feet 2 inches; height, 
inclusive of steam chests, 1 1 feet 6 inches. Twelve 
furnaces; breadth, 3 feet | inch; length of fire 
bars, 6 feet 4 inches. Diameter of chimney 6 feet; 
height of ditto above fire bars, 52 feet 6 inches. 
Load on safety-valve, 15 lbs. per square inch. Gross 
indicated power, 1150 lbs. Area of immersed sec- 
tion, 386 square feet on trial. Contents of bunk- 
ers, 900 tons Consumption of coal per hour, not 
yet correctly ascertained. Date of trial, 4th and 
6th February, 1854. Draught forward, 13 feet 11 
inches; aft, 16 feet 2 inches, with 460 tons of coals 
on board. Average revolutions, 34j of engine, 
103 of screw. Speed in knots, with and against 
tide, 12 - 26 by common log. Time from Greenock 
to Southampton. 46 hours. Frames, 5 inches by 
3 inches by -^ inches and 18 inches apart. Thick- 
ness, f to f of an inch. Four bulkheads, water- 
tight, and numerous others, fore and aft and acroi-s. 
Three masts. Barque rig. Intended service, 
Panama and Sydney. 



DIMENSIONS OF THE STEAMER " YANKEE BLADE.' 



Hull built by Thomas Stack, Williamsburfrh, New York ; 
machinery by the Allaire Works, New York. Intended 
service, New York to Aspinwall. 



Hull. — 

Length on deck 275ft. 

Breadth of beam at midship section 38ft. 8in. 

Depth of hold 3uft. 

Length of engine and boiler space 82ft. 
Draught of water at load line ... 13ft. 
Floor timbers at throats, moulded 16in. 

Ditto, ditto sided ... 12in. 

Distance of frames apart at centres 24in. 

Masts and rig, three-masted foretopsail schooner 
Tonnage ... ... 2290 tons 



Engines— Two vertical beam. 
Diameter of cylinder 
Length of stroke... 

Boilers— Two, return flued. 

Length of boilers 

Breadth ditto 



6 ft. 3in. 
lift. 



31ft. 9in. 
13ft. 



lift. lOin. 


12 




7ft. 


6in. 


6ft. 


4in. 


66ft. 
knthi 


acite 


32 ft. 




8ft. 


6in. 


1ft. 


6in. 



Height of boilers, exclusive of steam 

chimney 
Number of furnaces 
Length of grate bars 
Diameter of smoke pipe ... 

Height of smoke pipe 

Description of coal 

Water Wheels — 
Diameter ... 

Length of blades 

Depth ... 

Number of blades , ... 28 



Remarks. — Hull strapped with diagonal and 
double laid iron straps, 4 by fin.; floors are filled 
in solid. 



DIMENSIONS OF THE BRITISH STEAMER 
" CURLEW." 



Hull built by William Denny and Brothers, Dumbarton ; ma- 
chinery by Tullock and Denny, Dumbarton. Intended 
service, New York to St. Thomas. 



Hull — 

Length on deck from fore part of 
stem to after part of stern post 
above the spar deck ... ... 180ft. 

Breadth of beam at midship sec- 
tion above the main wales ... 25ft. 

Depth of hold ... ... Hft. Gin. 

Draught of water at load line ... Hft. 

Frame, shape and dimensions, ~| |_ 4 by 3 by £ 

Ditto, distance apart at centre ... 15in. 

Keelson ... ... ... ... 16in. deep. 

Masts and rig, three masted foretopsail schooner. 
Engines — Vertical direct. 

Diameter of cylinders, — Two of... 36in. 

Length of stroke ... ... ... 3ft. 

Maximum revolution per minute, 60 

Boiler — Tubular. 
Maximum pressure of steam in pounds, 60 

Plates, thickness f and iin. 

Description of coal ... ... bituminous. 

Screw — 
Diameter of screw ... ... 12ft. 

Number of blades 3 "" 

Remarks. — Poop deck; five water-tight bulk 
heads; single riveted, f inch thick rivets, 2^i:u 
apart. Clincher built and abut riveted. 



70 



List of Patents. 



[March, 



APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTION 
ALLOWED. 

Dated \lth October, 1853. 
2330. C. Rowley, Birmingham— Dress fastenings. 

Dated 25th October, 1853. 
2468. M. Davis, 5, Cloudesley-square — Treatment of fibrous 
materials other than flax and hemp. (A communi- 
cation.) 

Dated 8M November, 1583. 
2595. G. Shepherd, 39, King William-street, City— Railways. 

Dated lith November, 1853. 
2638. W. Anderson, jun., and A. W. Murphy, Glasgow — Ayr- 
shire sewed work. 

Dated I9lh November, 1853. 
2689. A. Castets, Paris— Composition for curing diseases of 
feet of animals. 

Dated 22nd November, 1853. 
2707. E. Briggs, Castleton Mills, Rochdale— Weaving pile 
fabrics. 

Dated 2%lh November, 1853. 
2773. J. Lord, Farnworth— Ladies' underclothing. 

Dated 5th December, 1853. 
2827. E. Lavender, Deptford — Apparatus for subjecting sub- 
jecting substance to the action of heat, Sua. 

Dated \0th December, 1853. 
2880. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-flelds— Moulding. (A 
communication.) 

Dated 16lh December, 1853. 
2933. C. Goodyear, St. John's Wood— India rubber. (Partly 
a communication.) 

Dated 20th December, 1853. 
2964. A. Thomson, Glasgow— Setting out rivet holes in 
boiler, &c, plates. 

Dated 21th December, 1S53. 
2996. E.J. Hughes, Manchester — Sewing machines. (A com- 
munication.) 

Dated 28th December, 1853. 
3011. S. Barnes, Oldham — Looms. 

Dated 29th December, 1853. 
3019. J. W. Crossley, Brighouse— Snrface finish to fabrics. 

Dated 30th December, 1853. 

3023. W. Pickstone, Radcliffe, and J. Booth, Pilkington— 
' Looms. 

Dated 3Ut December, 1853. 
3039. J. Bernard, 15, Regent-street — Stitching and orna- 
menting various materials, &c. 

Dated 5th January, 1854. 
27. J. Mason and L. Kaberry, Rochdale — Preparing wool, 
&c, for spinning. 

Dated 1th January, 1854. 
37. W. Aspden, Blackburn — Looms. 
39. A. B. Baron Von Bathen, Wells-street — Chimneys, 

flues, stoves, &c. 
41. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields— Agricultural 

machinery, and in communicating power thereto, 

&c. (A communication.) 
43. J. G. Taylor, Glasgow — Writing apparatus. 

Dated 8th January, 1854. 
45. B. Burleigh, King's Cross — Railway switches and chairs* 
47. R. A. Tilghman, Philadelphia, U. S.— Fatty and oily 

matters. 
49. W. and J. Garforth, Dukinfield— Railway breaks, &c. 
51. W. Taylor, How Wood, Renfrew— Prevention of smoke. 

Dated 10th January, 1854. 
S3. W. Brown, Bradford— Preparation of wool, &c. 
'55. Rev. W. R. Bowditch, Wakefield — Economising fuel, &c. 
St. E. Townsend, Boston, U. S— Sewing machinery. (A 

communication.) 
59. J. R. Engledue, Southampton, and T. Berningham, 

Milbrook — Furnaces. 
61. W. L. Tizard, Aldgate— Stamping, &c, gold or other 

ores. 

Dated Wth January, 1854. 
'63. J. J. W. Watson, Old Kent-road — Signaling. 

64. H. Bennettsmith, St. Sepulchre's — Mowing machine. 

65. D. Semple, Aden — Stringed instruments. 
67. F. L. Bauwens, Pimlico — Fatty matters. 
69. R. Lister, Scotswood — Distilling apparatus. 
71. H. B. Leeson, M.D., Greenwich — Gas burners. 

73. A. Poncon, Marseilles — Motive power. 

Dated 12th January, 1854. 

74. J. W. Wrey, 16, Upper Berkeley-street-west — Trans- 

mitting motion. 

75. T. Waller, Ratcliff— Register stoves. 

76. T. E. Moore, St. Marylebone — Extinguishing fires. 

78. J. F. Boake, Dublin— Lamps or lanters. 

79. J. W, Partridge, Birmingham — Soap. 

80. J. Bethell, 8, Parliament-street— Coke. 



81. L.J. Anger, Paris— Metallic tubing. 

82. T. F. Henley, Cambridge-street, Pimlico— Colouring 

materials. 
' 83. A, E. L. Bellford, 16, Castle-street, Hoi born— Glass. 
(A communication.) 

84. S. Wilkes, Wolverhampton — Chairs and rails for rail- 

ways. 

85. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields— Glycerine. (A 

communication.) 

86. R. Maclaren, Glasgow— Moulding metals. 

Dated IZth January, 1854. 

87. W. Eassie, Gloucester — Railway trucks. 

88. A. Parsey, 3, Crescent-place, Burton-crescent— Motive 

power by compressed air. 

89. P. O'MaUey, Dublin— New drink, &c. 

90. T. B. Fotilkes, Chester— Self-adjusting gloves. 

91. J. Wilkinson, Manchester — Dies. 

Dated Wth January, 1854. 

92. J. Newman and H. Jenkins, Birmingham — Spoons, 

table forks, &c. 

93. J. Bird, St. Martin's-lane— Taps and cocks. 

94. J. Jeffreys, 37, Carlton-villas — Mineral charcoal and 

coke. 

95. A. Dobson, Eolton-le-Moors— Looms. 

Dated 16th January, 1854. 

96. C. F. Stansbury, 17, Cornhill— Propelling machinery 

( A. communication.) 

97. W. Croskill. Beverley — Portable railways. 

98. J. Newall, Bury— Railway breaks, &e. 

99. P. Grant, Manchester — Printing roller. 

100. P. Blaker, Crayford, and W. Wood, 126, Chancery-lane 

— Crushing coal. 

101. G. F. Wilson, Vauxhall— Candles and night lights. 

103. P. G. Julyan, 71, Bath-street, Birmingham— Communi- 

cating signals to engineers, &c. 

104. J. Spires, Lower Drummond-street, .Euston-square — 

Boots and shoes. 



Dated 1'tlh January, 1854. 
. Brown, St. George, Camberwell — Printing machi- 
nery. 
. Crosskill, Beverley — Carriage wheels. 

Highton, Regent's-park— Suspending telegraph 
wires. 

. Holland, Birmingham— Umbrellas and parasols. 
Maclaren, Glasgow — Moulding metal. 

Corlett, Summer-hill, Dublin — Carriage springs. 

Weber, Rechtberg— Boots and shoes. 

G. Sloper, London — Separating gold from earthy 
matters. 



106. W 



107. 


W 


108 


E. 


109. 


II. 


110. 


R. 


111. 


H. 


112. 


K. 


113. 


B. 



Dated lith January, 1854. 

114. W. B. Haigh, Oldham — Tennouing, mortising, &c, 

machinery. 

115. E.Lord, Todmorden — Looms. 

117. C. S. Cahill, Greenwich— Telegraphs. 

118. W. Batten, 74, Westbourne-street, Pimlico— Self-acting 

effluvium trap. 

119. W Greenshields, Edinburgh — Chenille fabrics. 

120. W. Thomas, Cheapside— Stays. 

121. E. Sharpe, Swadlincote Potteries, near Burton-on- 

Trent— Sifting clay. 

122. C. Howard, 4, Trafalgar-terrace — Iron. 

125. J. B. Bourquin, Newman-street — Troughs, &c, for 

photographic purposes. 

Dated 19th January, 1854. 

126. G. H. Bursell, Offord-rnad, Barnsbury-park— Separa- 

tion and recovery of metals. 

128. A. Dalgety, Florence-road, Deptford — Rotatory engines 

or pumps. 

129. J. Norton, Cork — Communication between the different 

parts of railway trains. 

130. T. Webb, Stourbridge— Annealing glass and firing 

pottery. 

131. H. Guyon, Paris— Bread. 

132. H. Brownentt, Liverpool — Treating scrap and waste 

iron. 

133. F. Parkes, Sutton Coldfield— Fixing tools in handles. 

134. J. Hunt, Massachusetts, U.S. — Sewing machinery. (A 

communication.) 

135. C. W. R. Rickard, 5, Great Charlotte-street, Black- 

friars-road — Cocks and taps. 

Dated 20th January, 1854. 

136. H. Dirks, 32, Moorgate-street— Safety apparatus for 

boilers and stills. 

137. H. B. Condy, Battersea— Sulphate of soda, &c, and 

muriatic acid. 

138. Lieut. E. Aitchison, R.N., 14, Manor-street, Chelsea — 

Tubes of tubular steam boilers. 

139. A. E. L. Bellford, 16, Castle-street, Holborn— Cutting 

cloth, &c. (A communication.) 

140. O. R. Chase, Boston, U.S. — Pulverizing machinery. 

141. J. I. Field, Charles-terrace — guns, cannon, &c. 

142. R. A. Smith and A. M'Dougall, Manchester — Deodor- 

izing sewage, &e. 

143. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields — Stays or cor- 

sets. (A communication.) 

Dated 21st January, 1854. 

144. R. Roberts, Manchester — Cutting paper, &c. 

146. M. L. L. Beaudloux, Paris— Candlestick and shade. 



148. G. Grace and T. F. Jones, Birmingham— Boots and 

shoes. 

149. J. Westerton, Earl's Court-road, Brompton — Night 

light boxes. 

150. C. M. T. du Motay, 24, Rue Fontaine St. George, Paris 

— Oil from rosin. 

151. H. E. Falk, Gateacre House, Liverpool — Salt. 

152. T. B. Venables, Burslem— Earthenware. 

153. P. Spence, Pendleton— Prussiates of potash and soda. 

154. D. Warren, Exmouth— Raising, pumping, or forcing 

water. 

155. C. J. Edwards, Great Sutton-street — Bands for driving 

machinery. 

Dated 23rd January, 1854. 

156. A. Shanks, 6, Robert-street, Adelphi— Punching and 

sheering metals. 

157. C. C. Armstrong and W. Pursall, Birmingham. — Per- 

cussion cap. 

158. W. Darling, Edinburgh— Sewing machine. (A com- 

munication.) 

160. T. Robinson, 5, Farringdon-street— Filtering volatile 

liquids. 

161. M. A. Muir, Glasgow — Weaving. 

162. J. Lockhart, jun., Paisley — Bobbins. 

163. J. G. Taylor, Glasgow— Treating the fleeces, &c, of 

animals. 

164. J. G. Taylor, Glasgow— Lamps, &c. 

165. H. Seebohn, Esholt, near Leeds — Combing wool, &c. 

166. J. Getty, Liverpool — Tubular bridges, &c. 

167. J. Westlake, Totness — Pulverizing, &c, ores, &c. 

168. A. E. L. Bellford, 16, Castle-street, Holborn— Bending 

metal, &c. (A communication.) 

169. J. M. J. L. Bouvet, 29, Boulevart St. Martin, Paris- 

Kneading machines. 

171. R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street — Sawing stone and 

marble. (A communication. 

172. R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street — Extracting copper 

from the ore. (A communication.) 

173. A. T. Wagner, Berlin — Psychograph, or apparatus for 

indicating persons' thoughts by the agency of nerv- 
ous electricity. 

Dated 2ith January, 1854. 

174. A. W. Sleigh, 1, Weymo nth-street, Portland-place— 

Motive power. 

175. G. Williams, 16, Cannon-street, St. George-in-the-East 

— Water closets. 

176. J. B. Moinier, La Villette, Paris — Sulphates, nitrates, 

and acids. 

177. J. L. Schlossmacher, Paris— Support of lamps. 

178. J. Ridgway, Cauldron-place, Stafford — Applying heat, 

&c, to kilns, &c. 

179. W.J. Ellis, Salford— Turntables. 

180. W. Massey, Hemer-terrace, near Liverpool — Artificial 

teeth. 

181. J. Bapty, Leeds — Preparing wool, &c. 

182. S. C. Lister, Manningham— Combing wool. &c. 

183. J. Bird, Kingswinford, Dudley — Kilns for burning 

bricks, &c. 

Dated 25th January, 1854. 

184. J. A. Mingaud, St. Pons (Hfirault) — Ornamental sur- 

faces on velvet, &c. 

185. E. B. Walmsley, Middle Hall, Hammersmith — Lighting, 

heating, and cooking. 

186. R. A. Brooman, 1 66, Fleet-street — Fluid for illumina- 

ting purposes. (A communication.) 
186. W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane— Violins, &c. (A 

communication.) 
188. W. H. Thornthwaite, Newgate-street — Sulphuric acid. 

190. A. L. Reid, Glasgow — Printing textile fabrics. 

191. J. Anderson, Auchnagie, N.B. — Motive power. 

Dated 26th January, 1854. 

Wicksteed, Leicester— Sewage manure. 
Wicksteed, Leicester— Sewage manure. 
Wicksteed, Leicester — Sewage manure. 
M. Blyth, Norwich — Heating water for steam boilers. 
Reeves, jun., Birmingham, and W. Wells, Sutton 
Coldfield— Casting metals. 

Smith, Nottingham — Valves, &c, for passage, &e, 
of liquids. 

S. Stallard, York-street, Leicester -Knit fabrics. 
Firmin, Bath— Anchors. 

Dated 21th January, 1854. 

200. F. F. Rohart, Sotteville les Rouen— Clarifying liquids. 

201. P. M. Crane, 18, Canonbury Villas— Iron. 

202. A. C. de Simencourt, Paris — Composing and distribu- 

ting type. 

203. W. Church and S. A. Goddard, Birmingham— Ordnance. 

204. H. Fendall, Hoxton, and W. St. C. Trotter, London- 

Crushing, &c, ores. 

205. T. Thurlby, Guildford-street-east, Spafields— Commu- 

nication between points of railway trains. 

206. W. Palmer, Brighton— Materials for, and construction 

of, buildings. 

207. W. Partington, Bolton-le-Moors— Safety valve. 

208. J.Atkinson, Richmond-grove— Thrashing machinery. 

Dated 2Bth January, 1854. 

209. J. J. L. Fournier, Montpellier, France — Alcohol. 

210. J. Grist, New North-road — Break for carriages. 

211. M. T. Raymond, 25, Clement's-lane — Retarding, &c 

railway carriages. 



192 


T. 


193. 


T. 


194. 


T. 


195. 


F. 


19G. 


C. 


197. 


s. 


!98. 


S. 


199. 


a. 



1854] 



List of Patents. 



212. J. L. Clark, 2, Chester-villas, Canonbury-park— Con- 

veying letters by pressure of air and vacuum. 

213. W. Williams, Cheapside — Heating the heaters of box 

irons. 

214. D. Chadwick, Salford, and G. Hanson, Manchester- 

Meters. 

215. D. Bethune, Toronto — Steam vessels. 

216. W. G. Taylor, Norfolk-terrace, Westbourne-grove— 

Spinning machines. 

217. AV. Woolford, Bradford — Moreens. 

218. W. and T. Redgrave, 23, Bow-street— Railway signal 

lights. 

Dated 30th January, 1854. 

219. P. A. le Comte fie Fontaine Moreau, 4, South-street 

Finsbury— Railway accidents. (A communication.) 

220. T. A. le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, 4, South-street, 

Finsburv — Railway accidents. (A communication.) 

221. H. J. lliffe', and N. Brougb, Birmingham— Buttons. 

222. W. Phillips, Birmingham— Coffins. 

223. W. Hodgson, Wakefield — Looped fabrics. 

224. Earl of Aldborough, Stratford-lodge, Wicklow— Aerial 

navigation. 

225. J. R. Cooper, Birmingham — Rolls for gun barrels, &c. 
22G. R. Garrett, Leiston-works, Saxmundham — Thrashing 

machines. 

227. J. Kershaw, Dublin — Steam engines. 

228. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields — Gas. (A com- 

munication.) 

229. R. Chapman, Eaton, Norwich — Feed to mill stones. 



230. 
231. 

232. 
233. 

234. 

235. 
236. 
237. 

238. 
239. 



241. 

242. 
243. 

244. 

245. 



246. 

247. 

248. 
249. 
250. 
251. 

253. 

254. 
255. 

256. 

257. 

258. 
259. 



Dated 3lst January, 1854. 

T. Cox, Wolverhampton — Buttons. 

A. M. Fatio and F. Verdeil, Paris— Preserving sub- 
stances. 

E. W. K. Turner, 31, Praed-street— Treating ores. 

T. Hollingswortb, Nottingham— Tngs to laces. 

L. Young, 8, Bow-lane, and E. Marten, 19, Louisa- 
street, Stepney— Gas regulators. 

C. Erckmann, La Villette, Paris— Telegraphic wires. 

J. Hazlehurst, Ulverstone^-Irojn and blast furnaces. 

R. Oliver, R. Barlow, and J. iSlundell, Manchester — 
Patterns for textile fabrics. 

L. C. Koeffler, Rochdale — Preparing, &c, yarns. 

L. C. Koeffler, Rochdale — Scouring, &c, wool for 
spinning. 

W. Wright and G Brown, Newcastle-upon-Tyne— 
Cupolas. 

P. J. Meeus, Paris — Metallic surfaces. 

W. Malam, Blackfriars-road — Gas. 

R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street— Steel. (A commu 
nication.) 

P. Beaudot, 29, Boulevart St. Martin, Paris— Gas 
burners. 

J. Jackson, Broad-street, and G. M. Hantler, Sloane- 
street — Baths. 

Dated 1st February, 1854. 

0. B. A. Chenot, 29, Boulevart St. Martin, Paris — Com- 
bustion of gases. 

H. Wickens, 4, Tokenhouse-yard — Intercommunica^ 
tion in railway trains. 

A. Mortera, Paris — Stopping locomotives, &c. 

J. Buchanan, Leamington Priors — Propellers. 

J. Burgum, Birmingham — Damper. 

W. Guest, Lion-square, Sueinton — Whips, braids, and 
wire nets. 

A. Robinson, 9, Whitehall-place — Compositions for 
coating ships' bottoms, &c. 

C. F. Le Page, Paris — Lighting. 

J. Jobson, Derby, and R. Jobson, Dudley — Moulds for 
casting. 

A. Daniel, Moorfields, Wolverhampton — Locks. 

J. Hargreaves and J. Fletcher, Facit, Rochdale— Pre 
paring cotton, &c, for spinning. 

J. D. Morrison, Sunderland — Winches. 

J. Beattie, Lawn-place, Lambeth — Furnaces. 



Dated 2nd February, 1854. 

260. T. Atkins, Oxford — Motion to agricultural implemeiAs, 

&c. 

261. A. Mohler, Obernay — Lubricating machinery. 

263. C. E. Paris, Paris — Metallic covering to metal surfaces. 

264. J. Stevens, Southwark-bridge-road — Railway signals. 

265. J. H. Glassford, Glasgow — Lithographic and zincogra- 

phic printing. 

266. F. H. Sykes, Cork-street — Feeding boilers. 

Dated 3rd February, 1854. 

268. A. E. L. Bellford, 16, Castle-street, Holborn—" Atmos- 
pheric post." (A communication.) 

270. R. B. Newhouse, Uckfield— Gases of combustion in 
open fireplaces. 

272. Marquis of Montebello, Mareuil-sur-Ay, France— Pro- 
peller. 

274. E. Howard and D. P. Davis, Massachusetts, U. S. — 
Sewing machinery. (A communication.) 

Dated 4 (A February, 1854. 

276. W. Gosling, 4, Edward-street, Woolwich — Eailwaydan- 
ger signaL 

278. A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Carriage springs 
(A communication.) 

280. W. Little, Strand— Distilling, &c, bitaminous sub- 
stances. 

282. E.Cole, Hemming's -row— Travelling bags. 



Dated 6th February, 1854. 

284. D. Deyres, 16, Bateman-buildings, Soho-square— Dril- 
ling. 

2S8. T. and W. Hemsley, [Melbourne, Derby— Looped fa- 
brics. 

290. A. Duncan, Glen-house, Denny— Bleaching. 

292. P. Trumble, Huddersfield— Paper-hangings. 

Dated 1th February, 1854. 

294. J. Murdock, 7, Staple-inn— Paper. (A communica- 
tion.) 

296. E. Poitiers, Maldon-terrace, Haverstock-hill— New 
material as a substitute for hemp and flax. 

298. W. J. Curtis, 23, Birchin-lane — Railway signal. 

300. A. F. D. Duvillier, 10, Rue du Bouloi, Paris— Remon- 
toirs. 

302. J. Taylor and J. Brown, Carlisle, and J. Brown, Oxford- 
street — Charring substances. 

304, A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane— Heckling flax, &c. (A 
communication.) 

306. E. T. Reee, Prospect-place, Swindon — Pressure side 
valves. 

LIST OF PATENTS SEALED. 
Sealed 27th January, 1854. 

1766. Peter Armand le Comte de Fontainemoreau, of 4 
South-street, Finsbury, and 39, Rue de VEchiquier, 
Paris — Improvements in the manufacture of tiles for 
roofing. 

1768. Edward Herring, of Southwark — Improvements in the 
manufacture of sulphate of quinine. 

1771. Thomas Foster, of Streatham— Improvements in the 
manufacture of boots and shoes. 

1820. William Hickson, of Carlisle — Improvements in canal 
and river navigation, and in vessels to be used in 
such navigation, and in the mode of propelling the 
same. 

1823. Charles Butler Clough, of Tyddin, Flint — Improvements 
in machinery or apparatus for washing, scouriug, 
cleansing, or steaming woven fabrics, either in the 
piece or garment ; also felts or fibrous substances, 
and corn, root, seeds, or similar matters. 

1826. Barthelemy Louis Francois Xaviev, Flechelle, of Paris — 
Improvements in the means of carrying, bedding, 
and bathing the injured, ill, or invalid persons. 

1835. James Lee Norton, of 8, Holland-street, Blackfriars— 
Improvements in obtaining wool from fabrics in a 
condition to be again used- 

1850. Thomas Young Hall, of Newcastle upon Tyne— Im- 
provements in combining glass with other materials. 

1869. Thomas Kelly Hall, of Crewe— Improvements in forge 
hammers. 

1891. William Aldred, of Manchester, Richard Fenton, of 
Prestwick, and William Crone, of Salford — Improve- 
ments in separating or recovering the wool from 
cotton and woollen or other similar or mixed fabries : 
whereby the wool is rendered capable of being again 
employed. 

1940. Frederick William Alexander de Fabeck, of 6, Portland- 
road — Construction of viaducts, bridges, lintels, 
beams, girders, and other horizontal structures and 
supports. 

1985. Richard Roberts, of Manchester — Improvements in the 
construction of casks and other vessels. 

2076. Michael Leopold Parnell, of the Strand — Improvements 
in the construction of locks. 

2167. Henry Constantine Jennings, of 8, Great Tower-street 
— Improvements in treating and bleaching resinous 
substances. 

2290. Charles Augustus Holm, of 21, Cecil -street — Improve- 
ments in machinery for raising or propelling elastic 
and non-elastic fluids. 

2467. Weston Grimshaw, of Mossley, Co. Antrim — Improve- 
ments in steam boilers. 

2486. George Edward Dering, of Lockleys Improvements 

in galvanic batteries. 

2612. James Willis, of Wallingford — Improvements in buckles. 

2643. Charles Emilius Blank, of Trump-street — Improve- 
ments in winding yarn into hanks. 

2683. Patrick Benignus O'Neill, of Paris—Improvement in 
the manufacture of perforated buttons 

2737. Samuel Cunliffe Lister, of Manningham, York — Im- 
provements in combing wool, cotton, and other 
fibrous material. 

2739. William Jones, of Kilney Cottage, Swansea — Improve- 
ments m the manufacture of bricks. 

2743. John Berry, of Manchester— Improvements in the ma- 

chinery or apparatus for manufacturing wire fencing. 

2744. William Calder, of Glasgow — Improvements in the 

treatment and finishing of threads or yarns. 

2805. George Williamson, of Glasgow— Improvements in 
applying motive power. 

2807. John Charles Wilson, of Bedford Flax Factory, Thorn- 
ton, Kircaldy,N.B. — Improvements in machinery for 
scutching flax, hemp, and other fibrous materials. 

2811. Henry Bessemer, of Baxter House, Old Saint Pancras- 
road — Improvements in the manufacture and re- 
fining of sugar. 

2854. William Edward Newton, of 66, Chancery-lane— Im- 
proved machinery for drilling or boring rocks and 
other hard substances. 

Sealed 28(A January, 1854. 
1777. William Edward Newton, of 66, Chancery-lane— Im- 
provements in depositing metals or alloys of metals. 



Sealed January 30th, 1854. 

1779. William Thomas Henley, of St. John-street-road— Im- 
provements in modes of protecting wires for tele- 
graphs. 

1879. Louis Van Caneghem, of 6, Conduit-street, Regent's- 
street, and 138, Faubourg St. Denis, Paris — Improve- 
ments in fastening corsets by a mechanical busk. 

1948. William Vaughan, of Stockport, and John Scattergood, 
of Heaton Norris — Improvements in machinery, 
apparatus, or implements for weaving. 

1953. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford, of 16, Castle- 
street, Holborn— Improvements in the manufacture 
of certain mineral oils and paraffine. 

2029. John Tayler, of Manchester, James Griffiths, of Wol- 
verhampton, and Thomas Lees, of Stockport — Im- 
provements in steam boilers, and in apparatus appli- 
cable thereto, and to be used therewith. 

2232. James Griffiths, of Wolverhampton — Improvements in 
steam eDglnes. 

Sealed 1st February, 1854. 

1788. John Smeeton, of Limehouse— Improvements in the 
manufacture of tablets and dial plates, applicable to 
showing the distances of carriages travelling, baro- 
meters, compasses, and time-pieces. 

1085. Antoine Joseph Quinche, of Paris Improved apparatus 
for measuring distances travelled over by vehicles. 

1843. Robert Morrison, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne — Improve- 
ments in apparatus for forging, shaping, and crushing 
iron, ond other materials, and for driving piles. 

1868. Thomas Dewsnup, of Manchester — Improvements in 
obtaining motive power. 

2207. Charles Maitland, of Alloa, and William Gorrie, of 
Rosemains, Midlothian — Improvements in apparatus 
for heating water or other liquids. 

2224. Joseph Fermont Van Waesberghe, of Lokeren, Bel- 
gium — Improved manufacture of artificial vinegar. 

2308. George Lifford Smartt, of Enfield — Improvements in 
vessels for preserving leeches and fish alive. 

2615. John Piatt, of Oldham — Certain improvements in appa- 
ratus or machines for forging, drawintr, moulding, 
or forming spindles, rollers, bolts, and various other 
articles in metal. 

2639. William Smith, of Mauchline, Ayr— Improvements in 
ruling ornamental figures. 

2678. Amedee Francois Remond, of Birmingham — Improve- 
ment or improvements in the construction of steam, 
boilers or generators. 

2723. John Hill, sen., and John Hill, jun., both of Manches- 
ter — Improvements in machinery for winding, 
doubling, and spinning silk. 

2745. William Leigh Brook, and Charles Brook, jun., both of 
Meltham Milsl, near Huddersfield — Certain improve- 
ments in preparing, dressing, finishing, and winding 
cotton and linen yarns or thread, and in machinery 
or apparatus connected therewith. 

2757. Joseph Stenson, of Northampton — Improvements in 
the manufacture of iron. 

2765. Joseph Michel Henri Perodeaud, of Paris— Improved 
mode of treating peat for the conversion of the same 
into an artificial coal, which may be used in that 
state or afterwards reduced to coke. 

2815. Charles Buck, of Wellington — Improved apparatus for 
retarding or stopping the progress of wheel carriages. 

2823. Matthew Andrew Muir, of Glasgow — Improvements 
in check ■Bud fancy weaving. 

2835. Richard Christopher Whitty, of Portland-place, Wands- 
worth-road— Improvements in the construction of 
boiler and other furnaces. 

2843. John Getty, of Liverpool — Improvements applicable to 
the plating of iron ships, part of which improvement 
is also applicable to the construction of boiler. 

2851, Joseph Robinson, of Denton Mill, Carlisle— Improve- 
ments in mills for grinding corn and other substances. 

2875. Henro Bessemer, of Baxter House, Old St. Pancras- 
road— Improvements in the construction of railway 
axles and breaks. 

Sealed 2nd February, 1854. 

1804. William Henry Clarke, 20, Great Marlborough-street, 
— Improvements in the manufacture of a comnosi- 
tion resambling " papier machd" and " carton 
pierre," and applicable to the same purposes to 
which "papier macM" and and "carton pierre" 
are applied ; parts of which invention may also be 
applied to the construction of ships and boats, and 
rooffing. 

1802. William Perks, junior, Birmingham — New or improved 
tap for drawing off liquids. 

Sealed 3rd February, 1854. 

1811. Joseph Clislide Daniell, of Bath— Improvement or im- 
provements in preparing food and litter for cattle 
pigs, and other animals. 

1821. Charles Hill Snell, of the Triangle, Hackney— Improve- 
ments in the manufacture of soap. 

1828. Joseph Lallemand, of Besangon— Manufacture of paper 
from peat. 

1831. William Smith and Thomas Phillips, of Snow-hill— 
Improvement in gas stoves. 

1946. Jean Baptiste Polaillon and Francois Maillard, both of 
Lyons— Improvements in the manufacture of starch. 

2567. William Foster, of Lister-terrace, Bradford— Improve- 
ments in looms for weaving. 



n 



lA&t of Patents. 



[March, 



2649 Peter Alexander Halkett, of the Albany, Lieut. R .N .— 
Improvements in apparatus for lifting and lowering 
ships and other heavy bodies, either submerged or 
otherwise. 

Sealed 6lh February, 1854. 

1841. Richard Bartholomew Martin, of Suffolk-street, Hay- 
market— Improved plate-warmer. 

2257. James Leadbetter and William Wright, both of Hali- 
fax—Improvements in machinery or apparatus for 
raising fluid and solid substances. 

2302. Alexander Edward Dudley Knox Archer, 1, Wharf- 
road, City-road — Improvements in apparatus for 
applying metallic capsules. 

2317. George Fergusson Wilson, of Belmont, Vauxhail— Im- 
provements in the manufacture of candles and 
night lights. 

2383. Thomas SealBlackwell.of Cranbrook, Kent— Improve- 
ments in apparatus for signalising and stopping 
railway trains. 

2826. James Robertson, of Kentish-town— Improvements in 
the consumption or prevention of smoke. 

2860. Arthur Jomes, of Redditch— Improvements in count- 
ing, measuring, and weighing needles, and in pre- 
paring papers to receive the same. 

2863. Charles Mackenzie, of Bayswater, and Alexander 
Turnbull, of Manchester-square — Machinery for 
paring fruit and vegetables. 

2868. John Chisholm, of Holloway— Improvements in the 
distillation of organic substances, and in obtaining 
products therefrom. 

2896, Frederick Albert Gatty and Emile Kopp, both of Ac- 
crington— Improvements in printing and dyeing 
cotton, wool, silk, and other fibrous substances. 

2916. Alexander Cochran, of Kirkton Bleach Works, Ren- 
frew, N.B. — Improvements in the application of 
starch or other substances of a similar nature to 
woven fabrics, and in the machinery or apparatus 
employed therein. 

Sealed 8th February, 1854. 

1865. David Mushet, of Golford, Gloucester, and Edwin 
Whele, of Shifnall,— Improvements in propelling 
steam vessels or other vessels. 

1883. Read Holliday, of Huddersfield— Improvements in 
lamps and lanterns used therewith. 

1951. Samuel Lomas, of Manchester— Invention of an im- 
proved silk cleaner. 

2513. John Gray, of Dublin— Invention of a self-acting flush- 
ing apparatus, applicable to sanitary purposes. 

Sealed 10th Febuary, 1854. 

1860. Jean Pierre Albert Galibert, of Paris— Improved do- 
mestic telegraph. 

1889. Thomas Allan, of Adelphi-terrace— Improvements in 
electric conductors, and in the means of insulating 
electric conductors. 

1931. David Harkes, of Mere, Cheshire— Improvements in 
machinery or apparatus for mowing, reaping, or 
other similar purposes. 

1977. William Austin, of 27, Holywell- street, Westminster- 
Improvements in the manufacture of blocks of plas- 
tic materialsfor building purposes. 

Sealed 11th Febuary, 1854. 

1867. Joseph Bacon Finnemore, of Easy-row, Birmingham, 
and Edwin Daniel Chattaway, of Camden-street, 
Birmingmara— Improvements in apparatus for ascer- 
taining or registering the number of persons tra- 
velling by omnibuses or other vehicles, or who may 
have entered in or passed by, out of, or through any 
particular place, vehicles, or building, during any 
given period. 

1878. Samuel Adams, of West Bromwich — Improved appara- 
tus for regulating the supply of water to steam 
and other boilers, applicable also to regulating the 
supply of liquids to vessels and reservoirs in general. 

1880. James Strong, of Smefhwick — Improvements in fur- 

naces for smelting ironstones and ores. 

1881. Thomas Turner and John Field Swinburn, both of Bir- 

mingham — Improvements in sights for rifles. 

1887. Richard Archibald Brooman, of 166, Fleet -street — Me- 

thod of producing castings in malleable iron. 

1888. William Little Tizard, of Aldgate— Combinations of 

materials suitable for buildings and other structures, 
and parts thereof and machinery for producing the 
same. 

" Sealed IZth February, 1854. 

1895. Frederick Lipscombe. of 233, Strand— Improvements 
in evaporating. 

1900. John Gwynne, of Essex-wharf, Strand— Improvements 
in the preparation of a black powder from coal, and 
in the applications thereof to the manufacture of 
paints, blacking, and various other purposes. 

1902. John Gwynne, and James Egleson Anderson Gwynne, 
both of Esses-wharf, Strand — Improvements in the 
preparation of beet root for the manufacture of sugar; 
which improvements are also applicable to the pre- 
paration of other vegetables. 

1906. Hesketh Hughes, of Cottage-place— Improved method 
of producing cut and fancy patterns in velvets, silks, 
and other textile fabrics. 

2037. Thomas Walker, of Birmingham— Improvements in ro- 
tatory engines to be worked by steam or other fluid. 



2202. James Grafton Jones, of Islington— Improvements In 
the means of conveying signals or intelligence from 
one part of a railway train to another. 

2514. George Hamilton, of Paisley — Improvements in spread- 
ing or distributing starch, gum, and other semifluid 
matters. 

2726. James Dilks, of Parliament-street, Nottingham— Im- 
provements in bands for binding more effectually 
than heretofore packets or parcels of lace and other 
articles. 

2825. Thomas Storey, of the Phcenix-foundry, Lancaster- 
Improvements in the construction and arrangement 
of apparatus employed in connection with sewers. 

2848. Benjamin Solomons, of Albemarle-street, Piccadilly — 
Improvements in telescopes and other glasses in 
their application to the measurement of distances. 

2906. Samuel Messenger, of Birmingham— Improvements- 
improvements in railway, ship, and carriage lamp.or 

Sealed IMh February, 1854. 

1916. John Atherton, of Preston, and James Abbott, of Ac- 

crington — Improvements in and applicable to ma- 
chines for winding yarn or thread, called " winding 
machines," used in the manufacture of cotton and 
other fibrous substances. 

1917. Peter Foxcroft, of Salford— Improvements in machinery 

or apparatus for " doubling " cotton and other fibrous 
materials. 

1918. George Richardson, of the Eastern Counties Railway, 

Shoredith — Improvements in railway signals, and in 
the means of preventing accidents upon railways, 
and in the apparatus connected therewith. 

Sealed 11th February, 1854. 

1923. Felix Alexandre" Victor Delarbre, of No. 9, Broad-street- 

buildings— Improvements in treating fibrous sub- 
stances. 

1924. Thomas Clark Ogden and William Gibson, both of 

Manchester— Improvements in machinery or appa- 
ratus for preparing, doubling, and twisting cotton 
and other fibrous materials. 

1926. Thomas Grimsley, of Oxford — Improvements in ma- 
chinery for the manufacture of bricks, tiles, pipes, 
and pottery. 

2032. Augustino Carosio, of Genoa Improvements in ob- 
taining power by the aid of an electric current for 
motive and telegraphic purposes. 

2886. Thomas Hollingsworth, of Winwick, near Warrington — 
Improvements in the method of applying " breaks " 
to carriages employed upon railways, and in the ma- 
chinery or apparatus connected therewith. 

2962. James Burrows, of Haigh-foundry, near Wigan — Im- 
provements in the formation of such metallic plates 
as are required to be conjoined by rivetting or other 
similar fastening. 

Sealed ISth February, 1854. 

1930. David Chalmers, of Manchester — Improvements in ma- 
chinery or apparatus for cutting the pile of woven 
fabrics. 

1932. Alexis PigS, of Greek-street, Soho — Improvements in 
locks and their keys. (A communication.) 

1937. William Cornelius, of Panton-street, Haymarket — Im- 

provements in gilding porcelain, glass, and such 
like materials. 

1938. Auguste Mathieu Maurice de Bergevin, of Paris — Im- 

provements in the manufacture of coke, and in the 
apparatus connected therewith, and in treating the 
products obtained therefrom. (A communication.) 

Sealed 20th February, 1854. 

1944. James Kimberley, of Birmingham — Improvement or 
improvements in raising and lowering various kinds 
of window blinds, and in opening and closing win- 
dow and other curtains, applicable also to the raising 
or lowering, or winding and unwinding, of maps and 
other sheets or articles, and to the closing of doors. 

196S. George Culverhouse, of 72, English-street, Hull— Im- 
provements in manufacturing compost or manure. 

2038. Albert Nagles, of Ghent — Improvements in machinery 
or apparatus for washing, bleaching, dunging, and 
dyeing woven fabrics. 

2227. Jean Alexandre Labat, junior, of Bourdeaux — Im- 
proved system of stoppering vessels and bottles. 

2690. Moses Poole, of Avenue-road, Regent's-park — Improve- 
ments in breach-loading fire-arms, and in cartridges 
for use with such arms. (A communication.) 

2751. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford, of 16, Castle- 

street, Holborn — Improvements in rotary engines. 
(A communication.) 

2752. Charles Calixte Andre Grenier, of Paris — Improve- 

ments in the preparation of paints for buildings and 

other use. 
2794. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford, of 16, Castle- 
street, Holborn — Improvements in machinery for 

manufacturing horse shoes. (A communication.) 
2841. Lewis Harvey Bates, of Bradford — Improvements in 

machinery for stamping and cutting metal nuts and 

other similar metal articles. 
2871.. William Schaeffer, of Stanhope-terrace — Improvements 

in purifying spirit. 
2901. John Wibherly, of Eagley, near Bolton — Improvements 

in machinery or apparatus for winding yarns or 

threads on to spools or bobbins. 
2930. Samuel Smith, of Horton Dye Works, near Bradford — 

Improvements in preparing rovings and yarns of 

wool. 



2931. Alexander Parkes, of Birmingham— Improvements in 
separating silver from its ores or other compounds. 

2940. Caleb Bedells, of Leicester— Improvements in the ma- 
nufacturing of elastic fabrics. 

2960. Emile Victor Felix Lemaire, of 2, Rue Drouot, Paris- 
Improvements in tanning. 

Sealed 22nd February, 1854, 

Victor Emile Warmont, of Neuilly— Improvements in 
dyeing and ornamenting skins, fabrics, and other 
substances. 

William Mann, of Stepney— Improvements in the puri- 
fication of gas, and in the treatment of the material 
used in such purification. 

John Shaw, of Manchester, and Joseph Steinthal, of the 
same place — Improved manufacture of artificial 
manure. 

Peter Armand le Comte Fontaine Moreau, of South- 
street, Finsbury— Certain improvements in the pro- 
duction of electricity. (A communication.) 

John Wakefield, and James Baskervile, both of Inchi- 
core Works, Dublin— Improvements in, and appli- 
cable to, valves for reciprocating engines driven by 
steam or other elastic fluid. 

William Shelbourne Icely, of Bromley, Middlesex- 
Improvements in mechanical telegraghs. 

Charles Joseph Louis Cloux, jun., Paris— Invention of 
a process for the preparation of hemp, after the 
stripping. 

Antoine Corvi, of Paris— Improvements to stationary 
and portable organs with keys and cylinders. 

Andre Alexandre Beaumont, of Paris— Invention of a 
system of production of caloric, with or without 
combustile material. 

Benjamin Rutterworth, of Caldershaw, near Rochdale 
—Improvements in combining oil with other 
liquids for obtainment of a new lubricating com- 
pound. (Partly a cominnnication.) 

Hugh Mason, of Ashton-under-Lyne, and John Jones, 
of Manchester — Improvements in machinery or ap- 
pnratus for doubling, twisting, and spooling wool- 
len, cotton and other yarns. 

John Elce, of Manchester — Certain improvements in 
machinery for spinning. 

William Salter and Robert Halliwell, both of Bolton- 
le -Moors — Improvements in machinery for spinning. 

Charles Coates, of Sunnyside — Improvements in, an 
applicable to looms for weaving. 

William Binnion, of Birmingham — Improvements in 
carriage and other lamps. 

William Tranter, of Birmingham— Certain improve- 
ments in fire-arms, and in bullets and waddings to 
be used therewith. 

James Burrows, of Haigh Foundry, near Wigan— 
Certain improvements in the construction of steam 
boilers and generators, and in the arrangement of 
furnaces connected therewith. 

James Taylor, of the Britannia Works, Birkenhead — 
Certain improvements in raising and lowering 
weights. 

Mary Philips, of Birmingham— Improvement or im- 
provements in metallic revolving or winding shut- 
ters. (A communication.) 

Ame'dee Frongois Re"mond, of Birmingham— New or 
improved metallic tubes. 



1954. 
1964. 
1978. 
2003. 
2125. 

2153. 
2381. 

2385. 
2420. 

2542. 

2733. 

2782. 
2840. 
2878. 
2919. 
2921. 

2963 

3004. 
3016. 
3017, 



APPLICATIONS WITH COMPLETE SPECIFICATIONS 
FILED. 

252. F. H. Wenham, Effra-vale-lodge, Brixton— Fire-arms 
1st February, 1854. 

286. R. J. Maryon, 37, York-road, Lambeth— Windlasses. 
6th February, 1854. 

319. J. Taggart, Massachusetts, U. S.— Machine for excava- 
ting earth. 9th February. 1854. 



1854. 
Jan. 28, 


„ 31, 


Feb. 2, 


,, 3, 


,< 4, 


» 7, 


Feb. 13, 


„ 16, 


„ 17, 


>, 18, 


„ 20, 


„ 21, 



DESIGNS FOR ARTICLES OF UTILITY. 

3557, Peter Arkell, 16, Elizabeth-place, Brixton-hil), 

"A manger." 
, 3558, Paul Wagenmann, Bonn, Rhenish Prussia, "A 
Lamp." 

3559, John Cheek, 132, Oxford-street— A spring hook 
spinning bait. 

3560, Welsh and Brieriey, Halifax — Ladies' waist- 
band clasp. 

3561, William Oxley and Co., Manchester — Machine 
for washing Flyers and other articles. 

3562, Henry Thomas Boden, Birmingham — A tooth- 
brrsh. 

, 3563, William Aston, Princip-street-works, Birming- 
ham. " The Paragon four-hole button." 

3564, Stephen Plummer, Factory, back of the Post- 
office, Upper Holloway, "Church Hassock or 
Footstool." 

3565, John Willcox, Kingston-upon-Hull, " Marine 
Safety Lanthorn." 

3566, Thomas Geoghegan, 94, Jermyn-street, St 
James's, " The Ragland Surtout." 

3567, Michael Fagan, Paradise-street, Sheffield " Fa- 
gan's Universal Linen Marker." 

3568, Gay and Son, 113, High Holborn, "Tooth 
Brush Guard." 



* -V- 



l-^Vt. 



PLATE AX. 



UMIETUr 




PRINCIPAL DIMENSIONS. 



Imgtlv of Keel arab Fore- Bxike* 
Breadth ftr/mlded J 
Depth; d/) 



•157 Feet 
7H'/v. 'ft 




8TEAMEIR ETDTM^FJEiv 



_„ 




wterDech retnwed shewing Her oorwersvaro irtio a/ 
UNO 4 68 POUNDER PIVOT GUNS. 



PAL DIMENSIONS 



U. 



Kilt 



165 feet' 

IS ft, 

14/z ft 

433 n 

lOOBarses 
'4, 68 Bounder- 

Pwflt/ (hilts 



TBANSVERSE SECTION 




W K Wh.vtflke'ui 



&. TJzoA Wi Bolt t'jmr 



THE AETIZAK 



No. OXXXV.— Vol. XII.— APRIL 1st, 1854. 



AMERICAN OCEAN STEAMERS. 

The recent loss of the United States steamer San Francisco, has 
naturally provoked many animadversions on the American navy office, 
the directors of which permitted the lives of so many individuals to be 
risked, by chartering a steamer so inadequate for the purpose. The 
mode of construction adopted in the San Francisco was that in 
ordinary use in the United States for river steamers, that is to say — the 
deck beams were prolonged on either side beyond the sides of the ship, 
for her whole length, and advantage was taken of this increased deck 
room to build large houses on deck ; in addition to this, the vessel was 
loaded much above her proper water-line, which prevented her rising to 
the sea, and caused the deck-house to be swept away, We need not 
enter into the harrowing particulars, with which the newspapers will 
have rendered our readers familiar ; it is sufficient to add, that the loss 
did not end there as it otherwise might have done, but that the deck 
being uplifted and shattered, the water poured into the ship with every 
wave which broke over her, in such quantities that many of those who 
escaped being washed overboard, died of sheer fatique and exhaustion 
from labouring at the pumps. From an American engineer, to whom 
we are indebted for our information, we learn that the engines were on 
the oscillating principle, and that a separate engine was employed to 
work the air-pump. It was the breaking down of this auxiliary engine 
which was the commencement of the mischief, and the washing over- 
board of the chimneys prevented steam being got to work the engines 
at high pressure. It appears that some attempt was made to rig up a 
temporary chimney, but that no suitable materials could be found on 
board. The auxiliary engine was also used to some extent to assist in 
pumping out the ship. 

As regards the build of the ship, we have the statement of the builder, 
Mr. W. H. Webb, of New York, that " she has a frame larger than 
usual for vessels of her class, which, in addition to the ordinary planking 
inside and out, and its fastenings, is very greatly strengthened by the 
introduction, the entire length of the ship, of two sets of iron diagonal 
bracing, running from top to bottom, their top ends being secured to 
a very large iron band running the whole length of the ship. The 
10 



bottom is made solid and caulked, having the usual number of keelsons; 
and in order to give her extra strength, the bottom is connected to the 
two lower decks by two fore-and-aft bulkheads, of 3-inch plank 
(never before adopted in any ship), running nearly the whole length of 
the ship, into each of which sets of diagonal iron braces are introduced, 
and with cross bulkheads besides, forming the most complete system of 
bracing and trussing adopted in any ship built." 

This introduction of bulkheads into timber vessels appears well 
adapted to give them the desired rigidity, and is being adopted in the 
steamer now building by Mr. Griffiths, which is to have engines by Mr. 
Norris, and is expected by the constructor to run between the two 
nearest points of land in six days ; in other words, this is saying that 
she is to be the fastest sea-going steamer afloat. The vessel is distin- 
guished by her great beam and diminished depth of hold, qualities 
especially advocated by Mr. Griffiths in his work on naval architecture. 
But in order to give strength in a vertical direction, a hollow and very 
deep wrought-iron keelson is placed over the keel, thus making of the 
ship two girders, of the same depth as the ship, and less than half its beam 
in breadth. This keelson is said to be intended to be used as a water tank; 
but, considering that in steamers fresh water is made from the boilers, 
it would appear that this space might be more advantageously adapted 
to receive fine goods. If we are correctly informed, the whole of the 
hull is also lined with boiler plate, and in that case, she is an iron ship 
all but in name. We cannot regard this device as a happy one, for we 
hold it to be impossible to make the wood and iron work together. 

What the engines and boilers will be like, we have not heard ; but, as 
Mr. Norris is well known as a locomotive builder, we conclude that 
direct-acting engines, with a high speed of piston, and tubular boilers, 
will be the distinguishing features of the machinery. 

As regards the use of auxiliary engines, the American plan of giving 
a separate boiler for the anxiliary engine is much to be commended, as 
it renders the action of the pumping engine independent of the rest o 
the machinery. It can thus be used for pumpiug out the ship, extin- 
guishing a fire on board, ox in any vessel in dangerous proximity, for 
washing decks, and filling and emptying the boilers, &c, under all 
circumstances. 



POTV,- p •■■ 




5TMM.MBAH FJ C C©i»AWYlg SCREW STB ' ! iEIL EMU 

~ r°i nl 



i'f.ATKAX 





THE S«W WEAIE1 "IF' 



GUN BOAT MOUNTING 4 66 POUNDER PIVOT GUNS. 



fT'iri,/ip>, |,[ V |(.. ,, | .jj 



-T :;-^4 ' 



&d mi, Tore Bah 
BreaM of l :.,n„ 
depth of WoW 

Brilll'tli >', ■'::. ' 

Nominal i ','n, j 
] J -ropasv<t ArmaJn ml 



ie '-,■■< 

: ft 

t ., 

100 Homes 
(4, MPminda 

\ PtVBt 1'ilif 



■;'.., i. IKCTtON 




9 O 



3^:3 






THE ARTrZAN JOURNAL 1854 






74 



Steamers for the Pacific and Australian Steam Navigation Company. 



[April, 



STEAMERS FOR THE PACIFIC AND AUSTRALIAN STEAM 
NAVIGATION COMPANY. 

We present our readers with the specification for building one of the 
screw steamers forming a part of the Pacific and Australian Company's 
fleet, intended to run in conjunction with the West India Mail Com- 
pany's, to Australia, via the Isthmus of Panama. All our readers will 
know that the difficulty of obtaining coal, and the extraordinary rise 
which has taken place in seamen's wages, has placed some of the old- 
established companies in a position of great difficulty ; and these facts 
seem to have weighed so strongly with the directors of this company, 
that they have determined to postpone, if not give up, their intended 
operations. The fact which has, no doubt, hastened them to this con- 
clusion is, that they have let two of their boats to the English Govern- 
ment, and sold the remaining three to the French Messageries Rationales, 
who, we understand, have received permission to import these vessels, 
(such importation having been hitherto forbidden,) on condition of 
placing them, for a eertain time, at the disposal of the French 
Government. 

We have no doubt that our readers will duly appreciate the courtesy 
of Mr. Napier, in according permission to publish the plans and spe- 
cification, which cannot fail to interest a very large proportion of the 
engineering profession. 

SPECIFICATION OF THE SCREW STEAM VESSEL, " EMEU." 

Bnilt for the Service of tlie;Australasian Pacific Company, by Robebt Napieb, Glasgow, 

1854. 

Dimensions. — Length of keel and fore rake . . . . 257 ft. 

Breadth (moulded) 36 ft. 6 ins. 

Depth (do.) 28 ft. 6 ins. 

Tonnage (builder's measurement) . . 1,666 tons. 
Keel, Stem, and Sternposts. — Keel, 10 by 4 ins.; stem, 10 
by 4 ins., tapering to 8 by 2 ins. at gunwale; stern-posts (inner) below 
shaft-boss 12 by 4 ins., above do. 10 by 4 ins. ; stern-post (outer) 
8 by 4 ins., tapering to 8 by 3 ins. at upper-deck. 

Frames. — Spaced 18 ins. apart from centre to centre, and in engine, 
intermediate coal-space, and boiler-space, doubled in bottom and bilge. 
Those forward of scarph of stem, placed normally to the stem. 

Scantlings. 
For 100 ft. amidships . . . . 5 by 3 by s -ins. angle iron. 
Forward and aft 5 by 3 by TO -ins. „ 

Floors. — On every frame, formed of |-in. plates, welded into one 
piece 20 ins. deep at centre, tapering to depth of frames about the 
6-ft. water-line, amidships. 

Forward and aft, and on the inclined frames, these floors of such 
depth as allow them to be 3 ft. broad on upper edge. 

Engine Foors. — Floors in engine and boiler-spaces of g-in. plates, 
4 ft. 6 ins. deep, with 5 by 3 by -g ins. angle-iron on each side of the 
nipper-edge. In engine-space, further stiffened with fore-and-aft plates, 
and covered with f-in. plates. 

Reverse Frames, on every frame, of angle-iron 5 by 3 by § ins., 
riveted along the upper edge of floors, and continued to the upper- 
edge of floors, and continued to the upper-deck and 7-ft. water-line, 
alternately. On all the inclined frames, 4 by 3 by f-ins. angle-iron, 
carried to upper-deck. 

Beams. — On all the decks placed 3 ft. apart, centres, consisting of 
bars having a bead rolled on the lower-edge, and angle-iron riveted 
along each side of the upper-edge. 

Scantlings. 

Upper-deck 8 by J-ins. bars, 3 by 3 by -|-ins. angle-iron. 

Main and lower-decks . . 8 by f-ins. „ 3 by 3 by T |-ins. „ 
Beam Stanchions of 3-in. bar-iron, fitted under every third 



hold-beam, and, where requisite, continued to upper-deck, in 2J ins. 
and 2 ins. iron. 

Stringers of plates riveted to angle-iron of beams, and connected 
to vessel's sides by angle-iron riveted along their outer-edges ; or, of 
double angle-iron riveted back to back, and to reverse frames. 
Scantlings. 

Plates. Angle-iron. 

Upper-deck . . 24 by J ins., tapering to 24 by | ins. . . 4 by 4 by § ins. 
Main-deck . . 21 by i ins., „ 21 by f ins. . . 4 by 4 by $ ins. 

Lower-deck 12 by f ins. . . 4 by 4 by $• ins. 

Bilge-stringers double . . 5 by 3 by $ ins. 

Beam Ties, on upper-decks and 'tween decks, formed of two strips 
of plates, 12 by f ins., running on each side of hatchways from stem to 
stern. 

Keelson. — Centre keelsons of f-in. plates, about 25 ins. depth, 
riveted to floors ; and that part projecting above floors having 5 by 
4 by f by ^-ins. angle-iron, riveted on each side, and to reverse-frame 
on top of floors. 

Sister-keelsons on each side of centre keelson, of double 5 by 3 by 
5-ins. angle-iron, riveted back to back, and to reverse-frames. 

Bulkheads. — Four water-tight bulkheads, built of plates, stiffened 
by vertical bars of angle-iron, spaced 2 ft. apart ; and at each deck a 
stringer-plate, extending along, and riveted to, the beams and deck- 
stringers. 

Scantlings. 
Plates up to 8 ft. water-line . . J in. thick. 

Ditto, above 8 ft. ditto .... f in. „ 

Angle-iron . . 4 by 3 by f in. „ 

Stringers-plate 12 by i in. „ 

Plating. — Strakes fitted out and in alternately; the outer strakes 
bearing hard on the frames by means of 3-in. filling-straps. On the 
bulkhead-frames these fillings 18 ins. broad, and secured to the plating 
by a double row of rivets. Joints parallel to the frames, flush, and 
double riveted throughout; longitudinal joints, lap-jointed, double 
riveted to the 6-ft. water-line, above this, single riveted. 
Scantlings. 

100 feet Forward 

amidships. and aft. 

Keel-strake f in. 

To 6-ft. water-line . . . . J in. 

4 to 8-ft. ditto J| in. 

8 to 12-ft. ditto | in. 

12 feet W. L. to gunwale . . ^ in. 

Gunwale-strake § in. forward, -^ in., aft, f in. 

Caulking. — Both sides of water-tight bulkheads, external seams of 
plating, and ends of butt-straps, pared and thoroughly caulked. 

Coal Bunkers. — All available spaces in engine compartment di- 
vided off into coal-bunkers, by bulkheads, built of plates varying from 
■§ to f s in., stiffened with bars of 3| by 3 by f in. angle-iron, spaced 2 ft. 
6 ins. apart, and ceiled over floors with f B in. plates. 

Rudder. — Stock, h\ ins. diameter; post, 7 by 2J ins. ; frame, 2§ 
by 1 in., plated with ,| in. plates, and secured to stern-post by four 
wrought-iron bands. 

Rudder-trunk formed of ^ in. plates, secured to counter, and at deck, 
to a plate 20 by f ins., riveted between plate-stringer and the first 
beam forward. 

Treasure-Rooms built of \ in. plates and angle-iron, roofed with 
i in. plates, and fitted with Cbubb's safety locks. 

Chain-Lockers built of T ^in. plates and angle-iron; chain-pipes 
of f-in. plates, fitted with deck-stoppers. 

Tanks. — Water tanks, 10,000 galls, collective capacity, framed with 
2 ins. angle-iron, and plated with T 3 g in. and i in plates. Oil and wash- 
hand basin tanks of galvanized iron. 



f in. 
Jiin. 
A in- 

to in- 



1854.] 



Ireland — Its Industrial and Commercial Prospects. 



75 



Wood-Work. 

Bulwarks. — Stanchions of oak, 4| by 3§ ins., grated outside with 
netted rope; rail of elm, 12 by 3§ ins. 

Waterways, of East India teak ; upper deck 15 by 6 ins. ; 'tween 
deck, 15 by 5 ins. 

Decks. — Upper deck of East India teak, 3 ins. thick; main and 
lower decks, 3 ins. yellow pine. 

Ceiling of Holds. — To 4-ft water-line, 3 ins. elm; above this, 
ceiled berths and space, with 6 by 2-ins. red pine, secured to reverse 
frames by ^-in. screw-bolts. 

ON THE CONVERSION OF MERCANTILE SCREW 
STEAMERS INTO GUN-BOATS. 

By Navalis. 

In our notes of last month we briefly alluded to the fact of the 
committee appointed to report on the capabilities of mercantile 
steamers for war purposes, not having extended their inquiry as to 
the possibility of rendering our smaller steamers into gun-boats. As 
our observation has met with some approval, and supplied the infer- 
ence that some of our small screw steamers are susceptible of the con- 
version, we will take the trouble to embody the hint in a more tangible 
form. 

There is frequently a little hazard attending offering specific sugges- 
tions on public questions, which are, very generally, nobody's business, 
and the unfortunate meddler is not unfrequently put down as being 
one incapable of striking the balance between his enthusiasm and his 
judgment. This fate, however, must not deter others from approaching 
those subjects which are acknowledged to be of vital consequence to 
the public welfare, at a time when all the resources of the country are 
demanded to resist the encroachments of a gigantic and aggressive 
power. This journal not being a political medium, it must be left to 
others to speculate on the historical and political qtiestions bearing on 
the differences between the Czar and the great European powers ; but 
we wish to assist and encourage those professions, whose representa- 
tives, through the aid of the mechanical sciences, are destined to play 
an important part in the future naval operations of this country ; and 
on this, and on public grounds, we will endeavour to show how the 
resources of the country may be further developed on a point which 
seems hitherto to have escaped observation. 

It is to be xinderstood, we do not pretend to assert that it is abso- 
lutely necessary to carry our suggestion into immediate execution; but 
what we would enforce is this, that the state of affairs is becoming too 
complicated to suppose that we will not require some protection to 
the coasting trade and the mercantile marine generally. One single 
naval reverse in the Baltic, and our commerce would be perilled by 
the immense force which it is known the Russian navy could turn 
out against us ; not taking into account the injury which might be 
inflicted by her encouragement of privateering ; and what we propose 
is, to have everything arranged for arming our screw steamers, of 
about 500 and 600 tons, with four heavy pivot guns, two firing forward 
and two firing aft. We have many such steamers which could be 
formed into effective gun-boats. The small beam of our screw steamers 
presents a narrow target to the enemy : their sharp form will slant off 
the shot rather than allow it to penetrate ; while, from their capability 
for speed, they have the option of giving or accepting battle on their 
own terms ; and, one would think, a fleet of such gun-boats scouring 
the tracks frequented by our shipping, would be a protection not 
altogether to be despised ; and we would call especial attention to the 
necessity of preparing some means of defence for the lines of steamers 
and clippers trading to Australia. No doubt a regular man-of-war 
would be a more commanding instrument than a gun-boat ; but we 
appear to require all these for combined action ; and three or four gun- 



boats could be worked for the same expense, and therefore protect a 
greater area with a given amount of expenditure. But we must now 
dismiss this, the speculative part of the matter, and proceed with an 
explanation of our proposition. 

In plate XX., will be found an elevation of a 500 tons screw 
steamer, the European,* with the mizenmast, &c, removed ; an outline 
deck plan, showing the positions of the pivot guns; and an en- 
larged transverse section, showing the large gusset plates in the in- 
side of the hull, connecting the ribs with the deck beams, and forming 
an arch on their inner edge. This view also shows the brackets on 
the outside for carrying the artificial sponson for giving deck room 
for working the guns. By the proposed mode of arming screw 
steamers, four useful guns may be mounted, and have their pivots 
fixed perpendicularly over the sides and frames of the ship ; thus, 
when the guns are trained to a fore-and-aft line, the concussion will 
be received by the strongest part of the hull, and the only strength- 
ening that would be necessary would be a few additional deck beams, 
with strong gusset plates in the corners, to give lateral stiffness to the 
sides of the vessel, and prevent them collapsing. To give room for 
working the guns, the decks are extended transversely, and supported 
by brackets on the outside; thus forming, as it were, an artificial 
sponson, and working the guns in a precisely similar manner to those 
in the Prussian gun-boats Nix and Salamander, manufactured by 
Scott Russell and Co. (for the drawings and description of which 
vide Artisan, vol. ix.) ; and it will be observed that our suggestion 
only amounts to adapting their system of armament to screw steamers 
with flush decks, and placing the guns at those positions where the 
working of them would interfere as little as possible with their present 
arrangements. The two forward guns, it will be observed, could be 
placed immediately before the shrouds of the foremast, so that the 
only alteration that would be required for admitting these guns 
would be the additional piece of deck, with the necessary strength- 
ening and cutting down the bulwarks, in case they stood above the 
range of the guns. The alterations for the aft guns would be more 
extensive, as the mizenmast would have to come away, in consequence 
of its shrouds obstructing the range. This may seem a sweeping 
alteration — taking away a mast ; but it could be disj)ensed with ; and. 
it will be borne in mind that the committee of 1849, then aj>pointed 
to report on the capabilities of mercantile steamers for war purposes, 
showed on their drawings that scarcely a single mercantile steamer 
could be mounted with a stern pivot gun without removing the mizen- 
mast. 

The forward guns could be made to fire within a few degrees of 
half the horizon, and the aft guns could be made to fire through a 
complete half horizon, or 180 degrees, as shown by the dotted lines on 
deck plan ; but it is proposed to use the guns for fore-and-aft firing 
only, and never to present a broadside to the enemy, in which case 
the sweep of the guns is very limited, and all hatchways, skylights, 
ventilators, and companions could remain on the deck unmolested. 

There are many other points which ought to be considered, but, 
being questions of detail, need not be enumerated here. As our idea 
will be clearly understood from the description and the sketches, we 
will leave the hint for the consideration of those who may feel inter- 
ested in these matters. 



IRELAND— ITS INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL 
PROSPECTS. 

(Continued from p. 54.) 

Passing from agricultural to other kinds of labour, it is satisfactory 
to find that Ireland is well supplied with the raw materials, whenever: 
capital and energy, shall have given them due development, and 



* For the drawing of the European, we are indebted to Mr. Bourne's Treatise on the Scrag 
Propeller. 



76 



Proportions of Locomotwe Boilers. 



[April, 



brought them to market. That Ireland is rich in materials does not 

admit of doubt. There are seven coal-fields; three in Ulster, one in 

Connaught,. one in Leinster, and two in Munster : those in the 

northern half of the island yield bituminous or flaming coal ; while in 

the southern half there is anthracite or stone-coal. Iron ore is found 

in most of the coal-fields ; and large portions of it are fully as rich in 

metal as the best English and Scotch ores. Copper is found in many 

parts of the south of Ireland; and from £70,000 to .£100,000 worth 

of Irish copper ore reaches the Swansea market annually. Lead is 

found in a greater number of places than copper : much of it yields 70 

per cent, of metal ; and it generally contains from G to 20 ounces of 

silver in a ton of lead — sufficient to pay for the extraction or refining, 

The time has scarcely yet arrived for working all these mineral veins 

and beds profitably; for many canals and railways will have to be 

formed, many manufacturing buildings established, much commercial 

activity developed, as preparatory operations. In respect to marble 

and stone and slate, Ireland is unquestionably rich. Connemara itself 

might supply us with' material for " marble halls" for all time, if we 

were in the habit of building marble halls. A traveller along the high 

road from Galway to Clifden meets with blocks of beautiful black 

marble on the road-side : the material is there ; but the capital and the 

commercial machinery for bringing it to market are not there. Yet we 

should belie the history of industrial art if we doubt that, sooner or 

later, these bounteous stores of raw material will bring wealth to 

Ireland. 

The canals of Ireland are not very numerous. There are the Grand 
canal, Dublin to the Shannon, 1G1 miles, with its branches ; the Royal 
canal, also from Dublin to the Shannon, 92 miles, with its branches ; 
and the Ulster canal, Lough Neagh to Lough Erne, 48 miles. All the 
others are connected with rivers, and come under the designation of 
river navigations. The Shannon is by far the most important of these. 
This noble river, 250 miles in length, is impeded by numerous shoals, 
rocks, and sharp bends : and in 1839, commissioners were appointed to 
improve the navigation. Numerous short canals and numerous locks 
have been mad e, banks have been straightened, and beds deepened ; 
quays bav e been constructed and beacons erected. The result is, that 
there is now steam navigation from Lough Allen down to Killaloe, a 
distance of 143 miles; there is a canal for tow-boats and small steamers 
from Killaloe to Limerick ; and the magnificent lower Shannon for 
large steamers from Limerick to the Atlantic. The Barrow, the Boyne, 
the Newry, the Tyrone, and the Logan, are all navigations in which 
small canals have been made to inprove rivers. There are also two 
short canals being constructed to connect Loughs Mask and Corrib 
with Galway ; one of these, from Lough Corrib to Galway, is so far 
finished as to have admitted a small steamer in the summer of 1853. 

In many respects the harbour improvements are combined with 
river improvements; but, whether so combined or not, they are among 
the elements of Ireland's future prosperity. Among the Irish bills in 
1853 was one relating to Westport ; to improve the harbour and the 
channels leading to it ; to defray the cost of improvements and main- 
tenance, by rates levied on vessels and cargoes; to exercise a jurisdic- 
tion over the whole waters of the bay of Westport ; to appoint and 
license pilots ; and to borrow for these purposes £20,000 from the 
Board of Works. Another bill of 1853 related to Galway harbour, 
empowering commissioners to make a pier, or breakwater, extending 
out into five- fathom water. 

It is scarcely possible to sail up the Shannon without experiencing 
a feeling of regret that so fine a river should have so little traffic upon 
it. The noble estuary below Limerick, and the wide expansions above 
that town, present very little more shipping than the other fine bays 
and estuaries on the western coast of Ireland. There is, in some re- 
spects, a reason for this, in the rocky and shoaly state of some parts of 



the river. In its whole length of 220 miles, it expands first into Lough 
Allen, Lough Corry, Lough Tap, Lough Boedarrig, Lough Boeffin, 
Lough Sconnel, Lough Forbes, Lough Ree, and Lough Derg ; the 
water in these loughs and lakes is deep enough ; but in the intervening 
portions of river there are so many shallows, rapids, and other obstruc- 
tions, that navigation was, until recently, almost impracticable. To 
remedy these evils was the purpose of the appointment of the Shannon 
commissioners, just adverted to. Between 1840 and 1847, nearly 
£300,000 was spent on these works ; and considerable additions have 
been made to the expenditure between 1847 and 1853. Like most 
other advances of capital for the improvement of Ireland, this expended 
money is not likely to be wholly returned; but still it is a great thing 
to insure uninterrupted inland navigation for so many miles. In Oc- 
tober, 1853, the Lord-Lieutenant opened new docks at Limerick, 
capable of accommodating large steam-ships ; and the belief is not yet 
abandoned that Foynes, on the lower Shannon, may one day be a port 
of departure for transatlantic steamers. 

The railways of Ireland, considering the difficulties which have beset 
the country, are really praiseworthy in number and character. The 
capital actually raised by the middle of 1852 was about £13,000,000. ; 
with which 700 miles of railway were finished and opened, and 100 
miles partially constructed. Some of these, in the north, are combined 
with drainage projects ; by carrying a railway across a shallow sandy 
estuary, and reclaiming the land within the limit so marked out. Such 
is the case in respect to the Londonderry and Coleraine railway, which 
crosses Lough Foyle at some distance from the shore, and isolates a 
portion of sandy shallow which it is hoped may, by-and-by, be con- 
verted into arable land. During 1S53 there has been an act passed for 
a Lough Foyle and Lough Swilly Railway : the line has this pecu- 
liarity, that, in order probably to save expense in purchasing land, it 
will run below the level of high-water mark for more than half its 
length, first along the river Foyle, and then along Lough Swilly ; con- 
sequently, it must be on an embankment, and must have openings of 
communication between the shore and the tidal stream. There has 
also been a bill before Parliament this year, relating to further reclama- 
tions of waste and slob lands in these two estuaries. We have just 
mentioned the prevalence of a hope that an Irish station may be chosen 
as a transatlantic steam-port ; under the imp-ession that, if this be the 
case, Foynes will be selected, a railway has just been commenced from 
Limerick to Foynes, connecting the last-named place with the general 
network of Irish railways. 

(To be continued.) 

PROPORTIONS OF LOCOMOTIVE BOILERS. 

By Zerah Colbuen.* 

I propose to discuss in this paper some of the proportions of the 
greatest influence in the production of steam in locomotive boilers. I 
shall endeavour to do so in the plainest manner, so that my deductions, 
if they should be founded on a correct conception, may be available to 
the operative as well as the theorist. 

The objects sought in the construction of any boiler, of a given size 
and weight, are the generation and economical absorption of the greatest 
amount of heat. The first of these operations is made in the furnace ; 
the second, in both the furnace and tubes. 

As the ordinary form of locomotive boiler is found to be of the most 
efficiency in these operations, I shall discuss, as I have already said, only 
the proportions of the locomotive boiler, and shall suggest no essentially 
different form or mode of construction. 

The requisites for a boiler furnace are capacity for fuel, admission of 
air, water contact, escape of gases, and provision, of course, for firing. 

* From the Journal of the Franklin Institute. 






1854.] 



Proportions of Locomotive Boilers. 



11 



The first involves the amount and relation of length, width; and depth 
of furnace ; the second, the gross area and air-opening of grate ; the 
third, the " water spaces " around 'furnace ; the fourth, the openings 
into tubes, and the last is had by the door. 

The capacity and relative dimensions of furnace, grate area, air open- 
ing, aDd tube opening, are the principal fire-box details which are influ- 
ential in the generation of heat. All of these dimensions are deducible 
more from experiment than from theoretical inquiry. In discussing 
their extent and mutual relation, however, there are considerations 
which, if allowed for, will determine many of the general principles 
upon which they are based. 

The capacity of furnace must be such as to contain, without choking 
the ends of the tubes, sufficient fuel for the necessary rate of combus- 
tion, and without the necessity of constant firing. The grate air-open- 
ing must admit sufficient air for the given rate of combustion ; and as 
this air is expanded to six or seven-fold volume before leaving the fur- 
nace, the exit openings must be of ample dimensions. 

The capacity of furnace is governed materially by the amount of car- 
bon, proportionate to the whole amount, in bulk, of fuel burnt. Coke 
is nearly all carbon ; wood contains but a small proportion, say from 
one-fourth to one-third. As carbon is the true heating element, the 
capacity of furnaces should be, other things being equal, inversely as 
the quantity of carbon in a given bulk of fuel. 

Again, the admission of air is distributed over nearly the entire 
bottom of the furnace. The escape of air is made from but one end of 
the furnace. • 

The transition from these general principles is easy. The capacity of 
the furnace has been increased, in modern locomotives, more by an in- 
crease of length than of either of its other dimensions. This was done 
because the space between the driving wheels was limited, and that a 
portion of this space was required for the framing and springs of the 
engine. For a gauge of 4 feet 8| inches, the distance between the 
driving wheels, transversely across the engine, is 4 feet 5§ inches. 
Many engines have been built, where the width of frame and springs 
would give a grate of but 35 inches width ; while, in other cases, by a 
different arrangement of framing, this width has been made 44 inches. 

Now, I wish to maintain the general principle, that width of furnace 
is more influential in producing rapid combustion than length. The 
reasons may be briefly stated as these : — The air passes through the 
fuel for the distance in which the latter lies in the furnace. A num- 
ber of diagonal lines might be drawn from the centre of tube openings 
to successive points in the length of the grate, which will essentially 
represent the general distance traversed. From the fact, however, that 
the surface of the fuel generally inclines towards the tubes, increase of 
distance is greater with each successive horizontal approach to the back 
side of the furnace. Often, too, the grate inclines from the fire, by 
which the difference of distance is rendered still greater, according as 
the entrance of air is made towards the back side of the furnace. 

Now, in proportion to the distance traversed is the superficial resist- 
ance of the fuel to the passage of air increased. It must be, at least, 
in this proportion, while the impact or " momentum " of the air would 
be of some more advantage with a thin fire than with a deep one. 
Again, were the distance travelled among the fuel, by the air, the same, 
the effect of the draught would be exhibited more strongly upon those con- 
tents of the furnace nearest the source of the action of the draught. And 
the ascent of air, answering to the demands of the draught at the tube 
mouths, would supplant the air, so to speak, that might otherwise enter 
the tubes from the rear of the furnace. 

From these combined circumstances the intensity of the draught is in- 
versely to the distance of the place of entrance from the place of escape 
of the air, but not in the same ratio. It may not be an unfair estimate 
to consider the intensity of the draught diminished three-fourths when 



the distance traversed by the air is doubled by horizontal removal of the 
place of air admission from the tube sheet. 

It is in consequence of the greater intensity of the draught at the for- 
ward end of the grate that, to prevent the insulation of the lower part 
of the tube sheet by unheated air, the "dead plate" is used to exclude 
the air at that point. The " dead plate " is merely a closed bottom 
of the furnace, or " blank grate," and is now much used to promote 
economy of fuel in wood-burning engines, while it is claimed as an 
essential feature of Mr. Milholland's coal-burning boiler. 

The "dead plate," however, robs the grate, as the space above this 
plate receives no direct supply of air ; serving for no other purpose than 
to hold an amount of fuel, which would be just as well held by an in- 
crease of the depth of the furnace. Now, as that portion of the furnace 
above the mouths of the bottom tubes cannot be filled with fuel with- 
out liability of "choking" the mouths of the tubes, whereby the pro- 
duction of carbonic oxide is caused, much of the heat is wasted, and 
the steam pressure falls below the working point, it would appear that 
there could be no loss of room available for fuel, or of the useful 
capacity of the furnace, by projecting the tube sheet inwards and 
towards the door. It would add a very little, say 10 dollars' worth of 
labour, to the expense of making the boiler, but it would, doubtless, 
save that trifling sum in a short time, by a more economical consump- 
tion of fuel. The supply of air would be increased by permitting the 
use of the entire area of grate, while the passage of unheated air would 
be from and not upon the front sheet; and, what is of nearly equal im- 
portance, the contents of the back portion of the furnace would be 
brought nearer the action of the draught. With a projecting tube sheet 
! there would be less liability of covering the mouths of the tubes. 

There is another important object to be secured by widening the fur- 
nace to the greatest limits allowed by a common gauge. With a boiler 
of the largest size which can be got between the wheels, and such as are 
becoming general standards for heavy express engines, it becomes neces- 
sary to increase the width of fire-box above the frame, to obtain room 
for a sufficient number of tubes. The water spaces, for the same reason, 
are made as thin as possible, .and the ascent of steam is, therefore, re- 
tarded, the tendency being to diminish rather than increase the width 
of water space towards the top of the furnace. Under the combined 
contraction of the water spaces, and their curved, instead of straight, 
upward direction, they do not prove as serviceable as they should in the 
production of steam, and they do not so fully prevent overheating. 
The width of the water spaces, next to that of the furnace, is among 
the most important dimensions of the boiler. 

In proportion as width is substituted for length of furnace, the ash- 
pan may be diminished in depth, and room obtained for some increase 
of depth of furnace. The damper, also, becomes more sensitive to the 
admission of air, and can be regulated with more economy in its opera- 
tion on the draught. 

The relation of length to width in some of our modern wood-burning 
locomotive furnaces is as 1§ to 1. With many of Stephenson's earlier 
engines, the proportion was as about § to 1. 

Keeping in view the requisite of mixing the greatest quantity of 
carbon and oxygen, in a given time, and with a given weight and size 
of boiler, we must remember, that while the former element is supplied 
by hand, the latter is only supplied by means which impose, at the best, 
a sensible load upon the working of the engine. Inasmuch, however, 
as a natural admission and escape of air is maintained, is this resistance 
reduced. If we find that the resistance to the admission of air is re- 
duced by substituting width for length of grate, by so much, we may 
know, will be reduced the power of draught necessary to overcome this 
resistance ; or, with a given draught, by so much will combustion, 
otherwise evaporation, or otherwise power, be increased. 

The next important element in the proportions of the furnace is the 



78 



Institution of Civil Engineers. 



("April, 



opening of the tube mouths, or of the thimbles which tighten them in 
their places. From an internal diameter of 2 inches, this opening has 
been reduced to li inch; the former size being that allowed in Stephen- 
son's early engines, and the latter having been adopted in some of the 
heaviest engines built by Rogers, Ketchum, and Grosvenor. This con- 
traction attends the reduction in the diameter of the tubes, made for 
the purpose of obtaining greater heating surface, and is partly due to 
the increased thickness of thimbles of cast-iron, as compared with 
wrought-iron, or, as in earlier times, none at all. If the greatest ex- 
tent of absorbent surface was not an object with a given size of boiler, 
it would be better if the opening for the escape of heated air were in 
one large flue. 

The processes of combustion and of evaporation are, in some re- 
spects, alike ; and it is believed that the resemblance may be recognised 
sufficiently to perceive the importance of rapid draught. In combustion, 
the elements are carbon and oxygen ; in evaporation, commonly speak- 
ing, the elements are heat and water. In each case, one of the elements 
is a palpable physical substance, the other an invisible gas. The want 
of either wood or water would, of course, suspend one or both of the 
operations. If steam is rapidly worked from a boiler, the rate of eva- 
poration is increased. If the steam-pipe be throttled, however, the 
pressure will rise but slowly, and the rate of evaporation will be dimi- 
nished. Now, the comparison in the process of combustion is this : — 
If the carbon of the fuel be thoroughly and rapidly oxydized, or, what 
is the same, if the products of combustion were rapidly carried off, 
whether imparted to the water or wasted, and room be as quickly made 
for more, a larger amount of heat would be generated. If the tube 
openings, however, by their undue contraction, throttled the draught, the 
presence of the products of combustion within the furnace would retard 
the oxydation of more carbon. In the case of evaporation, the accu- 
mulated pressure of steam above the water level would be a mechanical 
obstacle to further production, while in combustion the accumulated 
products would exert a chemical preventive to further oxydation. 

Especially is an increase of diameter of tubes required where these, 
from any cause, are extended to an unusual length. The friction sur- 
face being increased by lengthening the tube, as well as increasing the 
amount of air to be forced out, or the back pressure, the tube should 
be enlarged in diameter, to take up sufficient heated air to ensure a 
rapid draught. 

With any ordinary contraction tubes, it is possible to get a sufficiently 
rapid rate of combustion by narrowing the blast pipes; but this im- 
poses a direct load upon the working of the engine. 

The effect of contracted tubes may be readily inferred. Rapid evapo- 
ration can be had only by a rapid communication of heat to all parts of 
the water. The small tube, under an ordinary draught, takes up a quan- 
tity of heat which becomes quickly absorbed, to an extent that reduces 
the escaping gases to a temperature below any heating efficiency. The 
result is the same as if a large portion of the " heating surface " were 
taken away. Sufficient heat does not reach the forward portion of the 
tube surface to impart any elevation of temperature to the water 
already under the action of the first portion of the tubes. The for- 
ward ends of the tubes are, therefore, of little value, and might nearly 
as well be dispensed with ; while, simply, by furnishing the required 
heat, they could be readily brought into effective use. To supply an 
abundance of steam of a high pressure, a great amount of heat must 
necessarily be applied, and some heat must be wasted ; but, in propor- 
tion to the intensity of the fire in the furnace, the less is the relative 
loss. Hence, small grates, under a good draught, are most economical in 
their consumption of fuel. The available or useful heating quality of 
any temperature is the difference between it and that of the object to be 
heated : and this is the reason why there is greater economy in a rapid 
draught and intense fire. To maintain such fires, however, without injur- 



ing the boiler, either thin iron of the best quality must be used, or else 
the best description of copper. The water spaces must also be wide, 
and the sheets incline outwards from the space on each side in approach- 
ing the top. 

It is not unworthy of the subject to compare the early engines, built 
by Stephenson and other cotemporary builders, with those of the pre- 
sent day. Besides the great difference in the relative proportions of 
furnaces, already noticed, the tube opening was one-fifth of the entire 
grate area, where it is now from but one-tenth to one-fifteenth. The 
tubes were three and a-lrelf times the length of the furnace, while now 
the distance is from two and a-hBlf to three times. The little boilers 
of former times were notorious for their steaming powers. For a 
given capacity of cylinder, it is true that they had slightly more boiler 
capacity and heating surface than is now given, but they had the 
countervailing disadvantage of the want of expansive gear. Many of 
our present heavy express engines, with nearly an equal proportion of 
heating surface to a given capacity of cylinder, are, with the most per- 
fect expansive apparatus, well known to be short of steam. 

The practical means of widening the furnace, within certain limits, 
are the use of the thin edge frame on the sides of the fire-box, and 
such suspension of the springs as.will not interfere between the wheels 
and furnace. The spring 1 of the back driving axle will, probably, re- 
quire to be hung transversely across the engine ; with which arrange- 
ment, the equalising levers can be kept much as at present. The 
trailing wheels of English engines have their springs hung across the 
engine, to permit of the use of the thin frame. I look upon 43 inches 
as the greatest width of furnace attainable within the narrow gauge and 
with inside framing. 

To obtain greater width of tube opening, the best means are in the 
use of iron tubes, of the best quality, and the entire omission of 
thimbles. The coal engines built by Winans and by Baldwin, having 
tubes and furnaces entirely of iron, furnished in Philadelphia, are found 
to stand the severe action of anthracite, and when well set give no 
trouble iu respect to caking. The coal-burning engines built by Winans 
have 2| inch tubes for 14 feet length. 

Another means of improving the working of locomotive boilers, is in 
forming a better connection of the tubes and chimney than is afforded 
by the ordinary " smoke box." The direction of this passage must be 
eased, and its contents reduced to the smallest practicable extent. The 
use to which the upper part of the smoke-box is generally placed, 
has prevented the separation of that part from the general contents of 
this chamber. The steam-pipes and throttle-box, for the want of a 
better situation, have been placed here, and often in such a manner as 
to stand in the way of the draught. A plan, which I proposed some time 
since, for the. relief of the draught of engines, on a line having low 
bridges, which plan, 1 have lately learned, was tried with good results, 
some years since on the Columbia road, but for some reason was not 
continued in use, was to place a level sheet of iron across the smoke- 
box, just above the upper row of tubes. This would reduce the con- 
tents of the smoke-box, and, consequently, the amount of air to be 
lifted out. It would allow of extending the chimney downwards, and 
of thereby increasing its effective length, and, also, of lowering the 
blast pipes, and substituting blast pressure for blast suction. I look to 
this plan as one likely to become generally applied. 

INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS, 

February 28, 1854. 
James Simpson, Esq., President, in the Chair. 
The paper read was " On the means of attaining to uniformity in 
European Measures, Weights and Coins," by Mr. James Yates, M.A., 
F.R.S., &c. 



1854.] 



Institution of Civil Engineers. 



79 



Believing that the only way of attaining the object in view, was by 
the adoption of the French system of measures, weights, and coins, and 
that such a step would be attended by great advantages in regard to 
exactness and convenience, as well as uniformity, the author first gave 
a brief account of the origin and principles of that system. The method 
of determination of the " metre," as the standard of linear measure, 
and the representation of it by the bar of platinum, deposited in the 
National Archives at Paris, was narrated. A description was then given 
of the mode of deducing from that standard all other measures of 
length, of superficies, of solidity, and of capacity; as also of the deter- 
mination of the fundamental weight, called the " gramme," and the 
derivation therefrom of the "franc," containing five grammes of 
standard silver, and forming the basis of the ascending and descending 
series of coins and moneys. The advantages of the decimal divisions 
and multiples, and of the names applied systematically to all, were 
asserted, notwithstanding the partial recommendations of the octonal, 
and, still more, of the duodenal methods of computation. 

Adverting to the successive obstructions and difficulties, which the 
system had to encounter from political disturbances, as well as from 
popular prejudice and the previous habits of the French nation, the 
author mentioned its final establishment, during the reign of Louis 
Philippe, and its gradual extension and steady progress subsequently to 
that period, both in France and in many other of the Continental 
kingdoms. As practical examples, specimens were exhibited, showing 
some of the forms in which the French measures were now sold and 
applied to all the purposes of common life. 

Considering the success which had attended this grand project of 
social improvement, the generous and enlightened spirit in which it 
was conceived, the difficulties which it had surmounted, the successive 
amendments which it had received, as the result of experience, during 
the course of more than half a century, the exactness of its principles 
and the beauty of its adjustments, and the almost universal approval 
accorded to it by the millions of persons who now employed it, in then- 
daily intercourse and occupations, it was considered manifestly impos- 
sible that it should ever be abandoned for any other system wherever 
it had once been adopted. If this were true, it followed that the French 
system must remain, whatever other systems might be discarded, and 
it might consequently become universal. It was therefore argued, that 
it would be wise to take advantage of the progress towards uniformity 
thus made, and to use all means for extending the influence of that 

system. 

(To be continued.) 



March 21, 1854. 

The second paper read was " An Account of the Deep Sea Fishing- 
Steamer Enterprise, with Ruthven's Propeller," by Mr. D. K. Clark, 
Assoc. Inst. C. E. 

The vessel was described as having been built for the " Deep Sea 
Fishing Association of Scotland," under the direction of the author, the 
consulting engineer to the company, who had recommended the trial 
of Ruthven's propeller for fishing uses, in preference to the paddle or 
screw, chiefly on account of there being nothing likely to interfere with 
the fishing nets ; and also because the success of the previous trials 
of this means of propulsion, on board of boats 30 feet and 40 feet in 
length, when a speed of 7 miles per hour was attained, appeared to 
warrant its being tried on a larger scale. 

The chief dimensions of the Enterprise were stated to be— length of 
deck, 95 feet; length at the water-line, 87 feet; breadth of beam, 16 
feet; depth, 8 feet; draught to load water-line, 4 feet; burthen 100 
tons. The propelling power was derived from two pairs of horizontal 
oscillating cylinders, 12 inches diameter, and 24 inches stroke (with 
corresponding air-pumps and condenser), working on a vertical crank- 



shaft. There was one cylindrical boiler, 6 feet in diameter, and 5 feet 
long, with two through fire-tubes, 22 inches diameter, and 105 return 
flue tubes, 5 feet long, and 2 inches internal diameter. The propeller 
consisted of a fan-wheel, or centrifugal pump, 7 feet in diameter, with 
curved blades, keyed on the lower end of the crank-shaft; it revolved 
horizontally in a water-tight wheel-chamber, into which the water from 
the sea flowed along a covered passage, or water chamber, through 
crescent-shaped openings in the bottom of the hull ; and the water was 
expelled laterally from the fan wheel in two continuous streams, by 
curved pipes with nozzles 10 inches diameter through the sides of the hull. 
The nozzles worked in collars affixed to the sides, so that they could be 
pointed astern or ahead as required for forward or backward motion, 
or vertically downwards when the vessel was to remain at rest. These 
changes were made rapidly and easily, as the nozzles alone were ope- 
rated upon, whilst the engine continued to work at full speed. By 
setting the nozzles in opposite directions, one pointing ahead and the 
other astern, the vessel could be turned on the spot, swinging on her 
beam without the aid of the rudder ; the vessel could thus be steered 
by the nozzles in case of the rudder being lost or disabled. In fact, the 
manoeuvring of the vessel was entirely in the hands of the persons on 
deck. The fan- wheel and water passages were entirely of wrought-iron, 
and all the parts were formed to avoid sudden enlargements or quick 
turnings, and the consequent absorption of power in the passages by 
friction and eddies. 

The motion of the vessel was very smooth, and all tremulousness 
was avoided by the uniform and continuous action of the propelling 
streams of water. 

In a trial trip with the Enterprise on the 16th January, 1854, from 
Granton to Kirkaldy and back, a distance of 10J miles each way, the 
average speeds obtained were 9*69 miles per hour going and 9 miles 
per hour returning, giving a total average of 9 - 35 miles per hour, re- 
turning against the tide for the greater part of the trip, and with a 
breeze ahead on the return trip. The engine made 50 revolutions per 
minute, and was calculated to have exerted 40 indicated H.P. from the 
observed average pressure of 20 lbs. in the boiler, with the valve gear 
cutting off at one-sixth of the stroke. The consumption of fuel 
averaged 5 lbs. of coal per estimated horse power per hour. On ano- 
ther occasion, in a trial of her speed with one of the Granton and 
Burntisland ferry boats, the Enterprise kept pace with the ferry boat, 
at the regular speed of 12 miles per hour, the engine making 70 revolu- 
tions per minute. 

In the estimate of the efficiency of this method of propulsion, with 
respect to the power applied at the fan-wheel shaft, three sources of 
loss were admitted ; first, the friction of the water in passing through 
the fan-wheel and passages ; second, the excess of the effluent velocity 
of the water at the nozzles above the speed of the vessel; third, the 
elevation of the water-jet above the sea level. The first had been 
found, by careful experiment with a small model, to amount to 16 per 
cent, of the power applied to the wheel-shaft ; the second was esti- 
mated from the known data at 12 per cent. ; and the third at 8 per 
cent. — making a total loss of 36 per cent., and leaving a useful balance 
of 64 per cent, of the power applied to the wheel-shaft. 

Reference was made, for comparison, to the performances of Appold's 
pump, and of Barker's mill, as tested by Mr. "W. M. Buchanan, of 
Glasgow. After suitable allowances were made, corresponding to the 
loss of the nozzles, and the loss by elevation of water, the following per 
centages of useful effect were arrived at : — Ruthven, 64 per cent. ; Ap- 
pold, 57 per cent. ; Barker, 67'S per cent., giving a mean of 63 per 
cent, of the power applied to the wheel-shaft. 

The friction of the engine was taken at 20 per cent, of the indicated 
power on the piston, leaving SO per cent, delivered at the wheel-shaft. 
It therefore appeared, finally, that of the whole indicated power of the 



Roberts' Spiral Shanked Anchor. 



[April, 



engine, as applied to work Ruthven's propeller, 50 per cent, was lost 
iy friction, and other causes, leaving a balance of 50 per cent, for useful 



work done 



I, 



It was further argued, that by careful design and good proportion of 
parts, so as to reduce the friction of the machine, the excess of velocity 



of the effluent water, and the elevation of the nozzle, 70 per cent, of 
the total indicated power of the engine, might be utilised by Ruthven's 

11 ' ' " ' ' 

prope ei. ^ 

The draught of the vessel, during the trial, was stated to be 3 feet 2 
inches, and immersed midship section 40 - 5 square feet. The united 
area of the nozzles being 1'09 square feet, the ratio of the area of pro- 
pulsion to the immersed section was I to 'dj. To the load water line, 
the immersed midship section was 55 square feet, and the ratio 1 to 50. 

Many advantages of Ruthven's propeller for large vessels were 
pointed out and contended for. Several nozzles could be applied to 
one vessel, one acting for another in case of accident ; whereas paddles 
and screws could not be so multiplied, and a number of engines and 
nozzle-propellers of moderate sizes worked at high speeds would, it 
was contended, be less weighty, more compact and more manageable 
for a large vessel than the huge engines and appurtenances required on 
the preseut system. 

The discussion was adjourned until the meeting of Marqh '28th. 

SPIRAL-SHANKED ANCHOR. 

■ .By (Richard Roberts, C:E., Globe Works, Manchester. 

Fig. 1 is a. front elevation, and fig. 2 an edge view of my anchor, in 

which a is the shank, made of stout rolled iron plates, which are twisted 

near their upper end until the plane of the portion above the twist 

is at right angles to that of the portion below it; the upper end of 

■ 
i 

tip 

■ 

I 




... Fig. 1. 

both plates is bent to form a loop when united together by rivets; 
the plates of the shank are kept at the required distance apart by the 
cross piece, b,' and the hollow stay, c, the ends of which fit holes in 
the shank, and are riveted' thereto. D is the stock, made of round 
iron, which is passed through the loop in the shank, a, and kept there 
bv the shackle, e, which is fixed to the stock by pins ; the arms, r, are 



— ~ 



also made of stout rolled iron plates, kept apart by the stretchers, gg, 
and the double flanched segment plates, h, to which they are riveted ; 
the arms dre jointed to the shank by the pin, i. To prevent, as much 
as possible, cables and hawsers fouling the anchor, the ends of the stock 
are so bent that the strain on the cable shall press them close to the 
ground ; the ends of the arms are made to bestride the shank, and the 
projections, jj, for bringing the arms into position for taking the 
ground, are made angular for the same purpose. This anchor, beino- 
made principally of rolled iron, will be less expensive, weight for weight, 
than forged anchors; whilst, owing to its peculiar construction, its 
strength and holding power will be greater. Another advantage, pe- 
culiar to this anchor, consists in the stock and the arms assuming 
planes at right angles to each other when the anchor is suspended by 
the cable, and in their taking the same plane when the anchor is sus- 
pended by the short chain, k. 

The anchor, instead of being forged, is made principally of rolled 
iron, and therefore not liable to fail from imperfect welding ; its arms 
and shank are each made of two flat pieces of iron held a short distance 
apart by stays, and by the palms, which are made of double flanched 
iron, riveted to the arms. The shank and arms being deep, and com- 
paratively thin, are about twice as strong as those of ordinary anchors 
of the same weight, whilst, owing to that thinness, they are much 
less liable than those of the common anchors to burst their hold in 
strong clayey ground. On the other hand, the extensive area of the 
palms gives them greater holding power in light ground. The anchor 
is on the swivel principle (Piper's), without being, like those hitherto 
made, liable to the objection that the lower arm often fails to turn into 
position to take the ground, and that the upper arm is liable to "foul'' 
hawsers, &c. Another advantage, peculiar to this anchor, consists in 
the stock and arms assuming planes at right angles to each other wheu 







Fig. 2. 

the anchor is suspended by the cable, and in taking the same plane 
when suspended by the fishing chr.in ; and, consequently, involves no 
loss of time preparatory to casting or heaving anchor, in replacing or 
removing the stock. 

It is believed the anchor may be made at at a lower price, weight for 
weight, than a forged anchor, whilst its strength and holding power will 
be much greater. 






1854.] 



Notes by a 'Practical Chemist. 



81 



BOILER EXPLOSIONS AND THEIR REMEDY. 

By Navalis. 

bitten's self-acting water indicator and low water 
alarm whistle for steam-boilers. 

It is gratifying to observe the attention which engineers are devoting 
to the subject of steam-boiler appurtenances, with a view to the security 
of life and property. We lately introduced Finch's self-acting feed 
apparatus, for maintaining a uniform level of water in the boiler; and 
we now take the opportunity to notice Bitten's self-acting indicator and 
low water alarm whistle. 




The most prominent features to which the inventor draws attention 
are as follows : — There are no cocks or stuffing boxes ; the action is di- 
rect, self-acting, and self-indicating, without the slightest friction, and, 
therefore, not liable to stick, which enables them to be depended upon. 

Fig. 1 is a sketch of the low water alarm steam whistle, perfectly self- 
acting, and so constructed that none can alter or tamper with it : it is 
beyond their control. The tube of the whistle is screwed into the top 
of the boiler, and the connecting-rod, between the valve-rod and the 
float, cut off and pinned in, so that the whistle may sound at whatever 
level the water in the boiler may be determined on. 

Fig. 2 is a sketch of the gauge to indicate the actual height of the 
water in the boiler. It stands upright on the top part of the boiler, 
into which it is screwed, and the connecting-rod, between the top rod 
and the float, cut off and pinned to suit the height of water in the boiler, 
to be shown by the index, which is marked off by inches, the same 
as a barometer index. A float, inside the boiler, rests on the water, to 
which is attached a connecting-rod and the rod above, which passes up 
the glass tube in the index ; showing not only the height of the water 
in the boiler, but the slightest agitation the water receives. The glass 
tube cannot fill up, as no water enters, but simply steam ; nor is it liable 
to breakage. But if, by any accident, the glass tube should be broken, 
it can be replaced in a few minutes, by turning the small wheel, which 
screws the slide forward, and shuts the steam off from the tube. 

Such is the inventor's own description, with a few slight abbreviations. 
With respect to the alarm whistle, we give it a hearty and cordial ap- 
proval ; as to the indicator, we cannot see any very particular improve- 
ment over the gauges in ordinary use, although it must be conceded 
the top of the boiler is, in many cases, a much more eligible position 
for it, the glass less liable to be broken, and not so likely to scald the 
stokers in case of breakage. 

We wish the inventor bad furnished us with a section instead of an 
elevation, that we might have seen the action of the slide by which he 
proposes to shut off the steam, to enable a new glass to be inserted in 
case of breakage. 

With respect to all these designs for preventing boiler explosions, we 
think it is a pity some inventor does not combine all the necessary 
points in one machine — that is, an apparatus fulfilling the conditions re- 
quired of a self-acting feed, an indicator, and an alarm whistle. Pro- 
prietors of steam power would most assuredly give the preference to 
such a machine, and no doubt the thing could be done simply and 
cheaply. 

NOTES BY A PRACTICAL CHEMIST. 

Mr. Gore, of Birmingham, has succeeded in depositing aluminium 
and silicium upon copper, by the electrotype process. To obtain the 
former, he boils an excess of dry hydrous alumina in hydrochloric acid 
for one hour, then, pouring off the clear liquid, adds one-sixth its 
volume of water. In this mixture was set an earthen porous vessel, 
containing sulphuric acid, diluted with 12 parts of water, and with a 
piece of amalgamated zinc plate in it. In the chloride of aluminium 
solution was immersed a plate of copper, of the same amount of immer- 
sed metallic surface as that of the zinc, and connected with the zinc bv 
a copper wire. The whole was then set aside for some hours, and, when 
examined, the copper was found coated with a lead-coloured deposit of 
aluminium, which, when burnished, possessed the same degree of white- 
ness as platinum, and did not readily tarnish, either by immersion in 
cold water, or by the action of the atmosphere, but was acted on by 
sulphuric and nitric acids, whether concentrated or dilute. If the 
apparatus is kept quite warm, and a copper plate much smaller than the 
zinc plate is employed, the deposit appears in a very short time— some- 




82 



Notes by a Practical Chemist. 



[April, 



times in half-a-ininute ; if the chloride solution is not diluted with wa- 
ter, the deposit is equally, if not more rapid. 

The author has also succeeded in obtaining a quick deposit of alumi- 
num, in a less pure state, by dissolving common pipe-clay in boiling 
hydrochloric acid, and using the clear liquor undiluted in place of the 
above-mentioned chloride. Similar deposits were obtained from a 
strong aqueous solution of acetate of alumina, and from common alum, 
but more slowly. With each of the solutions named, the deposit was 
hastened by putting from one to three small Smee's batteries in the 
circuit. 

To obtain' the deposit of silicium, monosilicate of potash (prepared 
by melting together 1 part silica with 2| parts carbonate of potash), 
was dissolved in water, in the proportion of 40 grains to one ounce 
measure, proceeding as with aluminium, the process being hastened by 
interposing a Smee's battery in the circuit. With a very slow and 
feeble action of the battery, the colour of the deposited metal closely 
resembled that of silver. 

Detection of Manganese. — Solids to be examined for manganese 
are finely powdered ; fluids require no preparation. The smallest por- 
tion of either is mixed with a drop of a solution of pure caustic potash, 
and heated over a gas-flame. On boiling the alkali to dryness and 
raising the heat, the characteristic green colour of manganate of potash 
will appear. The best support is a slip of silver-foil, two or three 
inches long, and half-an-inch wide. In this manner manganese has 
been detected in a single drop of a solution, containing one grain of 
solid sulphate in ten thousand of water. The presence of other oxides 
does not interfere. 

If a little flowers of sulphur be mixed with about its own bulk of the 
common black oxide of manganese, and brought to a red heat on a slip 
of platinum foil, there will be formed sesquioxide, sulphuret, and sul- 
phate of manganese, and, on prolonging the heat, the sulphuret will be 
chiefly converted into sulphate. On treating the residue with water 
and filtering, a solution of sulphate of manganese is obtained, which 
yields a white precipitate with prussiate of potash, without the smallest 
trace of iron. 

Sulphate of manganese may be formed in quantity by simply boiling 
a solution of common green vitriol .in water for about a quarter of an 
hour or upwards, in contact with an excess of sesquioxide of manganese 
in fine powder, till the solution affords a white precipitate with prussiate 
of potash. Chloride of manganese may be formed in a similar way by 
boiling an aqueous solution of protochloride of iron with an excess of 
sesquioxide of manganese, or it may be made more readily by dissolving 
this oxide in the common muriatic acid of commerce, provided the 
oxide be in excess. 

The brown sesquioxide of manganese may be made not only by 
means of sulphur, but more readily by mixing the black oxide with one- 
third its weight of sawdust or starch, and exposing it to a red heat in an 
open crucible, with occasional stirring, for about a quarter of an hour, 
or until the oxide acquires a uniform brown colour. 

The sulphate and chloride of manganese being extensively used in 
dyeing, calico-printing and other arts, and in making compounds of 
manganese, the simple means here stated of obtaining these salts free 
from iron, are, it is presumed, material improvements on the circuitous 
methods formerly adopted. 

Manufacture of Cheap Bronze Colours from Brazil 
Logwood, suitable for Paper Stainers. — If some alum be dis- 
solved in a hot decoction of Brazil wood, which has been previously 
allowed to clear itself by standing some days, a precipitate will form on 
the liquor cooling, which will gradually increase if it be set aside, and 
will contain nearly the whole colouring matter. If this precipitate be 
once washed with water, and rubbed thick on paper, it will dry with a 
beautiful brilliant golden colour, tending somewhat to green, resembling 



the wing-cases of dried Spanish flies. If a little of this precipitate, in 
the condition of paste, be mixed with size and some satining materials 
(formed of wax dissolved in soap), and then rubbed with a brush upon 
paper, it may be polished with an agate, or glass ball, upon which it 
will assume a beautiful yellow metallic lustre, very similar to bronze. 
To obtain this effect, it must be laid on so thick as to be perfectly 
opaque. 

Similarly, a bronze colour may be made from logwood ; but the pre- 
paration is different, and the colour is more like that of copper, whilst 
the former approaches to brass. If a fresh prepared decoction of log- 
wood be heated in a copper pan, then precipitated with chloride of tin 
(tin salt), a rich dark brown precipitate will be obtained. This preci- 
pitate, washed and treated as the last, communicates to paper a copper 
bronze. A different shade may be obtained by adding to the hot de- 
coction of logwood a little alum, and then decomposing it with a still 
smaller quantity of red chromate of potash. This precipitate is darker, 
tending more to yellow than the latter. 

(The use of chromate of potash in modifying tinctorial substances is 
originally due to Runge).. 

Presence of Nickel and Cobalt in Mineral Springs. — 
Mazade stated, some time ago, that he had detected in the ferruginous 
springs of Neyrae and its sediment of ochre titanium, glucina, nickel, 
and cobalt. The presence of the two latter may be determined by the 
following procedure : — 

To a large quantity of the water is added a slight excess of carbonate 
of soda ; the liquid is then set aside, exposed to the air, until the iron 
is entirely oxidised and deposited; or the sediment of the spring may 
be at once employed. The deposit is dissolved in hydrochloric acid, 
and evaporated to a certain degree to remove glucina, titanium, and 
silica, when the clear liquid in general contains only alumina, lime, 
magnesia, iron, manganese, nickel, and cobalt. To this solution car- 
bonate of soda is again added, until a precipitate is obtained, which is 
agitated in the air with an excess of water. It is then washed, and 
when it has become oxidised in the air, it is brought into contact with 
water saturated with carbonic acid. This dissolves only the carbonates 
of nickel and cobalt, upon which sulphuretted hydrogen is passed slowly 
through the filtered solution. In this manner the nickel and cobalt are 
slowly thrown down as sulphurets. These are dissolved in nitro- 
muriatic acid, precipitated with carbonate of soda, and separated in the 
usual manner. 

S. 

answers to correspondents. 

" Q." — Powdered glass is one of the substances used in the adultera- 
tion of snuff. 

" E. Marston." — The more vegetable matter a piece of stagnant 
water contains, the more unfit will it be for alimentary purposes. The 
development of infusoria, &c, is arrested in tanks and cisterns, pro- 
vided they are perfectly shielded from light, and the water in these re- 
ceptacles continues perfectly wholesome. 

" J. C, Gateshead." — Leaden cisterns and water pipes are unsafe, 
but may be protected by adding to the water a trace of iodide of potas- 
sium, or some other salt, capable by its decomposition of forming a 
thin insoluble coating over the whole metallic surface. The chemical 
action is strongest at the surface of the water, where it comes in contact 
with the atmosphere. Water which has drained from leaden roofs 
should always be rejected, though they might probably be secured from 
corrosion by small pieces of zinc. 

" Pyrotechnist." — Auzendre's white gunpowder has died a natural 
death, and well for the public ; as those who had attempted to use it 
would, probably, have died a violent one, Contrary to the inventor's 
statement, it explodes when rubbed in a perfectly smooth mortar of 









1854.] 



On Wrought-iron Beams. 



83 



Berlin ware ; nor is it necessary for the third ingredient, the sugar, to 
be added. 

" Tyro." — Almost all iron ores become magnetic when heated before 
the blowpipe. 

" Iota." — The number of elementary works on chemistry renders it 
difficult to decide. We should recommend Gregory's Inorganic Che- 
mistry. 

" Printer." — Plaster of Paris is soluble in water, in which sal-ammo- 
niac, sulphate of soda, common salt, or tartrate of ammonia has been 
dissolved. But we fear the process will be very slow, since the plaster 
is in a dense mass, which can be attacked by the solvent only from one 
side. The strong acids are out of the question, as they would destroy 
the type. 

ON WROUGHT-IRON BEAMS FOR SUPPORTING THE FLOORS 

OP BUILDINGS AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES. 

Bt "William Faiebaien, C.E., F.R.S., &c, &c* 

Wrought-iron beams are of recent origin, and, with few excep- 
tions they have been sparingly employed in constructions where their 
superior strength and greater security must have rendered their applica- 
tion of the utmost importance. In the construc- 
tion of iron ships they have been used in a va- 
riety of forms ; in bridges intended for the 
support of heavy weights, such as railway-trains, 
their introduction has been of immense value ; 
and they are now almost exclusively used for 
the cross-beams which support the roadways of 
my tubular girder bridges. 

At first the box-beam, of which fig. 1 repre- 
sents a section, was considered superior to the 
flat beam represented in fig. 2. These two beams have 
been alternately employed for the purposes above men- 
tioned ; but I have invariably given the preference to the 
plate-beam (fig. 2), on account of its simplicity of con- 
struction ; and although inferior in strength to the box- 
beam, it has nevertheless other valuable properties to 
recommend it. 

On comparing the strengths of these separate beams, 
weight for weight, it will be found that the box-beam is as 
'] : -93, or nearly as 100 : 90. 

This difference in the resisting powers of the two beams does not 
arise from any difference or excess in the quantity of material in either 
structure, but from the better sectional form of the box-beam. The 
box-beam, it will be observed, contains a larger exterior sectional area, 
and is consequently stiffer, and better calculated to resist lateral strain, 
in which direction ' the plate form generally yields before its other re- 
sisting powers of tension and compression can be brought fully into 
action. Taking this beam, however, in a position similar to that in 
which it is used for supporting the arches of fire-proof buildings, or the 
roadway of a bridge, where its vertical position is maintained, its strength 
is very nearly equal to that of the box-beam. But while the plate-beam, 
in the position thus described, is nearly equal, if not in some respects 
superior to the box-beam, it is of more simple construction, less expen- 
sive, and more durable, from the circumstance that the vertical plate is 
thicker than the side-plates of the box-beam, and is consequently better 
calculated to resist those atmospheric changes which in this climate 
have so great an influence upon the durability of the metals. Besides, 
it admits of easy access to all its parts, for purposes of cleaning, paint- 
ing, &c. 





Fig. 2. 



* On the application of Cast and Wrought Iron to Building Purposes. By W. Fairbairn, 
C.E., F.R.S., &c, &c. London : J. Weale, 1854. 



It is for these reasons that I give the preference to this description of 
beams; and having had considerable experience in their construction, I 
am able to state, that they answer exceedingly well for large deck-beams 
in iron ships, and for any other description of frame-work in machinery 
where an irregular or reciprocating motion tends to derange or sever 
the parts. 

From the increased safety and greatly increased strength of the 
wrought-iron beam, it appears to me to be in every respect adapted to 
the construction of fire-proof buildings. It offers much greater secu- 
rity, and is free from the risk of those accidents which not unfrequently 
occur with cast-iron beams, and which have created so much alarm in 
the public mind. We have already shown the superior adaptation of 
this material to bridges and other structures where strength and secu- 
rity are the principal objects of its application. It now becomes a con- 
sideration of some importance to exhibit the advantages which may be 
gained by its introduction, on a large scale, into the building of ware- 
houses, cotton and flax mills, and dwelling-houses, which require pro- 
tection from risk, whether arising from weakness, from the employment 
of a dangerous material, or from fire. In these erections it will be 
found exceedingly valuable, irrespectively of the sense of security which 
the nature of the material is sure to establish in the public mind. Im- 
pressed with these convictions, I unhesitatingly recommend its adoption 
to the architect and engineer; and provided the laws which govern its 
strength be carefully attended to, I have reason to believe that a few 
examples will not only give entire confidence in its powers, but that in- 
creased experience will elicit improved conditions, and probably better 
forms for its application.* In order the more effectually to guide and 
encourage the practitioner, I have given a series of drawings exhibiting 
the principle upon which I would recommend the substitution of 
wrought-iron for the cast-iron beams. I have already stated the objec- 
tions to cast-iron; and in thus directing attention to the introduction 
of a new material, I have endeavoured to supply the necessary rules and 
formulae for computing the strengths, with full and ample details of the 
construction and other minutiae connected with the bearings, stay-rods, 
&c, of these important structures. 

Another feature in the use of this material is the scope which it gives 
for an extension of space to any distance commensurate with the con- 
venience of the establishment, or the taste of the architect or engineer. 
Most of the improved cotton-mills are from 60 to 65 feet in width, with 
two or three rows of columns, at distances of 15 to 16 feet across the 
mill, and from 9 to 10 feet in the direction of its length. These columns 
present serious obstructions to the convenient arrangement and free 
working of the machiner}', but they cannot well b3 avoided where cast- 
iron beams are used. By the employment of wrought-iron they quickly 
vanish, as one row of columns in the middle, with only two beams in 
width, not only meets the objection, but removes all doubts as to the 
security of the structure. In these constructions, however, it must be 
borne in mind that an increase of space is attended with a considerable 
increase of expense ; but when the latter is not a serious consideration, 
fire-proof mills might be built upwards of 60 feet in width without the 
introduction of a single column or any other obstruction whatever. 

In large public busings this may be effected with perfect ease, and 
the beams so constructed as to carry a load of 4 to 5 tons to the square 
yard. Let us, however, return to those erections which require a centre 
column with a distance of 30 feet between the bearings, as shown in 
the following- woodcut. 



* Since the above was written, I have successfully introduced this system of construc- 
tion into a portion of the new lire-proof building recently erected for Messrs. Joseph and 
James Norton, of Wolverhampton. In this building, which is five stories high, several 
of the arches are supported on wrought-iron beams similar to those represented in fig. 2. 
The arches, as well as the beams of this building, are of great strength, having to sup- 
port immense quantities of grain and flour, filled at times to the ceiling, exclusively of 
the vibratory action of the machinery of eighteen pairs of millstones, which are almost 
constantly in motion. 



84 



On Wrought-iron Beams. 



[April, 



f 




In a building of this description, the beams will each be 
31 feet 6 inches long, and 30 feet between the supports, 
and may be composed of plates 22 inches deep, { s thick, 
and angle-iron three-eighths of an inch thick, riveted on 
both sides, as shown in the section (fig. 4). The break- 
ing-weight of this beam, taking the constant at 75,* 
would be as follows : — 

Let W represent the breaking -weight in tons, a the 
area of the bottom flanch, d the depth of the beam= 
22 inches, and I the distance between the supports=360 
inches, then we have 




W= 



ado 




= ? 5 X J? X 22 =27'5 tons in, the middle, or 55 tons distributed 

equally over the surface. Now, a cast-iron beam of the 
best form and strongest section, similar to that repre- 
sented in fig. 5, and calculated to support the same load, 
would weigh about 2 tons, whereas the wrought-iron 
beam would only weigh 16 cwt. 1 qr. 14 lbs., or little 
more than one-third of the weight of the cast-iron beam. 
This difference of weight is of considerable importance, as 
the advantages of using the plate-beams do not consist rzZz-^H 
solely in the saving of nearly two-thirds of the material, 
but there is less weight to carry, and much greater cer- 
tainty as regards the ultimate strength and security of the beams. Let 
us, however, extend the comparison still further, and endeavour to 
ascertain the cost of the material and construction of each kind of 
beam, which, after all, is the only criterion of the utility and fitness of 
any improvement. Every invention resolves itself into this compa- 
rison; and in order to secure a successful application, the superiority 
of the article (when other things are the same) must be measured by 
the price at which it can be produced. 

Assuming, therefore, that cast-iron beams can be delivered at the 
foundry at £6 10s; per ton, and that the wrought-iron plate-girders 
can be manufactured at £16 per ton, it follows that 



A cast-iron beam, 40 1 cwt., at 6s. 6d. 



• 



£13 
13 2 



A wrought-iron beam, 16 cwt. 1 qr. 14 lbs., 16,9. 

making a difference of only two shillings between the j cost of the one 
and the cost of the other. Assuming, therefore, the prices to be the 
same, we have, in the case of wrought-iron beams, only about one- 
third of the weight of metal to carry ; and, . moreover, the superior 
lightness of the wrought-iron will enable us to erect and fix them in 
their places at considerably less cost. Altogether, therefore, I am per- 
suaded that the wrought-iron beams, if manufactured on a large scale, 
can be executed at a moderate rate, and can be made to answer that 
most desirable object, the combination of strength with lightness and 
security. Besides, I am persuaded that beams of this description can 

* I have taken 75 as the constant for plate beams, instead of 80, used for computing 
the strength of hollow girders with cellular top. This is done in order to compensate 
for defects in form which cannot be remedied in the single plate girder. 




Tig. 6. 



be manufactured at i?14 per ton instead of j£\6, as before 
quoted. If this can be accomplished, there is a direct 
saving of £\ 10s. 9d. per ton; a very important economy, 
independently of the increased security. 

Should this description of beam become general in its 
application, it it more than probable that all those under 
12 cwt. might be delivered at once, of the required form, 
from the rolling-mill ; and it would be premature to 
assume, that even the larger sizes, such as we have just 
described, could not be manufactured in the same way. The skill and 
intelligence of iron manufacturers of this country have surmounted 
greater difficulties; and I have no doubt that a demand has only to be 
created in order to insure perfect success in all the manipulations con- 
nected with that important success. If this could be accomplished, a 
very important saving of the mineral treasures of the country would be 
effected ; nearly two-thirds of the metal would be saved, and the price 
(supposing the beams to be taken from the rolls) reduced to nearly 
one-half, or from ^16 to £3 or £10 per ton. Under these circum- 
stances, cast-iron would be no longer admissible for such a purpose, 
and buildings would be rendered much more secure from the chance of 
failure, and equally secure from the ravages of fire. 

Anticipating these improvements in the manufacture, it 
is probable that a beam, constructed after the manner 
described, might take something like the annexed form 
(fig. 6), the top ftanch a being as much in excess as 
would equalise the two resisting forces of extension and 
compression. In every case, however, it would be de- 
sirable to retain considerable width in both flanges, in 
order to give lateral stiffness to the beam, which in 
wrought-iron, owing to the ductile and flexible nature of 
the material, is a desideratum. When iron is used in its 
malleable state for constructions of this kind, the cellular top or box- 
form is evidently one of its most important features, and the strongest 
to resist compression on the top side. But this cannot 
be accomplished in the manufacture of beams direct from 
the rolls without considerable complexity in the construc- 
tion. An exceedingly strong and simple beam might, how- 
ever, be constructed with a cellular top, provided that 
the plate which forms the cell could be rolled upon a 
mandrill to the required shape, as shown in fig. 7. It 
would be constructed with two cells at a, a, fixed upon 
the top edge of the vertical plate, and securely riveted, 
as at c c, from one end of the beam to the other. 

This form of beam would probably lessen the difficulties of manufac- 
ture, as, instead of double flanehes rolled upon the beam, as exhibited 
in fig. 6, it would only require one at b, which would reduce the weight, 
and afford greater facilities for passing it through the rolls. In the 
manufacture of the plate which forms the cell, some difficulties would 
no doubt have to be encountered; but this, like every other improve- 
ment, would yield to perseverance and a determination to succeed.* 
The object of this form of beam would be a reduction of weight in the 
top flanch. In the cellular construction the top and bottom w'ould be 
reduced to nearly equal areas, which, in this shape, is the proportion 
which balances the two resisting forces of extension and compression. 
In the solid flanch it requires nearly double the amount of material on 
the top to equalise these two forces, or, in other words, to cause the 
bottom flanch to yield to tension at the same time that the top is on 
the point of giving way to compression. This, however, is a question 



* In this construction the hood or cellular top would he sufficiently ductile and elastic 
for the lower side at c c to collapse during the process of punching the rivet-holes throngh 
both plates at once, and to open again for the reception of the top edge of the plate, to 
which it is permanently fixed by rivets, as described. 




1854] % 



Reviews. 



85 




which must eventually be determined by experiment, and the practical 
facilities which may be gained in the manufacture. 

"\Ye might modify these forms to an almost unlimited extent ; but 
simplicity is so great a desideratum in every mechanical construction, 
that I am unwilling to multiply the number of designs which readily 
suggest themselves. Ingenious men are too apt to disregard the con- 
sideration that simplicity of form and application very frequently de- 
termine the reception or rejection of their inventions; and, as is well 
known, numerous schemes, full of original thought and admirable 
talent, have failed from their complexity and over-elaboration of design. 

Apprehending some difficulty in the manufacture of the 
beam represented in fig. 6, I would observe, that unless 
wrought-iron beams can at once be produced from the 
rolls similar to that represented in fig. G, which is evi- 
dently the cheapest and best, the next in order in point 
cf cheapness would be that with the bottom flanch rolled 
along with the plate a, fig. 8, in the annexed section, 
and with the top c also rolled of T 1I0B > separate in the 
shape, and riveted along the top edge of the vertical 
plate, as represented at d. 

The objection to this form of beam would be that the 
T iron c embraces only one side of the plate, and is therefore not so 
convenient, although equally well calculated for resistance to compres- 
sion, from the circumstance that the middle plate is rolled with a recess 
to receive the f iron, for the purpose of equalising the forces on each 
side. In other respects it is a simple construction, and appears to com- 
bine the essentials of economy with simplicity of form. Another ad- 
vantage gained by this construction is, that the mean distance of the 
rivet-holes in the top part is brought nearer the neutral axis than it is 
in the box form of beams. 

Hitherto we have treated of beams of light weight and short span ; 
instances, however, occur where they are required of large span and 
considerable strength ; and, in recommending this peculiar application, 
it may be necessary that we should meet these requirements by the in- 
troduction of a construction suitable for such purposes. To accomplish 
these objects, the beams just described are not exactly those we should 
recommend ; but, assuming that the smaller description can be rolled 
to the required form, we have yet to provide for those which require a 
span from thirty up to fifty feet. In public buildings, and in the cross- 
beams for bridges supporting roadways, thoroughfares, &c, we have 
frequent examples where lightness united to strength becomes an im- 
portant element in the construction; and it will at once become appa- 
rent that provision for these and similar structures should be made, in 
order to afford the necessary facilities for their adaptation to structures 
of that description. 

We have already remarked that the smaller description of wrought- 
iron beams may be produced at once from the rolling-mill at a very- 
moderate price per ton, and there being a direct saving of nearly two- 
thirds in weight, the actual cost will be considerably less than that of 
cast-iron beams of equal strength. In cases where the extent of span 
required would render it impracticable to roll the beam in one piece, 
convenient weights might be rolled into sections of the proper form, 
and a beam of an excellent description be constructed by joining the 
parts together, as shown in the following sections and elevation, figs. 
9, 10, and 11:— 



id 




.-', J?@ 






I 






Ji LL 



Fig. 10. 



Fig. 11. 



In this construction the parts A, B, and C 
are rolled in three lengths to the form, as shown 
in fig. 8, which is a section through the line a b, 
and being united by proper covering plates and 
rivets, it will form a section at the junction 
through the lines c d and ef, as exhibited in 
fig. 9. This construction may be carried to a 
span of forty to fifty feet; and, provided the 
covering plates are properly proportioned, and 
the riveting well executed, the beam will be 
equal in strength to one formed cf solid iron without the intervention 
of a single joint. 

I have already stated that one great advantage of this construction 
consists in the absence of rivet-holes; in order to show this advantage 
more definitely, let us suppose that there are four rivet-holes at the 
bottom rib of the beam, and that the section of each is a quarter of an 
inch, then it follows that a beam without rivet-holes, whose bottom 
section is (6 — jj) inches, or 5+ inches, will bear as much as a beam 
with the rivet-holes whose bottom section is 6 inches; thereby showing 
that there would be a great economy of material in the use of beams 
rolled in the manner described. 

It is probable that the rectangular box-beam is more appropriate for 
the support of great weights on a large span than the plate-beam recom- 
mended above ; but I have alreadv stated my objections to the box- 
beam, and the same reasoning will apply to it in this case, viz., the 
danger of oxidation, and the impossibility of reaching the interior for 
the purposes of painting, cleaning, &c. These are the chief considera- 
tions which induce me to give the preference to the flat beam ; and I 
am of opinion that, with proper care in the construction, in spans up to 
forty, and in some eases fifty feet, they will be found superior to any 
other description of beam. In cases where the distance between the 
supports exceeds fifty feet, the tubular girder is evidently the best form 
of beam. 



REVIEWS. 



■ 
By J. F. W. Johnston. Blackwood 






Fig. 9. 



The Chemistry of Common Life. 
and Sons. 

This is a truly valuable work, notwithstanding the somewhat catch- 
penny titles borne by its successive numbers. Plain, yet agreeable in 
language, lucid in arrangement, and correct as to facts, it is admirably 
suited to convey to the bulk of the public a knowledge of those great 
natural operations which are going on around and within us. And how 
greatly is such knowledge needed ! Not merely the lower orders, but 
those who have passed through the great public schools and universi- 
ties, and have won renown at grinding gerunds, are totally ignorant of 
the functions of their own bodies, and of the processes upon which our 
welfare so closely depends. The work is devoid of all needless techni- 
cality, and has the further advantage of illustrations. A few passages 
may call for particular notice. On p. 10 the author, to account for the 
larger proportion of carbonic acid in the higher regions of the atmo- 
sphere, observes : — " If it rest more abundantly upon the mountain top, 
it is because the leaves of plants and the waters of the sea absorb it 
from the lower layers of the air faster than it can descend to supply 
their demands." If this explanation be correct, carbonic acid should 
likewise be more plentiful in the desert of Sahara and 
other dry and treeless localities; a point, we believe, 
not yet determined by observation. The nature of 
ozone, which Professor Johnston holds to be a modifi- 
cation of oxygen "in a more exalted chemical condition," is still 



86 



Correspondence. 



[April, 



contested. According to the recent researches of Baumert, it is a 
teroxide of hydrogen. Those properties of air and water which bear 
upon the sanitary question are clearly stated, and methods given for 
the purification of the latter. The second part contains many interest- 
ing remarks on the decomposition of rocks, and the influence of the 
resulting soils upon agriculture ; and even upon the condition of society, 
p. 59, the author very justly remarks : — "The kind of husbandry, and 
we might almost say the social state, is determined by the character of 
the dead rocks," an idea which might be expanded and illustrated with 
great advantage. The following passage, however, cannot be admitted 
without some limitation: — "Where the soil is fruitful, animal life 
is abundant; and where it yields only sparingly, animals are few." 
Now, as C. Darwin has remarked, the comparatively barren tract of 
South Africa supports a far greater amount of animals, both as to 
species and individuals, than the much more fruitful regions of South 
America. 

The gradual deterioration of land in the United States from a defec- 
tive system of manuring, is described towards the close of No. II. in a 
manner well calculated to arrest the attention of the farmer. As is 
here clearly laid down, vegetables, weakened by the absence of some 
ingredient in the soil essential to their well-being, have no longer vital 
energy sufficient to resist the attacks of insects and parasitical fungi, 
and blight ensues. 

In No. III., in the section entitled " The bread we bake," the various 
vegetable substances used as food are enumerated, and their nutritive 
powers given, together with much other useful and interesting matter. 
We do not find any mention of the important fact that the wheat of 
warm climates contains more gluten, and is consequently more valuable 
as food, than such as is grown in England, or especially in Scotland — 
a fact of which anti-corn-law writers might have made good use. The 
usual kinds of animal food, with the part they play in nutrition, and the 
chemical changes they undergo in cooking are ably described under the 
title of "The beef we cook." So far, in fine, as this work has gone, we 
can give it our most hearty recommendation, and only hope that it may 
find a circulation proportioned to its merits. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

CAN MARINE ENGINES BE IMPROVED, AND THE ENGINE- 
ROOM SPACE REDUCED? 

To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sin, — One of the greatest disadvantages attending steam navigation is 
that of occupying the great bulk of the most useful part of the vessel by 
what is called the engine-room; and any improvement in the construction of 
the engine and arrangement of the boilers, which will reduce its space, is 
extremely desirable in a commercial point of view, as well as for war 
purposes. 

Your practical correspondent, Mr. Gregory, chief engineer of the Donna 
Maria, has shown that this can be done; and I will undertake to say it can 
be carried to a greater extent than he seems to anticipate. 

Respecting the space occupied by the engines, the direct-acting and beam- 
engines have the advantage of side-lever engines. The Americans prefer 
the beam-engine working above the deck, because it gives a longer stroke to 
the engine, with its consequent advantage of using steam economically on 
the expansive principle ,- still, the side-lever engines, so much approved of, 
because they work so smoothly and give more stability to the rolling action 
of the vessel, can be constructed with a stroke equally long, without making 
'the throw of the crank unusually large, by placing the fulcrum nearer the 
sweep-rod than the piston. Many of our best engineers prefer the side- 
lever to direct-acting engines; and the Americans keep to the beam even for 
ocean purposes, in preference to the direct-acting principle, because, as 
before observed, of its economy in working. In direct-acting vertical single 
cylinder engines, the limited depth of the hold makes the stroke too short to 



profit much by expansion ; but, if the engine is inclined, this disadvantage 
may be overcome, but even then the throw of the crank must be large in pro- 
portion. Some consider this objectionable, and greatly inferior to the side- 
lever principle, which, while it secures all the advantages of expansion, keeps 
in subjection the sweep of the crank to any given circle. 

On the other hand, some object to a great length of stroke, because the 
space through which the piston passes occupies more time and reduces the 
number of revolutions per minute than short ones ; but, with paddle-wheels, 
this cannot well be considered objectionable, as the Americans find that the 
wheels revolve with rapidity sufficient for all useful purposes with a long 
stroke of the engine; and, as it respects the screw, those who use short-stroke 
engines find it also necessary to employ a multiple power in combination. 

By the introduction of twin cylinders, the great length of stroke is reduced, 
and the expansive advantages remain unaltered, with a crank of a well-pro- 
portioned and convenient sweep. It is now about thirty-five years since I first 
noticed the working of the marine engine in America, with the beam above 
the deck; and it was not until my return to England, in 1827, that the side- 
lever engine struck me as a more appropriate arrangement; and, on the 
Clyde, in 183S, I saw, for the first time, the direct-acting principle, in the 
instance of Tod and Macgregor's engines, with which I was much pleased. 
I then made designs for directing-acting engines with a joint at the head of 
the piston-end, and other contrivances, which I have seen in some instances 
preferable, subsequently designed by engineers of more than ordinary stand- 
ing; and the first on the oscillating principle, which I saw by accident in 
London, was at work in a grocer's shop. 

This principle has been brought much into use on the Thames, and is now 
used in vessels of a larger scale; but, I must confess, it never gave me the 
satisfaction which other direct-acting engines have, and I have taken some 
little trouble to observe its workings. 

In Cornwall, where the economy and efficiency of steam engines are well 
consulted, and, I will add, well understood, I had an opportunity of inquiring 
as to its true value, of an engineer of the greatest experience in the country. 
Anxious to obtain the best constructed engine for his own works, and 
having heard so much in favour of the oscillating engine, he had one put up 
in his own establishment, but it did not answer his expectations, and in its 
place he has now working a direct-acting horizontal engine, much the 
same as those used for locomotive or land engines, and of which he gave me 
the most favourable account. In your last number, Mr. Gregory remarks, 
that direct-acting engines may be made with a "saving of 25 to 30 per 
cent, in weight, and with 50 per cent, power for power, less in space than 
oscillating engines when applied to screw vessels." This, we must all admit, 
is a very important consideration, without taking into account the dis- 
advantage which short oscillating cylinders have as it respects the economy 
of working. 

I do not profess to say that I have had sufficient experience of the oscil- 
lating engine to join with those who disapprove of the principle ; at the same 
time, I feel assured that direct-acting engines can be better constructed; and 
I cannot see why a marine engine should be made to oscillate more than 
the land or locomotive engines; nor is it absolutely requisite that all 
marine engines should act vertically, to economize space in the engine-room. 
Engines cannot be made too compact and simple in their parts; and it 
appears to me, the present locomotive engines possess very great advantages 
in this respect, and should be repeated, so far as convenient, in the construc- 
tion of marine engines, which must be a little more complicated, as they 
have to condense the steam; however, this is by no means a difficult task, and 
may be accomplished more readily than by the use of annular cylinders 
with the air-pump in the middle, as described in your correspondent's draw- 
ing. Mr. Gregory justly calls attention to the length of the connecting rod, 
which can be made equally long in direct-acting as in side-lever engines. 
He has shown that it can, and I beg also to observe that it can, without any 
break in its length, such as he describes; and this is very desirable when 
the depth of the hold is limited; but then it must be with twin cylinders, 
which will be less difficult to construct than an annular cylinder, and with 
one air-pump acting for both, much in the way he also describes. 

If the hold is deep, there will be length enough for a good working con- 
necting rod, without its descending below the cross-head which unites the 
pistons of the twin cylinders; and I take it for granted that a very consider- 






1854.] 



Correspondence, 



87 



able reduction in weight will be obtained, with a stronger and more compact 
engine. One of my first improvements in the marine engine was that of re- 
moving the cumbersome cast-iron framing, by the introduction of beams to 
rest the entablature upon, much in the same way as he has shown; for I 
could not see the necessity of such heavy ornamental ironwork; but this, 
now, seems to be generally comprehended and acted upon; and the more we 
reduce the whole to a utilitarian principle, and strip the engine-room of un- 
necessary appendages, the better in every respect. 

I should observe, also, that I lost nothing in studying the economy of 
generating steam in Cornwall, as it gave me ample opportunity to discover 
that marine boilers were badly constructed and badly arranged; but this 
branch, I am glad to say, is much improved, but not to the extent it might, 
nor to the extent even which, I venture to say, I have gone; but I have no 
Boulton to carry out a single improvement which I have made. 

That England's mercantile marine, particularly in the steam department, 
is much in want of improvement to make it profitable to those who embark 
in it, is notoriously known and admitted; but there is a subtle influence 
which keeps it back; and so it will remain, I fear, till the common or 
general interest of the country is better understood. 

"We are a strange, slow, and not always "■sure' people; and, although our 
contemporary in the West is daily teaching us the necessity of improving, we 
are so much kept back by that subtle something, that some of our public 
steam companies are shaken to the very verge of ruin. I have taken much 
trouble, as you are aware, to show why the screw cannot be made profitable 
for ocean navigation, and how the evils which are attached to paddle-wheel 
propulsion may be removed; but I have no Boulton, as I have before ob- 
served, to help me to give to the public a practical proof that they have 
neglected, and continue to neglect, their own interest most sadly, by not 
opening a better road for improvement than they have ever yet had at their 
command. 

I regret to find so much ground for complaint, and hope a change for the 
better is not very remote. "W e are much in want of it ; and I trust the late 
losses in steam navigation will yet turn to a profitable account, nationally. 
Feeling makes us see; and I should hope we have felt quite enough to open 
our eyes to the cause why steam is not so profitable as it might be made for 
ocean purposes. Next to the improvement required to make marine steam 
propulsion perfect, so far as the mode of propelling is concerned — particu- 
larly the paddle-wheel — is that of improving the engines, and reducing the 
space occupied in the most valuable part of the vessel. Your correspondent, 
as a practical marine engineer, sees that it can be done, and that it is much 
wanted; and I shall be glad to see that he is not the only practical man who 
will venture to suggest something for its improvement. Practical men are 
the best fitted to find out practical defects, and it very frequently happens 
practical men are the best fitted to remove them. Watt was a practical 
man, although not a professed engineer; and he knew enough of the prin- 
ciples of steam to bring it mechanically into a practical state of ntilitv, and 
the great family of man is practically benefited by his exertion. 
I remain, Sir, 

Your obedient humble Servant, 

JOH> T POAD DSAEX, 

London, March 12th, 1S54. Naval Architect. 



P.S. — Your correspondent, E. Hodgson, may rest assured that I had no 
wish to treat him with disrespect by not using his name. If his propeller is 
not a screw, I understood it to be submerged at the stern of the vessel, and 
subjected to the same disadvantages in ocean seas; and, if it is better than 
the screw, as he states, I am glad to hear it, because I have some untried 
submerged propellers; but I still feel assured, singly, they will not compete 
with the regular paddle-wheel, which is capable of great improvement in its 
working, by adjusting its dip to the vessel's changing immersion line; and 
the most experienced engineers and commanders of ocean steam-ships have 
long admitted that this principle, if mechanically completed, is all that is re- 
quired to perfect paddle-wheel propulsion, and secure an increase of two 
knots per hour over the present average speed. It is mechanically com- 
pleted. J. P. D. 



ON THE FLOW OF HIGH PRESSURE STEAM THROUGH A 
PIPE OPEN TO THE ATMOSPHERE, 

To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Beau Sie, — In your journal of last month one of your subscribers is 
anxious to know the method of ascertaining the flow of high pressure steam 
through a pipe open to the atmosphere. The following rule will show the 
method of solving the desired problem : — 

If p, is the pressure of gas in a reservoir, p the pressure of the atmosphere, 
j the density of the gas, and v the velocity with which the gas flows through 
an orifice under the pressure p,, so is 



/ P P, 

v = -/ 2g — hyp. log ( — 

3 ^ P 

The density j varies by different gases, and depends on the temperature — 
air expands 0M302 of its original volume for every degree of Fahr. 1 cubic 
foot of air at 32° weighs about = 0-0812 lbs. — wc get for j by p lbs. pressure., 
and t degrees temperature. 

0-0312 x p O-00552/i 

( ] -f- 0-002 t ) 14-7 1 -f- 0-002 t 
the density of steam is 4 of air, hence 

p 1 + 0,002 t 



j 0-00345 

putting this in the formulae for v we get when 2y =■ 64,S3 



v = 1640 \/ (1 -\- 0.002 t ) hyp. log. ( — feet per second — 

R the section of the orifice, we have the theoretic quantum of steam per 
second under the pressure p. 



/ / P, 

V=Ej; = 1640 R y ( 1 + 0,002 t ) hyp. log. ( — 

\ p 

The ratio of theoretic to real discharge by a pipe four times the diameter of 
orifice is - 82. Now, if V, is the quantum steam at pressure p, to be dis- 
charged from the boiler in the same time, so is 

V:V,=p,:p 

Vp 



V, r= 



Pi 



P / I P, 

V. = 0-82 X 1640 R — V (1 + 0,002 t) hyp. log. — 

P, \ p 

from which we find the section of pipe in square inches, 



v.p; 1 + 0-002 1 

R = 0-1071 !/ 



hyp. log. / p' 



50 cubic feet of water epaporated per hour to the pressure of 50 -}- 14-7 

50-437 

= 64-7 lbs., gives a quantum of steam per second = = 6-07 cubic 

3600 
feet ; the temperature of steam at that pressure is = 300°, hence 



/ 1'6 
E = 0-1071 X 6-07 X 4-4 y 

hyp. log. 4-4 
R == 2 - 9724 square inches, 

or the diameter of pipe =a 1-955 inches, or nearly 2 inches. 

I remain, yours, &c, 

Gqakles Nehje, a Subscriber. 
11, Charles Street, Hull, llth March, 1S54. 



88 



Royal Society of Arts. 



[April, 



UNITED STATES STEAMER " POWHATTAN."* 
The following steam logs are abstracts of the performance of this ship, 
at different times, while cruising in the China seas. They were communi- 
cated to a correspondent by one of the engineers of the ship, and may be 
considered authentic. Com. Pub. 

U. S. Steamer Powhatlan, date 26th February, at 3-20 r.M. 

Mean pressure indicated . . . . . . . . 13 - 56 

„ „ due to initial pressure and expansion, 14*22 



Port engine, lower ends of cylinder. 

Revolutions per minute 

Pressure of steam 

Throttle valve open. 

"Vacuum per gauge 

Temperature of hot well 
Moderate wind ahead with considerable sea. 



9 
11 

26£ 
102° 



Performance under Steam, assisted by Sail. 





o 
> 


r- CI 


Course 


WIND. 






c 


ENGINE. 


BOILERS. 


e 


°§ •_• 
-C -s 5 

C P.C 


o 

O O 
IS 


o 








J m qj 

M 

m 


8 9 


3 

rt c 


Is 

— w; 


5 » 


Number of 


a 
© C 

° s 

— o 
^ -cc 




= "3 . 

5 « -^ 


Date. 






of the 


Direc- 


Kind. 


Sail. 


Sea. 


53 °t= 


2 9 


o ^ 


o ™ 


furnaces 


OK 


Kind of coal. 




O.J 




5°- 

^- O Cy 


1853. 


o 
c 


o c 

v .5 


vessel. 


tion. 








S 


a 2 a) 
5 = > 

2 %h 

CO <» = 




3 ° 

|l 

cj ° 




o 


In operation. 


3 1 
O 




Pi 

CO 


■° 5'~ 
o 5; c 

CJ « -~ 
CO 


3 - 
O 


o g,s 


Feb.20,21 .... 


23 


9-25 


East. 


Abeam. 


Mod. to 
fresh. 


Sing. rfd. 
topsail. 


Mod. to 
rogh. abra. 


G 9 


9-4 


10-75 


42 


2i 


8 


Ten. 


2997 


Cumberland and 
bituminous. 


56-G10 


G0-114 


25-9G 


5-82 


Mar. 8, 9 .... 


14 


7-67 


S.W.byW. 


N.E. 


Gentle. 


Do. 


Moderate. 


7 3 


7-6 


876 


45 


2J 


8 


Eight. 


1891 


Newcastle and 
Welsh. 


46-940 48-895 


27-94 


4- 


June 8 to 11 .. 


90 


9.2 


N.E. 


On 

qutarer. 


Moderat. 


To' gallant 
sails. 


Do. 


5 4 


9 75 


122 


40 


2i 


8 


Ten. 


3285 


Anthracite and 
bituminous. 


5G-304 G8-259 


2018 


17 2 


July 19, 20 .. 


23 


9-6 


N. W. by 

N. JN. 


Do. 


Do. 


Fore & aft. 


Do. 


6 4 


11-75 


11-3 


40 


2i 


8 


Ten. 


3721 


Lebanon and 
bituminous. 


58-752 


G3-170 


23 38 


7- 



April 29 to 
May 1 

August G to 9 



E'd and 
S'd. 

E. N. E. 



Performance under Sail, Steam acting as Auxiliary. 



N'd. and 
Wd. 

S'd. and 
Wd. 



To'-gal't 
breeze. 

Gentle. 



w JSt*\**-«. 



Do. 



Moderate 
I to smooth. 



G 5 
7 3 



9-56 
10-7 



11.35 
9-35 



31 

32-8 



21 



Eight. 
Seven. 



274; 
2323 



Anthracite and 
bituminous. 

Do. 



62-4241 G3-427J 23'6 
48-348 52-173 



1-53 

•7 



Performance under Steam, unassisted by Sail. 



March 24 to 
April 1 . . 

April 5 to 12 
May 2 to 4 ... 
May 8 to 10 , 
May 28 to 30 . 



204 


8-4 


S. S. E. 


Ahead. 


Gent, to 
smooth. 


None. 


Moderate. 


6 3 


9-2 


11-17 


58 


2i 


8 


192 


8-41 


S.S.E. 1 E. 


Do. 


Moderat. 


Do. 


Do. 


5 10£ 


11-5 


11-5 


56-5 


2i 


8 


72 


8-42 


E. | S. 


On bow. 


Fresh. 


Do. 


Heavy. 


5 11 


11 2 


108 


50 


21 


8 


49 


10-1 


E. N. E. 


N. E. 


Gentle. 


Do. 


Smooth. 


5 


11-33 


14-33 


45 


21 


8 


72 


7-93 


E. N. E. 


Nd.&Ed. 


Moderat. 


Do. 


Rough. 


G 9 


11-07 


9-78 


55 


91 

-2 


8 



Ten. 
Twelve. 

Ten. 

10 for 1 1 hs., and 
12 for 38 hours. 



3585 
3635 
3G57 
3824 
3G07 



Wel * a a s n 1 d e New -j 51-408; 62-424 



Newcastle. 

Anthracite and 
Cumberland. 

Do. 
Anthracite. 



51-4G9 1 64-239 

I 
51-530 60-330 

61-812 

48.531 



23-0 

21-5 

21-67 

80-176: 18-15 122-9 

54-531 25-96 11-0 

I 



17-64 

19-87 
4-58 



March 14 



Performance under Sail alone, with Paddles removed. 



S'd. and 
E'd. 
March 18 to 28 1120 1 5-1 I Do. I Do. 1 Do. I Do. Do 



24 3-58 



N. E. I ( Li e, ht | AU .? ra f 8| Smooth, 
trades, sail set. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF ARTS.— February 15th, 1854. 

" On Ornamentation of the Surface of Metals and Nature- Printing," by 
W. C. Aitken. 

The merit and chief recommendation of the invention is its very great 
simplicity, the ease, speed, and facility with which the effect of a reticulated 
surface, an elaborated, chased, or on elegant scroll or floriated design, appa- 
rently engraved, may be introduced on any object. The fact of a soft mate- 
rial imprinting upon a harder one an impress of its form, has long been un- 
derstood; its practical application to the production of ornamental designs 
upon metal is, however, but of very recent origin. Ornamentation has been 
produced by rolls upon which the designs have been cut in relief, or the 
reverse, as those on copper calico cylindrical printing rollers. The cost of 
sinking such rolls in steel is necessarily very expensive; as a new one would 
be needed for every change of ornament, their accumulation would become a 
very heavy drawback on the capital of the manufacturer. By the present 
process the cost is much diminished, leaving ample room for the introduction 
from time to time of new and superior designs to meet the taste or require- 
ments of the market. The practical application of the process is due to Mr. 
R. T. Sturges, of Birmingham, who, in connection with Mr. R. W. Winfield, 
of Birmingham, is a proprietor of the patent. The origin of the invention 

* From the Journal of the Franklin Institute. 



maybe traced to the competitive spirit of trade, which/operates with so much 
effect upon the manufacturing industiy of our country, calling into action 
the inventive faculty to devise new and more economic methods of effect- 
ing certain results. The idea once originated, it is singular to trace its 
gradual development. In its early stage it was imagined that the harder the 
material out of which the pattern or design was made, the better for the pur- 
pose. Keeping this then imagined requisite in view, the first ornament im- 
printed was made out of steel wire formed into shape, and thereafter 
tempered; designs of a more complicated and minute character it was ex- 
pected could be produced by using metallic lace or wire web. I may here 
remark that this idea gave the hint which resulted in the production of the 
wire lace, exhibited by Mr. Carey, of Nottingham, in your recent exhibition 
of patented inventions. This may be cited as a forcible illustration of the 
effect one invention may have in stimulating or introducing a new feature 
into a manufacture of an entirely different kind from that in which the want 
originated. I now exhibit to you the result produced from a piece of crochet 
work in wire; it is remarkably indefinite and unsatisfactory, a's the metallic 
wire cannot be drawn up tight into shape owing'to the elasticity of the wire 
out of which the design is made. The loops being loose, the consequence of 
the pressure to which the plates of metal are subjected, in order to receive 
the ornamental device, cause distortion or flattening, which completely 
destroys the arrangement of the threads or wires. 



1854] 



- 

"Royal Society of Arts. 



oft 



89 



This led to the somewhat singular idea, that in all probability ordinary 
thread lace could be used for the purpose of producing a device upon softer 
metals. I may here state that the result of this experiment was just another 
illustration of the saying of Sir John Herschel, illustrative of the difference 
between theory and practice; thus no mere philosopher in his study, could 
have predicted that so tender and fragile a fabric as ordinary thread lace 
would have sustained a pressure of not less than ten tons, and come out from 
such a pressure comparatively uninjured, leaving its impress even on so soft 
a substance as Britannia metal; but how much greater is our wonder in- 
creased when we find the same result is produced on copper, and on the 
harder metal, formed by its aUoy with zinc, namely, brass, the yet harder 
German silver, iron, or tin plate, and, more wonderful, still on what we are 
led to believe is the most dense and hardest metal in ordinary use, viz., steel. 
I now exhibit to you the first experiment made with thread lace, which is 
interesting, as demonstrating a very peculiar fact, and affords a very excel- 
lent illustration of a great philosophical truth, viz., the indestructibility of 
matter; it was found, as will be anticipated, that the more perfect and 
closely twisted the thread of which the lace is made the better and more 
definite is the impression. The transition from rags to paper is a natural 
one, and patterns or designs formed out of perforated paper "were next 
tried. From its density, the almost complete cohesion of its fibres, and 
their close proximity to each other, it was found on experiment, that de- 
signs formed thereof produced very satisfactory results, while in point of 
economy it is even superior, As a curious illustration of its capability of 
resisting pressure, I may state that I have myself passed through metal rolls, 
without injury, the same piece of perforated paper (ordinary writing paper) 
in the ornamentation of tin plates not less than ten times, after which it 
was not entirely useless, but it became hard and brittle, owing to the cohe- 
sion of the particles being destroyed by the compression it has undergone. 

But by far the most useful, practical application of the inventor was yet 
in store; and, in economy of its reproductive powers, it bears a near rela- 
tion to the multiplication of the duplicate steel plates from which the Bank 
of England notes are printed, and which are produced by pressure, in the 
first instance, from one original engraved plate, or to the production of the 
plates from which our ordinary penny postage stamps are printed, the 
original of which, up to 1842, had been only once engraved. The reproduc- 
tion in the two instances last mentioned is effected by means of steel rollers, 
the periphery of which, by pressure on the original plate, has received an 
impression of the engraving in relief, and which when hardened impresses 
upon the surface of a soft steel plate a fac-simile of the original. The plan 
adopted in the present instance, and applied to the ornamentation of metal 
is somewhat similar:— A steel plate, very equal in thickness, is selected, on 
which the design requisite for the ornamentation of the salver, tray, or other 
object, is engraved in the ordinary manner, but somewhat deeper, the point 
of th& engraver employed to cut the lines being ground more acute. The 
engraving must be carefully executed; erasures or scrapings out, or beatings 
up of the plate from behind, must be avoided, as where they occur they are 
detrimental to the appearance and uniformity of the work. The least 
departure from perfect flatness of surface, or equality of thickness, is fatal 
to the perfection of the impression^ From this plate a matrix or impres- 
sion is taken in German silver, steel, or other metal, by passing the plate 
to be used as the matrix, and the engraved plate or design to be copied 
from, through a pair of rolls, observing, however, that the pressure of the 
rolls is uniform all over the surface, or, in technical language, that the 
"pinch" is equal. If this has been the case, and if the pressure applied 
has been sufficient, the result will be, that upon the previously blank 
sheet of metal an impression, with elevated or projecting portions corre- 
sponding to the sunk lines in the engraved or chased original plate, will 
follow.. This impression is then used as the medium from, which to obtain 
the ornamental blank thereafter to be made up. This- is done.as in the former 
instance, by placing the sheet of metal to be ornamented with its face to the 
plate, with the raised or projecting portions, and passing them through the 
rolls as before •, the consequence is,, that every line, of the original design will 
be found impressed or indented into the previously plain sheet or blank of 
metal. The original steel plate is thus used only for the preparation of reverses, 
one of which, however! may be used many times in succession,, or in prc- 
12 



portion to the hardness of the metal to be ornamented. The blanks, after 
being ornamented, may be stamped, Or spun up into shape, if of a globular 
or regular form of outline; if irregular, hexagon, octagon, or with bosses, the 
metal out of which the vessel or article is formed is ornamented in separate 
portions, which are thereafter bent, stamped or raised into shape, fitted and 
soldered together. After trimming and dressing, the plating or silvering 
is effected by the electro-deposit process; burnishing follows, the tools em- 
ployed being burnishers made of blood-stone. Females are principally en- 
gaged in this portion of the work. As the two last processes mentioned are 
very generally understood, it is unnecessary to do more than simply allude 
to them. It may not be out of place, before concluding the notice of this 
method of producing surface ornamentation, to remark that the excellence, 
or the reverse,, of the ornamentation bears a correct proportion to the ori- 
ginal steel plate; and just in so far as the design is a good one, and the en- 
graver of the steel plate has executed his part well, will the result be satis- 
factory, or in the inverse ratio; it is, in fact, just as faithful a copy upon a 
sheet of metal, as an engraving by Wass or Finden is upon paper.. It affords 
a ready and cheap method of introducing good ornament in the place of 
unmeaning, ungraceful, inelegant, and badly-executed hand-chasing or en- 
graving which, in general, serve to deface what they are intended to adorn. 
I now desire to direct your attention for a brief period to a subject which, 
within the last few weeks, has attracted some notice: and, though somewhat 
out of place in a paper proposing to treat upon the working and ornamenta- 
tion of metals, yet in so far as the means employed, to impress on metal 
certain indentations which are to be printed from, there is no differance 
whatever. I here refer to the art of natural printing, for which the Austrians 
have preferred a claim, taking to themselves an amount of credit to which,, 
with all due deference to them, I think they are scarcely entitled, even had 
the invention been one of greater magnitude and capable of a much more 
extended application than it really is; the process is simply that of pro- 
ducing on a piece of lead an impression from a natural object, such as a 
flower, a leaf,. a feather, &c. This is done by means of rolls,. as has already 
been shown. From the lead impression they take a copy by the deposit pro- 
cess, the lines of which are in relief; from this, again, they take another 
copy, which is printed from. The earliest application of the principle in 
which metal was used by the Austrians, in order to copy lace, appears to have 
taken place somewhere between May and October, 1852; but Mr. Sturges 
had in August, 1851, printed the two specimens of needlework and net 
now exhibited. It is very important to remark that the English patent for 
the ornamentation of metals, was sealed on the 24th of January, 1852, while 
the patterns of lace whieh directed the attention of Auer to the subject,, were 
received by them at Vienna, in May of the same year. The patent of 
Worrung does not appear to have been taken out until the 12th of October, 
1852, three months after the English patent was specified, and when all the 
details of the process were explained at length in the then published speci- 
fication. In themo:i:h of December of 1852, 1 happened to be making some 
experiments on the process for ornamenting metals. I used various media, 
impressions of whieh I printed from; they are now before you. Eeasoning 
from these, I at once saw that media of even a more fragile kind than had 
.previously been used might be impressed on metal; I therefore experimented 
i upon decayed leaves, feathers, &c, with the most perfect success, and as I 
think by your examination of the specimens exhibited, you will readily 
admit. As my time is much taken up, the range of subjects has been some- 
what limited from which I have procured impressions; but these have not 
been produced at third hand, as has been the practice of the Austrians,. 
Messrs. Bradbury and- Evans, and, until very recently, of Dr. Branson of 
Sheffield. In every instance save those in which I printed from transfers on 
stone, taken from my Britannia metal plates, I have printed from the plate 
indented by the object- copied. The copying from the lead by deposition,, 
using the lead impression as a matrix, and from the plate so copied with raised 
lines to copy another with sunk lines, which is that used to print from, can. 
only result in losing many of the minute touches which constitute and formi 
the chief recommendations of natural printing. In printing direct I tJiere- 
fore stood alone. Dr. Branson, in your journal of Saturday last, has an- 
nounced that a " step in advance has been made," by his discovering that 
Britannia metal was a better material than lead to take an impression, and 



90 



On the Flow of Gas through JPipes. 



[April, 



it could be printed from. I made the discovery fourteen months ago, and acted 
upon it. If Dr. Branson had read the Athenaeum of the 10th December last, 
b.e would have found I made no secret of the material used by me. In like 
manner, as to the application of the transfer to the lithographic stone; this I 
had also done some weeks before Dr. Branson's letter appeared. I must, 
however hazard an opinion, that when lines of an exceedingly delicate kind 
occur, as in the down of a feather, the stone will not print a great number 
of impressions clear, but will be apt to block. Where the markings are 
clear and distinct in the object copied, the result will be more successful, 
though a want of solidity in the lines (a defect inherent to transfer litho- 
graphy) may be anticipated. 

ON THE ELOW OF GAS THROUGH PIPES.* 

(Continued from p. 43.) 

In examining these apparently irreconcileable results, the principal fea- 
ture which immediately strikes us is, that the friction of the gas in passing 
through the pipes is not represented or taken into account in any of the for- 
mulae. Now it appears that comparing the two coefficients 952 and 6806, 
one of which is seven times greater than the other, that a 26-inch pipe will 
deliver seven times the quantity due to its area as compared with a half-inch 
pipe. This is very nearly in the proportion of the square roots of the dia- 
meters, for 

952 : 6806 : : \/-$ : 5-055 
The root of 26 being 5*099, this ought to be the fourth term in the above 
proportion ; but considering all the circumstances of the case, the correspond- 
ence is tolerably near. 

It would be wearisome to go through a similar comparison with all the 
other experiments. It may suffice to say, that no other form of expression 
agrees so well with the experiments as that in which the quantities delivered 
are further increased as the square roots of the diameters. 

I therefore propose a formula in which the square root of the diameter 
shall be used as a multiplier, and will add a table showing the results of 
all the preceding experiments when compared with quantities calculated in 
this way. 

It will be advisable to take the experiments on the 26-inch main as the 
most trustworthy; and here, as we are going to introduce a new multiplier 
equal to 5-099, the square root of the diameter, we must of course divide the 
coefficient 6806 by 5-099, in order to find the new coefficient. 

6806 

Hence = 1335, the new coefficient required. The general formula, 

5-099 
then, which I shall propose for calculating the quantities of gas delivered 
through pipes, in the present state of our knowledge, is 

/HD 
1335 D 2 -/ . . . (6) 

Table showing the quantities of gas delivered by experiment and theory in 
the following series of experiments, which are numbered to correspond 
with those in the table above. 





Quantity by 


Quantity by 




Quantity by 


Quantity by 


No. 


experiment. 


.calculation. 


No. 


experiment. 


calculation. 


1 


120 


132 


12 


30000 


46862 


2 


60 


54 


13 


20270 


31527 


3 


99 


97 


14 


16460 


25424 


4 


83 


80 


15 


14080 


22011 


5 


74 


65 


16 


6000 


7433 


6 


57 


57 


17 


. 120000 


115611 


7 


53 


53 


18 


30000 


27554 


8 


1630 


1481 


19 


66000 


69206 


9 


852 


1130 


20 


103000 


113710 


10 


44280 


68726 


21 


175000 


162443 


11 


38838 


60556 


22 


80000 


74453 



■ Hughes's Treatise on Gas Works. Loudon : J. Weale. 



In this comparison of theorical quantities with actual discharges it will be 
seen that considerable differences exist. With the exception of experiments 
9 to 15, however, the differences are perhaps not more than might be ex- 
pected when the numerous distributing causes are taken into account. la 
the first place, the mains may not have been strictly horizontal, although as- 
sumed to have been so by the authors of the experiments. Secondly, there 
may have been bends or angles in the course of the main, as in the case of 
experiment No. 9, which is recorded in Mr. Clegg's Treatise on Gas Light- 
ing, and was made on a pipe nearly six miles in length, the discharging ex- 
tremity being brought round in a large circle nearly to the place where the 
gas first entered the pipe. In this experiment it will be observed the 
theoritical quantity is more than 30 per cent, in excess of the actual dis- 
charge. 

By far the greatest variation, however, is found in Mr. Clegg's experiments 
on 6-inch pipes (experiment 10 to 15), where the results by theory are 
about 50 per cent, more that by experiment. I am unable to account for 
this variation, which does not exist to anything like the same extent in any 
of the other experiments. 

The extreme shortness of the lengths of main employed by Mr. Clegg may 
have exercised some influence by admitting atmospheric air to resist the 
flow of the gas. 

Eor those, however, who are disposed to place confidence in Mr. Clegg's 
experiments, to the exclusion of others, it will be readily competent to derive 
a coefficient from Mr. Clegg's experiments by dividing the number in the 
last colmun of table at page 43 by 2-449, the square root of 6. 

The tabular number in Mr. Clegg's experiments being 2099, we have 
2099 

= 857, the coefficient to be used according to Mr. Clegg's experiments. 

2-449 

The conclusion to be drawn from a review of all the experiments which 
have been made on the flow of gas through horizontal pipes is this, that 
taking friction and every thing else into consideration, the quantity is 
equal to x A, where 

fHD 
A = D 2 v , 

and where x is the coefficient to be determined by experiment. 
Let Q be the quantity determined by experiment, then we have 

Ql/Lg 

Those who desire a more exact method of determining the quantities of 
gas which will be discharged through pipes of various diameters must be 
content to wait for the determination of x by means of an extensive and 
accurate series of experiments, which, by giving the quantity of gas having 
a known density discharged through mains of certain length and diameter 
under a known pressure, will afford the means of calculating the value of 
x, or the coefficient to be used in all other determinations. 

I think it right to remark, that in Mr. Pole's very admirable paper.* from 
which I have quoted some of the preceding experiments, the author arrives 
by an entirely different method at a formula very nearly identical with that 
which I have given. 

The formula which Mr. Pole proposes for gas is 

1350 Day' , 

the only difference being that his co-efficient is 1350 instead of 1335. Mr. 
Pole adds in a note, that in some recent experiments on a 9-inch main giving 
the discharge under various pressures, the results would require his co-effi- 
cient to be reduced to 1150; but goes on to say that it would not be judi- 
cious to adopt such an alteration for general use unless confirmed by other 
experiments on pipes of different diameters. 

We now come to the third division of the subject, namely, where mains 
are laid with an inclination above or below the point of supply. We have 
here again to regret the insufficiency, or rather the entire absence, of such 

* Published in the Journal of Gas Lighting for June 1852. 



1854] 



Iron and other Metal Manufactures of the United States. 



91 



experiments as would elucidate the inquiry. The rule which appears to be 
generally adopted is this, that every variation in the inclination of the main 
causes a corresponding difference of pressure at the rate of one-hundredth 
of an inch for every foot of rise or fall. Thus, when a main rises 10 feet 
above a datum line at which the pressure is known, an increase of pressure 
is obtained equal to one-tenth of an inch; and, on the other hand, when a 
main is at any point 10 feet below such a datum line, the pressure is dimi- 
nished to the extent of one-tenth of an inch. 



ON THE IRON AND OTHER METAL MANUFACTURES OF 

THE UNITED STATES. 

By Me. G. Wallis* 

The present extent and future prospects of those manufactures already 
fairly established in the United States, in which iron is the principal material 
used, required a much more extended and detailed examination than time 
and the distance to be travelled over would permit of my devoting to them, 
when taken in connection with other departments of industry requiring 
equal attention. The progress of the past ten or twelve years would appear, 
on all hands, to have been very great; and many establishments which were 
scarcely commenced at the beginning of that period, are now in a position 
to stand a fair comparison with similar manufactories in England. 

Pennsylvania is the largest iron producing State in the Union, although by 
the census of 1850, twenty-one States are returned as producing pig iron, and 
only two, Florida and Arkansas, as not having establishments for the manu- 
facture of iron castings; whilst in nineteen States wrought-iron is made. 

In the production of pig iron 377 establishments were in operation in 
1850, and of these 180 were in Pennsylvania, 35 in Ohio, and 29 in Virginia; 
the remaining 18 States having a much smaller number each. 

The capital invested amounted to 17,346,425 dollars (about £4,500,000 
sterling); the produce being 564,755 tons per annum, employing 20,298 
males, and 150 females. 

In the manufacture of iron castings, 1,391 establishments were engaged; 
of these 643 were in the States of New York and Pennsylvania — 323 in the 
former, and 330 in the latter; 183 others being in the State of Ohio. The 
capital invested amounted to 17,416,361 dollars, or about the same amount 
sterling, as in the manufacture of pig iron. 322,745 tons of castings are 
produced per annum, giving employment to 23,541 males, and 48 females. 
The value of the castings and other products, being estimated at 25,108,155 
dollars, or about £6,250,000 sterling. 

Wrought-iron is manufactured at 422 establishments in 19 States. Penn- 
sylvania has .131, New York 60, New Jersey 53, Tennessee 42, and Virginia 
39; the remaining 97 betng situated in 14 other states. The capital invested 
was 14,495,220 dollars, or about £3,500,000 sterling; 13,178 males, and 79 
females being employed. The quantity manufactured amounted to 278,040 
tons, the value of which, with other products, was 16,747,074 dollars, or 
about £4,100,000 sterling. 

There can be no doubt that a very considerable increase has taken place 
in the make and manufacture of iron since the returns, from which the above 
facts were taken, were made in 1850; and from the energy, enterprise, skill, 
and industry of all concerned in this manufacture, and the importance 
attached to it as a permanent source of national wealth and prosperity, its 
future progress cannot fail to be more than commensurate with that of the 
last few years. 

In nearly all the large cities, iron foundries of greater or less extent are 
to be found, cast-iron being largely employed in the construction of buildings 
both of wood and brick; and in Philadelphia, as also to some extent in other 
cities, whose elevations of houses, used as retail shops in the principal streets, 
are of cast-iron. In these cases the construction of the building is usually 
modified to suit the material of the front, and, in some instances, an ap- 
proximation is made towards adapting the decorative part of the elevation 
to the material and the construction. In general, however, the ordinary 
architectonic forms, as used in stone and wood, are followed, and the whole 
painted and sanded in imitation of Connecticut red sandstone, a material 
now much used in building. The construction of some of these elevations 



' Special Report on the New York Industrial Exhibition. 



is at once simple and effective, alike for strength as architectural effect, and 
there appears to be very little difficulty in taking out an old front and sub- 
stituting a new one, as the whole is well braced together by tyes and screws 
— the side walls sustaining the structure in all essential points. In Phila- 
delphia there are some admirable examples of this adaptation of cast-iron to 
architectural purposes, and others were in the course of construction, in 
which more or less of originality in the matter of design and decoration is 
attempted. For retail shops of several stories where light is object, and 
heavy pieces of masonry tend to lessen the size of the windows, these cast- 
iron elevations appear to be peculiarly well adapted. The dryness of the 
atmosphere, however, presents a great advantage, from there being less 
tendency to oxydization than in a more humid climate. It would appear 
probable that this use of cast-iron will eventually produce a style of street 
architecture, as applied to retail shops, of a different character to that which 
now prevails, and which is in imitation of European modes alike of construc- 
tion and decoration. 

The manufacture of cast-iron mantels for fire-places, in addition to stoves 
and grates, is largely carried on in various localities. The mantels produced 
by the rival Marbleized-iron companies at New York are certainly very 
remarkable and exceedingly useful articles of their class. These are covered 
with a preparation of enamel, the report on the application of which, how- 
ever, belongs to the class of mineral manufactures. The decorative effect of 
these substitutes for the more costly material of marble is very good. Some 
of these cast-iron mantels, as produced by the manufacturers of grates and 
stoves, are merely japanned black, and being carefully got up, are admirable 
in point of workmanship, and the distribution of the material to the points 
requiring the greatest amount of strength : and, except when elaborate orna- 
mentation is attempted, the designs are pure and architectonic, though per- 
haps the latter might be objected to as tending to conceal the real nature of 
the material. 

The general character of the cast-iron work of the United States is ad- 
mirable, alike for the purity of surface in the material, and the skill shown 
in the moulding. The iron, being in many instances smelted with charcoal, 
is of a firm quality and closer grain, so to speak, than that used for similar 
work in England. Hence the castings produced are sharp in detail and 
even in surface, and require a very small amount of dressing or filing to 
complete them. The character of the charcoal-made iron is shown in a re- 
markable degree in the quality of the wrought-iron nails manufactured at 
Pittsburg. These are exceedingly tough, bend like wire, and are very dif- 
ferent from the brittle articles of a similar class usually produced in England. 
There are fourteen or fifteen establishments for the manufacture of nails in the 
above city, producing from 8,000 to 10,000 kegs of 100 lbs. weight each, giving 
about 1,600 tons of nails per week. The manufacture of bar, hoop and 
sheet-iron, and iron-wire, is also carried on in four or five of these manufac- 
tories. About 2,500 workmen are employed, and the value of the produce 
is upwards of 4,000,000 dollars, or about £1,000,000 sterling. 

There are about thirty large foundries and many smaller ones at Pitts- 
burg, employing 2,500 operatives, and consuming 20,000 tons of pig-iron 
annually in the manufacture of various castings. The produce of these 
foundries is estimated at about 2,000,000. 

Malleable cast-iron is also manufactured by Messrs. Greenwood into a 
great variety of articles usually made of wrought-iron. These consist of 
braces or bit-stocks, screw-wrenches, bed-keys, chest-handles, gun-mount- 
ings, saddlers' ironmongery and coachware, kettle-ears, thumb-screws, nuts, 
&c, and have the reputation of being very excellent substitutes for the more 
costly wrought-iron articles. 

In the library of the Congress of the United States, now in the course of 
construction in the capitol, at Washington, the whole of the interior fittings 
are of iron. The piers supporting the hook-shelves, and the balustrade of 
the gallery, which is carried all round the room, are of this material, cast in 
ornamental forms, with medallions also of iron of Washington, Franklyn, 
and other eminent American statesmen. These latter are in high relief, 
and are most admirably modelled and cast. The book-shelves are also 
plates of iron ; and whilst the whole is thus rendered fireproof, it is also 
highly ornamental. 

The manufacture of articles of utility in metal, especially iron and brass, 
is chiefly carried on in the States of Connecticut and the cities of Phila- 



92 



Prideaux' s Patent Self-closing Valve for Preventing Smoke, 8fC. 



[April, 



delphia, Pittsburg, and Cincinnati, as also to a very considerable extent in 
Boston, New York, and Baltimore, in all the departments connected with 
ship building and heavy machinery. 

.The manufacture of the lighter articles in metal appears to be chiefly 
located in the State of Connecticut, in the valleys of the Naugatuck and 
Housatonic ; the mills and manufactories being built on the banks of those 
rivers and the smaller streams running into them, from which the requisite 
power is derived to drive the machinery employed. Thus, those natural 
advantages which presented themselves for the promotion of manufacturing 
enterprise in the , cotton and woollen trades in the larger streams of the 
New England States, such as the Connecticut and Merrimack rivers, are 
equally obvious.in the smaller streams of the State of Connecticut, and have 
been as readily seized upon for the establishment of a variety of metal trades 
in which, in addition to skilled handicraft, a large amount of highly inge- 
nious machinery is constantly and most successfully employed. 

A beautiful automaton machine for shanking buttons has been lately intro- 
duced by the Benedict and Burnham Manufacturing Company, Waterbury, 
and is in operation in their wire-drawing establishment, being the invention 
of a mechanic in their employ. The blanks being cut in thin brass, are put 
into a curved feed-pipe, and descend by their own gravity to the level of the 
machine. Each blank is carried by the machine under a punch which 
stamps out the centre hole. The shank is made below by another portion of 
the machine, from a continuous wire carried along horizontally. Erom this 
the wire to make the shank is cut off and bent, being pushed up at the 
instant the blank, with the centre hole stamped in it, comes in a vertical 
line therewith. Another punch descends with a hole in the centre, to allow 
of the doubled wire forming the shank to go into it, and this gives the blank 
the requisite concavity, and forces the brass tightly round the wire, after 
which another punch with a wedge-like edge, descends and opens the wire, 
spreading it within the concavity, and thus the back of the button is com- 
pleted. The machine does this in the most perfect manner, at the rate of 
180 or 200 per minute. All that is required of the attendant is, to feed the 
tube with blanks, and when one coil of shank-wire is exhausted, to supply 
another. It is impossible to conceive anything more complete in its way 
than the machine at work at the period of my visit. 

Brass kettles, or pans, manufactured by the Waterbury Brass Company, are 
of a novel and excellent character and make. Instead of easting them, as 
is frequently done in England, the article is "spun "up from a flat plate, by 
powerful machinery, constructed for the purpose. Nor is this process con- 
fined to the smaller sizes, since they range from 1 to 20 or 30 gallons and 
upwards. There is a great equality [of strength throughout, with a less 
weight of metal than usual. The brass, from the rolling and spinning pro- 
cesses, is more consolidated and tougher than when cast, and, therefore, is 
not so easily fractured; yet the whole is effected without the process of 
annealing. The vessel is strengthened with an iron wire worked into the 
rim in the process of manufacture. A most useful, and even elegant-looking, 
though plain utensil is thus produced at a moderate price, and is especially 
well suited by its lightness, capacity and durability, to the purpose of the 
emigrant to the Western States or to new countries, for which markets it is 
chiefly manufactured. 

Automaton machine for making ladies' hair-pins. — The manufacture of 
ladies' hair-pins by automatic machinery, has just been commenced by 
Messrs. Blake and Johnson, manufacturers of case-hardened street rollers, 
and machines for the use of working jewellers, Waterbury. This machine 
is of their own invention and construction, and is remarkably effective A 
quantity of wire is coiled upon a drum or cylinder, and turns round upon its 
axis as suspended from the ceiling of the workshop. The point of the wire 
being inserted into the machine, and the power applied, the wire is cut off to 
the requisite length, carried forward, and bent to the proper angle, and then 
pointed with the necessary blunt points, and finally dropped into a receiver, 
quite finished all but lacquering or japanning. The pins are'thus made at 
the rate of 180 per minute, and the machine goes on without any immediate 
superintendence being required until the whole coil of wire is exhausted. 

Spinning from flat metal plates — The bodies of chandeliers, whether vases 
or dishes, are invariably spun up from the flat metal plate, instead of being 
stamped, as is usually the case in England. This is the old method of pro- 



ducing these portions of lamps and similar articles, and appears to have been 
introduced into practice in America by German workmen. It is not con- 
fined to small bodies; but it is used for the production of larger sizes than are 
usually considered practicable. Very large bodies, however, are generally 
hammered up. 

Discs of plate metal, for the purpose of spinning up, are cut by a machine 
with two wheels, having the sharp edges working against each other, after 
the manner of a pair of shears. Those circular cutters work with great 
ease and rapidity, giving great facilities to the workman, and presenting au 
elegant method of doing laborious work with the greatest possible ease and 
certainty. 

In annealing the spun work, after the first process of raising from the flat 
plate, it was formerly found that the metal cracked, more particularly in the 
bottom angle. As the first form from the plane is a simple truncated cone, 
the second process of spinning, after annealing, gives the requisite curves to 
the sides. To prevent this cracking during the annealing process, it has 
been found that the simple bending or squeezing in of the sides of the cone, 
until the circle becomes a somewhat elongated ellipse, and then placing a 
quantity within each other, has the desired effect, and cracking rarely if ever 
takes place. This is stated on the authority of Mr. Cornelius, of the firm of 
Messrs. Cornelius, Baker and Co., of Philadelphia, by whom it has been 
successfully adopted in practice. 

Gimlet screws, in which the point of the screw supersedes the use of a 
gimlet in making the requisite hole, are largely manufactured by the New 
England Screw Company, and now extensively used in the United States; 
and the variety of sizes exhibited in New York show the applicability of this 
simple, but useful contrivance to be more extended than is generally sup- 
posed. 



PKIDEAUX'S PATENT SELE-CLOSING VALVE FOE PEE- 
VENTING SMOKE, &c. 

Fig. 1 is a front elevation of valve as fixed in furnace door ; fig. 2, 
sectional plan of the same ; fig 3, cross section of valve and furnace door ; 
and fig. 4, cross section of cylinder. 

Mr. Prideaux is the author of a work on the " Economy of Fuel," one of 
Weale's useful series of rudimentary works, and one that, we know, is consi- 
dered by practical engineers to be the best-written book on the subject. 
Good writing and good practical engineering are, however, not necessarily 
connected. So many instances, in fact, occur to us that we might almost say 
the rule is, they are not ; and, if that be the rule, we may congratulate Mr. 
Prideaux on being the exception. His self-closing valve promises to be as 







<££l 



Fig. 1. 



successful as anything produced in mechanical engineering for 6ome time 
past. Of the importance of causing every furnace to " consume its own 
smoke," every one is agreed; but, besides effecting that object, this humane 
invention is intended to prevent the heat of the furnace doors from " con- 
suming " the attendant stokers which, too frequently, is literally the case. 



1854] 



Birkinbme's Supplementary Valve for Cornish Engines. 



93 



" The invention consists of an apparatus to be affixed to the fire-doors of 
furnaces, with the view of regulating the admission of air, in order to improve 
the combustion (and thereby economise fuel and prevent smoke), and at the 
same time stopping the radiation of heat outwards. The front of the appa- 
ratus (which thus constitutes the panel of the furnace door) consists of a 
series of shutters (6), traversing in axes (c), so as to be capable of opening 
and shutting like Venetian blinds. Behind these moveable valves or shutters, 
is a series of parallel plates (J), fixed at a slight angle, and then a second 
series (m), fixed at an opposite angle, and then a third and wider series 
of parallel plates (o), which do not incline, with air spaces (n,p), between 
each series. 




Fig. 2. 



" By means of the slight inclination in opposite directions given to the first 
and second series of plates (Z, m), the direct radiation of heat from the fire 
outwards is prevented, although the air has free ingress; and the inclination 
being in an angle to the axis of the line of draught, has the further effect of 
causing the current of air slightly to impinge upon the surface of the plates 
in its passage, by which means the heat is more effectually extracted. 




Kg. 3. 



Fig. i. 



" So perfectly does the above arrangement of plates and air spaces fulfil 
the object for which it was planned, viz. — that of isolating the heat radiated 
against the inner surface of the fire-door, so as to confine it in the interior, 
and prevent its passage outwards, and thus ensure the whole being transfer- 
red to the entering current of air during the periods at which the valve is 
open — that after the shutters had been closed ten minutes, and the innermost 
row of plates had become red-hot, a thermometer, with its bulb in contact 
with the face of the shutters, marked only 64 degrees. 

" The gradual self-closing of the shutters — which constitutes so important 
a feature of this invention — is managed as follows: — each shutter has attached 
to it an arm, (d), which at its other end is attached by a pin-joint to the bar 
(e), to which motion is imparted by a rod (/), attached at its lower end by 
a pin-joint to the bar (e), and at its upper end by a pin-joint to the lever (g), 
the gradual descent of which, in any required time, is effected by its being 
connected with a piston (i), traversing a water-cylinder (h), which piston, 
by means of a suitable valve, allows a free passage to the water from above 
to below, but resists its passage in the opposite direction ; — when the water 
is forced by the gravity of the lever, piston, and their appendages, from below 



to above, through the narrow channel (j), the size of which, at the bottom, 
is adjusted by the screw (£), so as to regulate the time of the passage of the 
water, and the consequent descent of the piston and closure of the shutters, 
with the greatest nicety." 



BIRKTNBINE'S SUPPLEMENTARY VALVE FOR CORNISH 
ENGINES. 

The accompanying sketch represents a sectional view of that portion of 
the valve nozzle only which contains the equilibrium valve, which will, no 
doubt, be sufficient, with the following brief explanation, to render Mr. 
Birkinbine's patent apparatus familiar to your readers. 




It may be remarked that all the valves are of the double-beat descrip- 
tion, so called from having two conical or beating surfaees instead of only 
one, as in the ordinary stalk valve, and are in principle similar to those used 
in stationary and marine engines, and denominated balance valves, d is the 
equilibrium valve contained in the compartment a, which communicates with 
the passage from the steam valve to the cylinder. The seat of the valve, d, 
is secured to the bottom of the compartment, and has a circular flanch, e, 
projecting through the opening. This projecting flanch forms the seat for 
the supplementary valve, r, which is attached to the top of the screwed 
spindle, g; the latter passes through a stuffing-box in the cover, h, and 
screws into the hub of the bevel wheel, i, which runs loosely in the bracket, 
j; this wheel is caused to revolve, and thus the supplementary valve raised 
or lowered by the handle, k, and shaft, l, and the additional bevel wheels. 
The object of the invention is to arrest, more or less, as circumstances re- 
quire, the passage of the steam through the equilibrium valve from one side 
of the piston to the other, and, consequently, of regulating the descent of the 
plunger. The utility of the arrangement will be at once apparent; it ob- 
viates the necessity of adopting the old and tedious process of adding and 
removing heavy weights, while, in case of any breakage, or other accident 
occurring to the pumps in a mine, the damage likely to occur from sudden 
shocks is prevented by the facility of adjusting the valve to regulate the de- 
scent of the plungers.— Journal of the Franklin Institute. 



94 



List of Patents. 



[April, 



DIMENSIONS OF THE STEAMER " TENNESSEE. 

Hull built by John A. Robb, Baltimore. Machinery by 
Charles Reeder, Jun., Baltimore. Intended service, Balti- 
more and Charleston. 

Hull — 

Length on deck 210ft. 

Breadth of beam at midship section 33ft. llin. 

Depth of hold ... ... 19ft. 

Length of engine and boiler space 55ft. 

Floor timbers at throats, moulded 13|in. 

Ditto, ditto sided ... 8 in. 

Distance of frames apart at centres 26in. 

Coal bunkers — iron. 

Capacity of coal bunkers in tons 
of coal 150 

Masts and rig, two masts, foremast square rigged 

Tonnage 1149 tons 

Engines — One vertical beam. 

Diameter of cylinder 72in. 

Length of stroke... 9ft. 

Weight of engine ... 238,200 pounds. 

Boilers — Two, double return flued. 

Length of boilers 18ft. 

Breadth ditto ... lift. 6in. 

Height of boilers, exclusive of steam 

chimney 12ft. 

Number of furnaces ... 3 in each. 

Length of grate bars 6ft. 4in. 

Grate surface 123 sq. ft. 

Fire do 3,570 „ 

Number of flues 18 

Internal diameter of flues ... 18 and 30in. 

Length of tubes 8 and 13^ft. 

Diameter of smoke pipe ... ... 72in. 

Height of smoke pipe 32ft. 

Weight of boiler without water, 93,800 pounds 

Description of coal ... ... Anthracite 

Water Wheels — 

Diameter 28ft. 

Length of blades 9ft. 

Depth 26in. 

Number of blades ... 24 

Remarks. — Solid floor; 13in. centre, side and 
bilge keelsons; iron lattice-braced; square fastened 
throughout, and coppered; one 6in. independent 
fire pump, and one 5in. injection pump. 



DIMENSIONS OP THE STEAMER " NASHVILLE. 

Hull built by William Collyer, New York. Machinery by 
Novelty Works, New York. Owners, Spofford, Tileston 
and Co. Intended service, New York to Charleston. 

Hull— 

Length on deck ... 216ft. 

Breadth of beam at midship section 34ft. Bin. 

Depths of hold 22ft. 

Length of engine and boiler space 64ft. 6in. 
Capacity of coal bunkers in tons 

of coal 185 tons 



DIMENSIONS OF STEAMERS. 

Draught of water at load line ... 12ft. 

Floor timbers, moulded 

Ditto, sided ... ... 

Distance of frames apart at centres 

Masts and rig, foretopsail schooner. 

Tonnage 1235 tons 

Engine — One side-lever. 

Diameter of cylinder 86in. 

Length of stroke ... 8ft. 

Maximum pressure of steam in pounds, 28 

Maximum revolution per minute, 19 

Boilers — Two, Miller's patent return Sued. 

Length of boilers ... 24ft. 

Breadth ditto 12ft. 3in. 

Height ditto, exclusive of steam 

chimney 12ft. 3in. 

Number of furnaces in each boiler 
(3 above, 2 below) ... 5 

Length of grate bars 7ft. 2in. 

Number of flues 33 

Internal diameter of return flues 10,11,13 & 15in. 

Diameter of smoke pipe 6ft. 4in. 

Height of smoke pipe ... ... 38ft. 

Draught of furnaces, natural. 

Fire surface in each boiler ... 2274ft. 

Description of coal Anthracite 

Water Wheels — 

Diameter of water wheel 32ft. 

Length of blades 10ft. 

Depth 20in. 

Number of blades ... 28 

Remarks. — Floors filled in solid. Blowers to 
ventilate fire-rooms. 



DIMENSIONS OF THE STEAMER " SONORA. 

Hull built by Westervelt & Son. Machinery by Morgan 
Iron Works. Owners, Pacific Mail Steamship Company. 
Intended service, Pacific. 

Hull. — 

Length on deck 264ft. 

Breadth of beam at midship section 36ft. 

Depths of hold 17ft. 3in. & 24ft, 6in. 

Length of engine and boiler space 66ft. 

Draught of water at load line ... 12ft. 

Draught of water at below pressure 

and revolutions 7ft. 

Floor timbers at throats, moulded, 1 6in. 

„ „ sided, ... 14in. 

Distance of frames apartat centres 28in. 

Masts and rig, ... Foretopsail Schooner. 

Engines. — Two — Vertical beam. 

Diameter of cylinders 15in. 

Length of stroke. . ... ... loft. 

Maximum pressure of steam in pounds, 20 

Maximum revolutions per minute, 20 

Boiler — Two single return flued. 

Length of boilers 30ft. 

Breadth ditto 13ft. 

Height ditto, exclusive of steam 

chimney 12ft. 



Number of furnaces ... 6 

Length of grate bars 7ft. 

Number of flues 28 

Internal diameter of flues ... 16, 15, 13, and loin. 

Diameter of smoks pipe 6ft. 9in. 

Height of smoke pipe 42ft. 

Description of coal Bituminous 

Water Wheels — 

Diameter of water wheel ... 30ft. 

Length of blades 9ft. 

Depth ditto I6in. 

Number ditto 26 

Remarks. — Guards fore and aft; hull strapped 
with iron braces, 4x| inches. 



DIMENSIONS OF THE STEAMER "' ORIZABA." 

Hull built by Westervelt & Sons. Machinery by Morgan 
Iron Works. Owners, Charles Morgan and others. In- 
tended service. Gulf of Mexico. 

Hull. — 

Length on deck 240ft. 

Breath of beam 34ft. 8in. 

Depth of hold 17ft. 

Length of engine and boiler space 76ft. 

Draught of water at load lime ... lift. 
„ „ below pressure 
and revolutions 7ft. 

Floor timbers at throats, molded 14in. 

„ „ sided 14in. 

Distance of frames apart at centres 28in. 

Masts and rig foretopsail schooner. 
Engine. — One — Vertical beam. 

Diameter of cylinder 65in. 

Length of stroke lift. 

Maximum pressure of steam ... 20lbs. 
„ revolutions ... 20 per min. 
Boilers — Two, return flued. 

Length of boilers 30ft. 

Breadth ditto 12ft. 

Height ditto, exclusive of steam 

chimney ... 15ft. 

Number of furnaces ... 6 

Length of grate bars 7ft. 6in. 

Number of flues 16 

Internal diameter of flues ... 15, 17£, and 13 Jin. 

Diameter of smoke pipe ' 6ft. 9in. 

Height of smoke pipe 42 ft. 

Fire surface 4,000ft. 

Natural draught to furnaces 

Description of coal Bituminous. 

Water Wheels. — 

Diameter 30ft. 

Length of blades... 9ft. 

Depth of blades ... lft. loin. 

Number of blades ... 26 

Remarks. — Hull- strapped with iron diagonal 
and double laid braces, 4 by $ inches, floors filled 
in solid. — Franklin Journal. 



APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS, AND PROTECTION 

ALLOWED. 

Dated 21rf Octoher, 1553. 

2434. C. N. Michel and A. Lecomte, Paris— Windows. 

Dated! th January, 1854. 

40. J. Ross Keighley— Chocolate, cocoa, &c. 

Dated 2\st January, 1854. 
145. M. L. L. Beaudeloux, Paris— Self-acting cradle. 

Dated 23rd January, 1854. 
159. J. Rowlands, Birmingham — Fastening. 
170. P. A. le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, 4, South-street 
Finsbury— Candles and wicks. < A communication.) 
Dated 2nd February, 1854. 
262. H. Watson, Newcastle-on-Tyne— Working brass and 
copper. 

Dated 3rd February, 1854. 
17. J. Bernard, 15, Regent-street — Boots and shoes. 
267. P. A. le Compte de Fontaine Moreau, 4, South-street, 

Finsbury — Buildings. (A communication.) 
269. C. H. Collette, 57, Lincoln's-inn-fields — Reducing ores. 
(A communication.) 



LIST OF PATENTS. 

271. J. S., & J., jun., Rogerson, Manchester — Textile fabrics, 

273. W. and J. Longmain, Beaumont-square — Vegetable 
charcoal. 

275. P. J. Meeus, Paris — Gutta percha thread. 
Dated ith February, 1854. 

277. G. Mills, Glasgow — Steam vessels and steering. 

279. J. Boydell, Smethwick— Reverbratory furnaces. 

281. R. S. Newall, Gateshead — Ships' rigging. 
Dated 6th February, 1854. 

283. T. Sullivan, Foots Cray— Paper making. 

285. B. W. Firth, Oldham — Breaks, &c., for railway trains. 

287. A. L, N. Comte Vander Meere, Paris — Artificial whale- 
bone. (A communication.) 

289. J. B. Graham, Glasgow — Printing surfaces. 

291. W. Neilson, Glasgow — Blowing engines. 
Dated 1th February, 1854. 

293. J. W. Moseley, Heathfield, Norton-"\n-the-Moors— Uni- 
ting glass and argillaceous cylinders, &e. 

295. J. Elee, Manchester — Spinning cotton, &c. 

297. H. Olding, Lambeth — stoves and fire-places. 

299. A. E. L. Bellford, 16, Castle-street, Holborn— Artificial 
stone. (A communication.) 



301. A. Pope, 81, Edgeware-road— Crushing, &c, quartz, &c. 
303. A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Bleaching. (A com- 
munication.) 
305. B. U. Bianchi, Paris — Railway accidents. 

Dated 8lh February, 1854. 

307. G. W. Knocker, Dover — Rotatory motive power by 

water. 

Dated 9th February, 1854. 

308 . J. Perry, Leeds— Drilling machine. 

309. J. Ramsbottom, Longsight, near Manchester — Railway 

hoist. 

310. J. Daltou, Hollingworth— Printing bowls and cylinders, 

&c. 

311. H. Moorhouse, Denton — Preparing cotton, &c, to be 

spun. 

312. P. A. le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, 4, South-street, 

Finsbury— Fire arms. (A communication.) 

314. J. Samuel, Great George-street, and A. W. Makinson, 

New Palace Yard — Drying flax, Ike. 

313. F. Vouillon, 12, Prince's-street, Hanover-square — Sil- 

vering looking glasses. (A communication.) 

315. G. Tournay, Newington Causeway — Motive power. 



1854.] 



List of Patents. 



95 



316. E. Boileau, Holford's-place, Clerkenwell— Printing sur- 

faces. 

317. F. M. I.yte, Torquay — Ascertaining depth of water. 

318. P. J. Meeus, Paris— Planting seeds and depositing ma- 

nure. (A communication.) 

Dated 10th February, 1854. 

320. D. Brown, Smethwick, and. J. Brown, West Bromwich 

321. W. Duck and W. Wilson, London.road, Southwark— 

Gas heating apparatus. 

323. S. Hunt and T. Morris, Long Eaton— Covering build- 

ings. 

324. T. Allcock, Ratcliffe-on-Trent— Cutting straw. 

325. B. H. Hine and A. J. Mundella, Nottingham, and L. 

Barton, Hyson-green— Knitted fabrics. 

326. J. Young, Glasgow— Gas making. 

327. J. Rives, 8, Hotel Motay, Paris— Railways 

328. H. Warner, J. Haywood, and W. Cross, Loughborough 

— Knitting machines. 

329. J. Johnson, Manchester— Preservation of life at sea. 

330. H. l ridges, Bridgewater— Buffers. 

331. J. Mitchell, Dyke-head, Lanark— Forcing and Distri- 

buting liquids. 

332. W. Whitely, Lockwood, near Huddersfield— Stretching 

woollen fabrics. 

333. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields— Metallic pens, 

(A communication J 

Dated Uth February, 1854. 

334. A. J. B. L. Mareseheau, Paris— Locomotive engines. 

(Partly a communication.) 

335. P. Buchan, Peterhead— Distance indicator. 

336. G. Bird, Glasgow— Foundations. 

337. J. Jennings, jun., Lorton— Brakes. 

338. J. Getty, Liverpool— Plating iron vessels. 

339. J. Rogers, New York — Lamp black. 

340. J. F. D. de Bussac, 36a, Upper Charlotte-street, Fitz- 

roy-square — Paving. 

Dated \3th February, 1854. 
34t. G. Avres, City-road— Clip. 

342. W. Brown, 113, Albany-road, Old Kent-road— -Printing 

machinery. 

343. T. Edwards, Birmingham — Dress fastening. 

344. A. Chambers, Dundee — Mangles. 

345. D. Campbell and J. Barlow, Accrington— Looms. 

346. E. Clegg arid E. Leach, Rochdale— Spinning, &o. 

347. J. Cox, Wenlock-road, City-road— Paper knives. 

348. S. R. Brown, Glasgow — Printing textile fabrics. 

349. W. Macnab, Greenock — Steam engines. 

350. J. Greenwood, Irwell springs, Bacup — Dyeing. 

351. J. B., andE. Smith, Regent-street— Bonnets. 
Dated Uth February, 1854. 

Bury, W. Glover, J. W. Speed, and J. Hardman, 
Salford — Finishing woven fabrics. 

Scaling, Old Basfnrd— Basket work. 

Faure, Paris — Iodine. 

A. Holm, 21, Cecil-street— Propelling. 

Irving, Mould Green, near Huddersfield— Lustry 
appearance to fabrics. 
Perkes, Walbrook — Valve cocks. 

Jonson, Mitcham — Barley and grits or groats. 

Wilson, Sheffield — Axle boxes. 

O'Connor, Wavertree — Lever hinge. 



353. T, 

354. W 

355. L. 

356. C 

357. T. 



358. 

359. A. 

360. G. 

361. P. 

Dated Ibth February, 1854. 

362. J. Hossell. Regent-road, Salford— Leather. 

363. J. Potter, Manchester— Preparing, &c, cotton, &c. 

364. W. Asbury, Birmingham — Agricultural forks. 

365. B. H. Hine, and A. J. Mundella and W. Onion, Not- 

tingham — Textile and looped fabrics. 

366. O. Barrett, 50, Wimpole-street— Tobacco pipes. 

367. T. Jennings, Brown-street, Cork— Stoppers for bottles. 

368. J. Wren, Tottenham-court-road— Folding chair bed- 

stead. 

369. G. F. Wilson, Belmont, Vauxhall— Candles and nights. 

Dated 16tfi February, 1854. 

370. F. Preston, Manchester — Flax machinery. 

371. C. F. Varley, 1, Charles-street, Somers-town — Electric 

telegraph signals. 

372. J. Bush, Derby— Locks. 

373. J. Greenwood and R. Smith, Bacup — Finishing textile 

fabrics. 

374. T. Summerfield, Birmingham — Chromatic glass and 

glass faced bricks. 

375. J. D. M. Stirling, Larches, Birmingham — Steel. 

376. J. Pritchard, Portsea— Screw propellers. 

377. G. F. Wilson, Belmont, Vauxhall — Lubricating mat- 

ter. 

Dated VWi February, 1854. 

378. T. Fawcett, jun., Lisburne— Weaving linen, &c. 

379. T. T. Macneill, Mount Pleasant, Lowth — Drying flax. 

380. A. Ford, 44, Lowndes-street — Varnish. 

381. H. Ross, Nottingham — Textile fabrics. 

382. W. Wright, Wolverhampton — Ornamenting walls, &c. 

383. G. Smith, jun., Belfast — Retarding railway carriages. 

384. G. Wethered, Maidenhead— Shaking straw. 

385. J. Hinchliffe, jun.,Dam Side, Halifax— Metallic pistons. 

(A communication.) 

386. R. Holt, Oldham— Bricks and tiles. 

387. E. and J. Rowland, Wakefield-street, Manchester — 

Cleaning tabular flues of boilers. 
388. M. Poole, Avenue-road, Regent's-park — Furnaces. (A 
communication.) 

Dated \%th February, 1854. 
389. P- G. Harris, Buckingham-street, Adelphi— Locomo- 
tive engines— (A communication.) 



390. W. Morrison, Bowling, Dumbarton— Railway wheels. 

391. J. C. Nesbitt, 37, Lower Kennington-lane— Manure. 

392. B. W. Wells, Windmill-lane, Camberwell — Floor 

cloths. 

393. E. Loysel, Rue de Gre"try, Paris— Infusions or extracts. 

394. B. Britten, Anerley— Crushing, &c, ores. 

Dated 20th February, 1854. 

395. J. R. Hill, 39, Princes-street, Stamford-street— Pulver- 

izing metallic ores. 

396. N. Rigganbach, Basle — Incrustation in steam boilers. 

397. W. H. Barlow, Derby — Connecting rails of railways. 

398. J. Aspinall, King William-street— Sugar manufacture. 

400. T. Gray, St Clement's-lane, Strand — Pulp from wood. 

401. J. Chisholm, Holloway— Purification of gas. 

402. J. Beall, Cheshunt— Suspending looking glasses. 

403. H. Hilliard, Glasgow— Table cutlery. 

404. T. Towers, Salford— Billiard and bagatelle tables. 

405. W. Milner, Liverpool — Locks. 

407. J. Urie, Glasgow — Photographic pictures. 

Dated 21st February, 1854. 

408. J. Ramsbottom, Longsight — Welding. 

409. F. Osbourn, Aldersgate-street — Cutting out of gar- 

ments. 

410. H. King, 36, Gilbert-street, Oxford-street — Signalising 

between guard and driver. 

411. J. Gedge, 4, Wellington -street-south. Strand — Gas 

fittings. (A communication.) 

412. V. Pernollett, 43, Broad-street, Golden-square— Sepa- 

rating grain, &c. 

413. S. T. Jones, 3, Union-court, Old Broad-street— Wash- 

ing minerals. 

414. R. Walker, Glasgow — Signalling by electricity. 

415. J. Boydell, 65, Gloucester-crescent, Regent's-park — 

Hurdles and gate*. 

416. E Gessner, Aue — Gig mills. 

417. J. Smith, Glasgow— Ornamental weaving. 

418. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields — Matches. (A 

communication.) 

419. A.Dixon, Smethwick — Railway axle boxes and bearing 

springs. 

420. A. Dixon, Smethwick — Scaffolding. 

421. A. B. Baron von Rathen, Wells-street — Omnibuses. 

422. W. Gossage, Widnes — Alkaline carbonates. 

423. W. C.T. Schaeffer, Stanhope- terrace, Hyde-park- gar. 

dens — Recovering fatty matters in woollen mills. 

Dated 22nd February, 1854. 

424. W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Fire-arms and 

projectiles. (A communication.) 

425. J. Morison, Paisley — Globes. 

426. E. Taylor, Kinghorn, N.B.— Gill-heckles. 

427. D. Assanti, Upper Berkeley-street — Waterproofing 

porous substances. 

429. S. Colt, Spring Gardens — Rifling fire-arms. (Partly a 

communication.) 

430. J. de W. Spurr, 16, Kenyon-terrace, Birkenhead — 

Distilling coals. 

431. J. Boydell, 65, Gloucester- crescent, Regent's-park — 

Carriages. 

Dated 23rd February, 1S54. 

432. T. Settle and P. Cooper, Bolton -le-Moors — Preparing, 

&c, cotton, &c. 

433. A. Oppenheimer, Manchester — Mohair velvet or plush, 

434. T. Robinson, St. Helen's — Raising and lowering goods. 

435. 7. Barling, 7, High-street, Maidstone— Paper from 

hoop-bine. 

437. T. D. Purday, Rupert-street, Haymarket — Cooling 

liquids, &c. 

438. W. Hunt, Wednesbury — Utilizing ammonia given off 

in manufactures. 

439. H. Stoy, 1, St. John's-road, Battersea-rise — Stopping 

engines and carriages. 

440. E. Foard, 39, Nicholas-street, New North-road — Fur. 

naces. 

Dated 25th February, 1854. 

441. P. Fairbairn, Leeds — Winding slivers, &c, into laps or 

balls. 

442. W. and J. Ryder, Bolton-le-Moors — Composition for 

coating metals. 

443. E. Kingsbury, Knightsbridge— Apparatus for indicating 

rise or fall of water. 

444. S. L. H.irdy, M D., Dublin — Applying chloroform. 

446. C. Cowper, 20. Southampton-buildings — Furnaces. (A 

communication.) 

447. C. Cowper, 20, Southampton-buildings — Potash and 

soda. (A communication.) 

448. J. Banfield, Birmingham — Communicating with guards 

and drivers, 

451. C. J. Fisher, Temple — Detecting forged notes, &c. 

452. E. H. Bentall, Heybridge, Essex— Ploughs. 

453. E. Power and T. Knowles, Birmingham— Watohes, &c. 

454. T. Forsyth, Wolverton — Furnaces. 

455. A. E. L. Bellford, "16, Castle-street, Holborn — Dressing 

stone. (A communication.) 

457. A. E. L. Bellford, 16, Castle-street, Holborn— Power 

from heated air and gases. (A communication.) 

458. J. Barker, J. Andrew, and W. Hayes, Salford — Cleans- 

ing wool, &c. 

459. C. W. Siemens, Adelphi-chambers — Electric telegraphs. 

(Partly a communication.) 

461. G. Collier, Halifax— Twisting fringes. 

462. J. Keenan, Paris — Blocks for printing. (A communi- 

cation.) 

463. C. F. Bekaert, 10, Rue-de-la- Victoire, Paris— Oxigena- 

ted oil (A communication.) 

464. C. Lamport, Workington — Ship- building. 



465. J. Boydell, 65, Gloucester-crescent, Regent's-park — 

Hurdles and fences. 

466. J. Elder, Glasgow — Marine engines. 

467. A. Plantin, 25, Thayer-street, Manchester-square— 

Stopping, &c, trains. 

468. W. E. Staite, Manchester— Preparation of madder and 

munjeet for dyeing. 

469. F. Westbrook, Kensington — Cleaning of windows. 

Dated 21th February, 1854. 

471. P. Fougerat, Bordeaux — Paddle-wheels, 

472. J. D. M. Stirling, Larches, Birmingham — Tubes and 

cylinders of steel. 

473. C. De Bussy, 45, Mornington-road, Regent's -park- 

Amalgamation of gold ores. 

474. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields— Harrows. (A 

communication.) 
476. J. Morrell, Bradford — Stopping tap of any vessel after 
quantity required is withdrawn. 

Dated 28th February, 1854. 
480. E. and J. Marsden, Liverpool — Pumps. 
482. J. H. Rehe, Bayswater — Crushing, &c, substances. 
484. C. Mather, Salford — Valves for steam. 
486. W. Patten, 22, Old Fish-street— Valves for water. 
488. E. C. Shepard, Trafalgar-square — Decomposing water. 

(A communication.) 
490. T. J. Johnson, 19, Booth-street, Spitalfields — Roasting 

malt, 
492. J.H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields — Art of reading. 

(A communication.) 

Dated 1st March, 1854. 
494. J. T. Cortin, 64, New Compton-street— Soleing shoes 

and boots. 
496. C. Hargrove, Birmingham — Furnaces. 
498. T. H. Ewbank, South-square, Gray's-inn — Terry or 

looped fabrics. 
602. W. and J. Clibran, Manchester— Regulating pressure 

of gas from main. 
506. T. Metcalfe, 19, High-street, Camden-town— Folding 

bedsteads, &c. 



LIST OF PATENTS SEALED. 

Sealed 2tth February, 1854. 

1971. George Pollard, 64, Watling-street, and George Mumby, 

of Hunter-street, Brunswick-square — Improvements 
in machinery or apparatus for the manufacture of 
envelopes. 

1972. Alfred Augustus de Reginald Hely, Cannon-row, West- 

minster — Improvements applicable to shades or 
chimneys for lamps, gas, and other burners. 

1973. Alfred Swonnell, Kingston-on-Thames — An improved 

construction of tie for neckcloths and neck ribbons ; 
applicable also to neck ribbons of caps and bonnets. 

1979. George Davis, London — Apparatus for distinguishing 
genuine from counterfeit coin. 

1981. Richard Archibald Broman, 166, Fleet-street— Im- 
provements in the treatment of wool and silk, and in 
machinery for preparing silk so treated. 

2230. Henry Jeremiah Iliffe, James Newman, and Henry 
Jenkins, all of Birmingham — Improvements in the 
manufacture of buttons. 

2462. Alfred Vincent Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Improved 
construction of railroad carriage axle. 

2518. Richard Restell, Croydon— Improvements in warming 
conservatories, greenhouses, and other buildings. 

2884. William Thornley, of Clayton West, York— Improved 
manufacture of woven fabrics. 

3036. Richard Waygood, Newington-causeway — Improve- 
ments in portable forges. 

Sealed 21th February, 1854. 

1987. William Hargreaves, Bradford — Improvements in ma- 
chinery for preparing and combing wool, hair, flax, 
silk, and other fibrous substances. 

2043. John Smalley, Bishopgate, Wigan, and Washington 
Smirk, of Ince — Improvement in railway carriage 
axles. 

2071. Peffer Armandle Comte de Fontaine Moreau, 4, South- 
street, Finsbury— Improvements in lighting for con- 
suming the carbon escaping combustion in ordinary 
flames. (A communication.) 

•2139. William Nash, Burslem — Improved mode of manufac- 
turing china and earthenware articles on the lathe. 

2197. James Leetch, of Birmingham — Improved method of 
constructing breech-loading fire arms. 

224). Caleb Bloomer, Gold's-hill, West Bromwich — Improve- 
ments in the manufacture of anchors. 

2285. Manuel Fernandes de Castro, Madrid — Improved means 
of preventing accidents on railways. 

2535. Frederick Albert Gatty, Accrington — Improved bath 
for heating and distilling. 

2719. Benjamin Burleigh, King's Cross — Improved railway 
crossings as adapted to the double-headed rail and 
the ordinary rail and chair. 

2758. Georges Edouard Gazagnaire, Marseilles — Improve- 
ments in the manufacture of nets for fishing and 
other purposes. 

2763. Thomas Chambers and John Chambers, Thorncliffe 
Iron-works, near Sheffield — Improvements in kitchen 
sinks. 

2947. Henry Milward, Redditch —Improved machinery for 
manufacturing needles and fish hooks. 

2949. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford, 16, Castle-street, 
Holborn — Improvements in paddle wheels for pro- 
pelling vessels. (A communication.) 



96 



List of Designs. 



[April, 1854. 



2969. Thomas Vincent Lee, 4, Lockyer-terrace, Plymouth- 
Improvements in the construction of certain ma- 
chinery and apparatus for the manufacture of bricks 
and tiles. 

2997. Frederick Crase Calvert, Manchester — Improvements 
in the treatment of napthas and other volatile hydro 
carbons, and in the application of the same to various 
useful purposes. 

3032. Chretien Guillaume Schonherr, Chemnitz — Improve 
ments in bobbin machines. 

Sealed 1%lh February, 1854. 

2000. Joseph Cundy, 21, Victoria-road, Kensington — Im- 
provements in kitchen ranges and cooking appa- 
ratus. 

2004. John Henry Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-flelds — Im- 
provements in the preparation and application of 
gluten. (A communication.) 

2010. Joseph Cundy, 21, Victoria-road, Kensington — Im 
provements in gas stoves. 

2015. Ezra Washington Burrows, Pentonville — Improve- 
ments in the construction of cranes and other ma- 
chines for raising heavy bodies. 

2019. Edward Smith, Love-lane— Improved mode of manu- 
facturing carpets. 

2022. William Beckett Johnson, Manchester — Improvements 
in steam engines and in apparatus connected there 
with. 

Sealed 1st March, 1854. 

2154. Henry Meyer, of Manchester— Improvements in looms 
for weaving. 

2286. Alfred Ely Hargrave, of York, and Ralph Richardson 
of Hartlepool — Improvements in machinery or appa- 
ratus for printing. 

2500. James Nasmyth, of Patricroft — Improvements in the 
pistons and piston rods of steam hammers and pile 
drivers, and in the parts in intermediate connection 
therewith. 

2710. William Mee, of Leicester — Improvements in the ma- 
nufacture of braces. 
54. Antoine Marie Edouard Boyer, Elie Ducros, and Ossian 
Verdeau, all of Paris — Invention of certain improved 
compounds to be used in dyeing. 
56. The Reverend William Kenwick Bowditch, of Wake- 
field, Yorkshire — Improvements in the purification 
of gas, and in the application of the materials em- 
ployed therein. 

Sealed 2nd March, 1854. 

2031. James Pigott Pritchett, of York— Improvements in 
window sashes and shutters. 

Sealed 3rd March, 1854. 

2177. Henry Walker, of Gresham- street — Improvements in 
the modes or means of stopping or retarding ve- 
hicles used on railways. 

2512. Perceval Moses Parsons, of Duke-street, Adelphi — Im- 
provements in the switches and crossings of rail- 
ways. 

2671. Robert Griffiths, of 444, Strand — Improvements in 
propelling vessels. 

2961. John Webster, of 3, Cornwall-road, Stamford-street — 
Improvements in acting on drying oils and prepar- 
ing varnishes. 
1. Charles Hustings Collette, of 57, Lincoln's-inn-fields — 
Improvements in the manufacture of sugar. 
Sealed 6th March, 1854. 

1209. John Box, of 27, Rue Pepiniere, Brussels — Improve- 
ments in supplying water to steam-engine boilers. 

2048. Lemuel Wellman Wright, ofChalford — Improvements 
in reaping and gathering machines. 

2051. Henry Wilkinson, Tottenham-mews — Improvements 
in the construction of air furnaces, parts of which 
improvements are applicable to other furnaces. 

2053. Thomas Pope and Edward Bufton, both of Birming- 

ham — Improvements in buttons, and which im- 
proved buttons they propose to designate by the 
name of " Buffalo buttons." 

2054. Alfred Somerville and Charles Twigg, both of Bir- 

mingham — Improvements in penholders, and which 
said improvements are applicable to the manufac- 
ture of umbrella and parasol, sticks, cornice poles, 
and other such like articles. 

2055. Isaac Smith and Alfred Sommerville, both of Birming- 

ham — Improvements in metallic pens and pen- 
holders. 

2056. Joseph Alsop, of Huddersfield, and Edward Fairbura, 

of Kirklers Mills, Mirfield — Improvements in baking 
bread. 

2058. David Law and John Inglis, both of Glasgow — Improve- 
ments in moulding or shaping metals. 

2062. Benjamin Hustwayte, of Hockley-street, Homerton, 
and Richard John Paul Gibson, of Upper Brunswick- 
street, Hackney — Improved composition or composi- 
tions applicable to the manufacture of bricks, tiles, 
and other moulded articles. 

2072. Jonas Radford, of Cheltenham — Improvements in 
clocks or timekeepers. 

2116. Henry Dubs, of Vulcan Foundry, near Warrington — 
Improvements in the method of forging or manufac- 
ing iron and steel. 

2306. Henry Dubs, of Vulcan Foundry, near Warrington — 
Improvements in the manufacture of wheels and 
tyers, and also in the construction of furnaces em- 
ployed in such or similar manufactures. 

2616. Henry Kilshaw, of Birch, near Middleton, and Richard 
Hacking, of Bury — Improvements in machinery or 
apparatus for spinning cotton and other fibrous 
substances. 



2624. Henry Kilshaw, of Birch, near Middleton, and Richard 
Hacking, of Bury — Improvements in machinery or 
apparatus to be employed in the preparation of cot- 
ton and other fibrous substances for spinning. 

3041. Adolphus Oppenheimer, of Manchester — Improvements 
in the manufacture of silk velvet and other such 
piled goods or fabrics. 

Sealed 8th March, 1854. 

2068. James Coate, of Marylebone street, Regent-street — 
Improvements in tooth, nail, and hair brushes. 

2080. Charles Askew, of Charles-street, Hampstead-road— 
Improvements in baths. 

2086. Alfred Vincent Newton, of Chancery-lane — Improved 
manufactured of gas burner and gas regulator. (A 
communication.) 

2092. John Grist, of Islington — Improved stave -jointing or 
shaping machine. 

2103. William Weild, of Manchester — Improvements in 

lathes, and in apparatus connected therewith, for 
cutting, turning, or boring wood, metal, or other 
substances. 

2104. John Wright Child, of Halifax, and Robert Wilson, of 

Low Moor Iron Works — Improvements in valves 
and pistons. 
2112. Charles Cannon, of Dance-street, Liverpool— Improved 

machinery for obtaining motive power. 
2132. James Higgin, of Manchester— Improvements in burn- 
ing certain fluids for the purpose of obtaining heat. 
2142. Thomas Browning, of Pendleton — Improvements in 
machinery or apparatus for washing, scouring, or 
cleansing woven fabrics, either with plain or pile 
surfaces. 
2155. William Carron, of Birmingham — Improvement or im- 
provements in signalling or communicating intelli- 
gence. 
2182. William Stockil, of Long-lane— Improved method of 

blocking leather used in the manufacture of boots. 
2193. Edward Oldfield.of Salford— Certain improvements in 

machinery for spinning and doubling. 
2196. Samuel Alexander Benetfink, of Cheapside — Improved 

construction of coal ox. 
2222. John Henry Johnson, of Lincoln's inn-fields — Improve- 
ments in machinery or apparatus for cutting paper. 
(A communication.) 
2253. Michael Dwyer, of Woolwich, and James Brown, of 
Bridge-terrace, Mile-end — Improvement in anchors. 
2436. Pierre Marie Fougue, Louis Rene Hebert, and Vincent 
Etienne Doret le Marneur, of Paris — A fortune 
rudder in bronze. 
2803. Henry Deacon, of Widnes, and Edmond Leyland, of 
Saint Helen's — Improvements in apparatus for the 
manufacture or production of sulphuric acid. 
2826. Edward Lavender, of Deptford— Improvements in ap- 
paratus for subjecting substances -to the action of 
heat, for the purpose of carbonising, calcining, or 
combining such substances, or for subjecting such 
substances to the process of distillation. 
2859. Pierre Marie Fouque, Louis Rene Hubert, and Vincent 
Etienne Doret le Matneaur, all of Paris — Improve- 
ments in rudders. 
7. Peter Armand le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, of South- 
street — Finsbury — Certain improvements in water 
wheels. (A communication.) 
86. Robert Maclaren, of Glasgow — Improvements in mould- 
ing or shaping metals. 
110. Robert Maclaren, of Glasgow — Improvements in mould- 
ing or shaping metals. 
128. Alexander Dalgety, of Florence- road, Deptford— Inven- 
tion of a new construction of rotary engines or 
pumps. 

Sealed 10th March, 1854. 

2089. Arthur Warner, of 24, Dorset-place, Dorset-square — 

Application of the fibrous part of the palm tree and 

leaves to arts and manufactures. 

Sealed llth March, 1854. 

2107. John Lilley, junior, of Jamaica-terrace, Limehouse — 

Improvements in mariners* compasses. 
2118. Alexander Allan, of Crewe — Improvements in locomo- 
tive and other boilers for generating steam. 
2127. Philip Webley, of Birmingham — Improvements in re- 
peating pistols and other fire-arms. 
2144. Thomas William Keates, of Chatham-place, Blackfriars 
— Improvements in the distillation of tui'pentine and 
other resiuous substances and their products, 
2164. Jonathan Burton, of Crawshaw Booth — Improvements 
in shuttles for weaving ; the whole or part of which 
are applicable to skewers used in winding and 
reeling machines. 
2169. Richard Archibald Brooman, of 166, Fleet-street — Im- 
provements in the manufacture of soap and sapo- 
naceous compounds. 
2204. Alexander Dalgety, of Florence-road, Deptford— Im- 
provements in lathes. 

2220. Louis Dominique Girard — Improvements in hydraulic 
engines. 

2221. John Barsham, of Kingston-upon-Thames — Improve- 
ments in the manufacture of bricks, tiles and blocks. 

2240. John Taylor, of Princes-square — Improvement in the 
treatment or preparation of skins. 

2252. William Brown, of Bradford — Improvements in appa- 
ratus used In washing wool and other fibrous ma- 
terial. 

2283. Joseph Henry Cary, of Norwich — Improved piano-forte 
action for upright piano-fortes. 

2933. Charles Goodyear, of Saint John's-wood — Improve- 
ments in the treatment and manufacture of india- 
rubber. (Partly a communication.) 



2948. John Tribelhorn, of St. Gall, and Dr. Pompejus Bolley, 
of Aarau, Switzerland — Improvements in the process 
of bleaching vegetable fibrous substances. (A com- 
munication.) 

2985. Francis Bennoch, of Wood-street, Cheapside— Im- 
provements in coating silk and other yarn or thread 
with gold or other metal. 

3014. Henry Jackson, of High-street, Poplar— Improvements 
in machinery for moulding bricks and other articles 
of brick earth. 

3033. John Pym, of Pimlico — Improvements in machinery for 
grinding auriferous and other ores, and separating 
the metal therefrom. 

3035. Alfred Trueman, of Swansea, and Isham Baggs, of Lon- 
don — Improvements in grinding, amalgamating, and 
washing quartz and other matters containing gold. 
63. Joseph John William Watson, of Old Kent-road— Im- 
provements in signalling. 
162 John Lockhart, junior, of Paisley— Improvements in 

the manufacture of bobbins. 
168. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford, of 16, Castle- 
street, Holborn — Improvements in machinery for 
bending metal and producing forms thereon by 
pressure. 

Sealed \3th March, 1854. 

2119. James Hill Dickson, of Evelyn-street, Lower-road, 
Deptford— Improvements in machinery or apparatus 
for the preparation of flax and similar fibrous ma- 
terial. 

Sealed \4th March, 1854. 

2128, John Timmis, of Stafford— Improvements in safety- 

valves for boilers. 

2129. Alexander Wallace and George Galloway, both of Glas- 

gow— Improvements in the construction of portable 
articles of furniture. 

Sealed 15th March, 1854. 

2141. Eliezer Edwards, of Birmingham — Invention of a new 
or improved gas stove. 

2143. Henry Kraut, of Zurich — Improvements in tools or 
implements to be used for boring or cutting rock, or 
other hard substances, for the purpose of blasting. 

2147. Henry Jeanneret, of Great Titchfield-street— Improve- 
ments in machinery for digging and tilling land. 

2152. David Mushet, of Coleford, Gloucestershire— Improve- 
ments in steam-engine boiler and other furnaces. 

2159. Alexander Thomson and David Lockerbie, both of 

Glasgow — Improvements in kilns for baking and 
burning articles in earthenware. 

2160. John Adcock, of Marlborough-road, Dalston— Improved 

apparatus for measuring the distance travelled by 
vehicles. 

2166. Christopher Nickels and Ralph Selby, both of York- 
road, Lambeth— Improvements in the manufacture 
of flexible tubes and bands, and in covering wire. 

2172. William Lamplier Anderson, of Norwood — Improve- 
ments in propelling ships and other vessels. 

2270. James Lee Norton, of Ludgate-hill— Improvements in 
instruments or apparatus for measuring and indica- 
ting the distance travelled by carriages, and in the 
means of transmitting motion thereto from the run- 
ning wheels. • 

2783. Peter Armand Le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, of South- 
street, Finsbury — Certain improvements in the con- 
struction of the Jacquard machine. (A communi- 
cation.) 
97. William Crosskill, of Beverley, Yorkshire — Improve- 

■ ments in the construction of portable railways. 
107. William Crosskill, of Beverley, Yorkshire— Improve- 
ments in the construction of carriage wheels to run 
on railways and ordinary roads. 
115. Edward Lord, of Todmorden— Certain improvements 

in looms for weaving. 
181. John Bapty, of Leeds — Certain improvements in ma- 
chinery for preparing to be spun, wool, and other 
fibrous substances when mixed with wool. 



APPLICATIONS WITH COMPLETE SPECIFICATIONS 
FILED. 

460. F. W. A. de Fabeck, 18, Norfolk-street, Strand — 
Bridges, viaducts, &c., and other horizontal struc- 
tures. 



DESIGNS FOR ARTICLES OF UTILITY. 

1854. 
Feb. 23, 3569, Fawcett and Butterworth, Manchester, " A 
base coin detector." 

„ 24, 3570, Frederick Scott Archer, 105, Great Russell- 
street, Bloomsbury, "Portable folding ca- 
mera." 

„ 25, 3571, William Fuller, 60, Jermyn-street, St. James's, 
"Fuller's ice pail, for refrigerating liquids." 

„ 27, 3572, William Streeton, sen., 4, Hackney-road, Lon- 
don, " Improved double-action syringe, or 
garden engine." 
Mar. 2, 3573, John Allday, Birmingham, " Letter clip and 
bill file." 

„ 4, 3574, Nicoll, Haynes and Symes, Warwick-house, 
Regent-street, " Lady's Mantle." 

„ 10, 3575, John Hill, 212, Piccadilly, " Hill's new camp 
bedstead." 

„ „ 3576, Thomas Jenner, High-street. Southover, Lewes, 
Sussex, " Surface draining plough." 



20 



IJ'54. i 



Wl " " . -^ 



6) & 




1 * 



•„? 



J 




ARTIZAN 



No. XXXVI.— Vol. XII. 



-MAY 1st, 1854. 



THE GEEAT EXHIBITION OF 1855. 

The Exhibition, open to all nations, which is to be held at Paris in 
1855, is just now being organised in detail, whilst the building is so 
far advanced as to leave no doubt of its being ready by the time 
appointed. If a European war does not interfere to postpone the 
accomplishment of this project, the world will see an Exhibition not 
inferior to our own of 1851 in general effect, and, doubtless, superior 
to it in many articles of taste and luxury. The following are the 
general regulations laid down by the Commission appointed for that 
purpose, and approved of by the Emperor : — 

GENERAL REGULATIONS. 

Art. 1. The Universal Exhibition, instituted at Paris for the year 
1855, will receive the agricultural and industrial productions, as well 
as the works of art, of all nations. 

It will open on the 1st day of May, and close on the 31st day of 
October of the same year. 

Art. 2. The Exhibition of 1855 is placed under the management 
and inspection of the Imperial Commission named by the Decree of 
24th December, 1853. 

Art. 3. In each department a committee named by the Prefect, in 
accordance with the instructions of the Commission, will be charged 
to take all steps conducive to the success of the Exhibition, and 
to decide, at a proper time, on the admission or' non-admission of 
the objects presented. The Commission will establish, if they think 
proper, local sub-committees, or special agents, in all the towns 
and centres of industry where they may be required. 

Art. 4. Special instructions will be addressed, in the name of the 
Imperial Commission, to the Ministers of War and of the Marine 
to organise the participation of Algeria and the French Colonies 
in the Exhibition. 

Art. 5. Foreign Governments will be invited to establish (for the 
choice, examination, and forwarding of the productions of their 
respective countries) committees, of which the formation and com- 
position should be notified, as soon as possible, to the Imperial Com- 
mission, in order that they may immediately put themselves in 
communication with the committees. 

Art. 6. The committees in the departments, as well as the foreign 
13 



committees authorised by their respective Governments, will corre- 
spond directly with the Imperial Commission, who will not allow 
any correspondence with exhibitors or other private persons, whether 
French or foreigners. 

Art. 7. The French or the foreigners who propose to compete at 
the Exhibition, must address themselves to the committee of the 
department of the colony or country which they inhabit. Foreigners 
residing in France can address themselves to the official committee of 
their own country. 

Art. 8. No article will be admitted into the Exhibition unless sent 
with the sanction and under the seal of the departmental or foreign 
committees. 

Art. 9. The foreign and departmental committees will make known, 
as soon as possible, the expected number of exhibitors under their 
regulation, and the probable space which they will require. 

Art. 10. Upon receipt of these communications, the Imperial Com- 
mission will proceed to divide, without delay, the available space, pro 
rata, between France and other nations. 

Art. 11. This division effected, it will be notified to the French and 
foreign committees, who will themselves have to divide the space thus 
allotted amongst the various exhibitors. 

Art. 12. The lists of the exhibitors admitted ought to be addressed 
to the Imperial Commission by the 30th of November, 1854, at latest, 
and should indicate — 

1st. The names, surnames (or title of firm), profession and domicile, 
or residence, of the applicant. 

2nd. The nature and the number or quantity of the products 
which they desire to exhibit. 

3rd. The space required in height, breadth, and depth. 

These lists, as well as all other documents coming from abroad, 
should be, as far as possible, accompanied by a translation in the 
French language. 

ADMISSION AND CLASSIFICATION OF THE ARTICLES. 

Art. 13. All productions of agriculture, industry, and art are 
admissible to the Universal Exhibition, excepting those coming under 
the following heads, viz. : — 

1st. Live animals or plants. 



98 



The French Exposition of 1855. 



[May, 



2nd. Vegetable or animal matters in a state susceptible of deterio- 
ration. 

3rd. Explosive matters, and generally all those recognised as 
dangerous. 

4tli. All those productions which, by their bulk, exceed the objects 
of the Exhibition. 

Art. 14. Spirits or alcohols, oils and essences, acids and corrosive 
salts, and generally all bodies easily inflammable, or of a nature to 
cause fire, will only be admitted into the building when contained in 
well-closed vessels ; and the proprietors of such articles will be re- 
stricted by such other conditions to ensure safety as may be imposed 
upon them. 

Art. 15. The Imperial Commission will have the power of exclud- 
ing from the building, on the representation of competent persons, 
such French products as appear to them injurious to or incompatible 
with the objects of the Exhibition, as well as those which shall have 
been sent in excess of the wants or convenience of the Exhibition. 

Art. 16. The articles will form two distinct divisions — the products 
of industry, and the works of art. These will be distributed for each 
country in eight groups, comprising 80 classes, as follows : — 

FIRST DIVISION — INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS. 

1st Group. — Arts having for their particular object the extraction 
or the production of raw materials. 
1st Class. Mining and metallurgy. 
2nd „ The chase and fishing ; produce of various kinds, growing 

without cultivation. 
3rd „ Agriculture. 
2nd Group. — Arts having for their special objects the employment 
of mechanical forces. 
4th Class. Mechanics generally, as applied to industry. 
5th „ Mechanics as applied specially to railways and other 

means of transport. 
6th „ Mechanics as applied specially to workshops (tools). 
7th „ Mechanics specially applied to the manufacture of 
textile fabrics. 
3rd Group. Arts specially founded on the employment of physical 
or chemical agents, or connected with science or 
instruction. 
8th Class. Arts of precision.* Arts connected with science or 
instruction. 
9th „ Arts relating to the economical employment of heat, 

light, and electricity. 
10th „ Chemical arts, dyeing and printing fabrics, manufactures 

of paper, preparation of leather, caoutchouc, &c. 
1 1th „ Preparation and preservation of elementary substances. 
4th Group. Arts connected specially with the learned professions. 
12th Class. Hygiene, pharmacy, medicine, and surgery. ■ 
13th „ Marine and military arts. 
14th „ Civil constructions. 
5th Group. Manufacture of mineral products. 
15th Class. Steel, raw and manufactured. 
16th „ Ordinary works in metal. 
17th „ Goldsmiths' work, jewellery, bronzes. 
18th „ Glass and ceramic manufactures. 
6th Group. Manufacture of textile fabrics. 

19th Class. Cotton. 20. Wools. 21. Silks. 22. Flax and hemp. 
23. Millinery, carpets, laces, embroidery. 

* We have no exact equivalent for this phrase in English. " Instruments de precision," 
are weights and measures, gauges, manometers, &c. &c. 



7th Group. Furniture and decoration, industrial design, printing, 
and music. 
24th Class. Furniture and decoration. 
25th „ Articles of clothing and ornamental dress. 
26th „ Design and modelling, printing, photography. 
27th „ Fabrication of musical instruments. 

SECOND DIVISION WORKS OF ART. 

8th Group. Fine Arts. 

28th Class. Painting, engraving, and lithography. 
29th „ Sculpture and medal engraving. 
30th „ Architecture. 

RECEPTION AND ARRANGEMENT OP ARTICLES. 

Art. 17. Foreign as well as French productions will be received 
into the Exhibition from the 15th January, 1855, to 15th March, 
inclusive. However, manufactured articles which might be injured 
from remaining in packing-cases too long may have extra time 
granted' for their delivery, which must not in any case be later than 
15th April, on condition of all the arrangements for their exhibition 
having been made in advance. 

Heavy and cumbrous articles, or those which may require extra 
work in their erection, ought to be sent before the end of February. 

Art. 18. The committees of each country and of the French de- 
partments are invited to forward, as soon as possible, the articles 
from their districts. 

Art. 19. The goods sent by each exhibitor, whether sent alone or with 
those of other exhibitors, ought to be accompanied by the order of 
admission delivered by the competent authority. This order, 
executed in triplicate, and drawn up as directed by Art. 12, ought 
to give the number and weight of the packages belonging to the 
exhibitor, as well as the details and the price of each of the articles 
sent. Forms for these orders will be sent to all the committees, both 
French and foreign. 

Art. 20. French productions intended for the Exhibition will be 
forwarded from the places pointed out by the departmental and 
colonial committees, and will be sent back from Paris to the same 
places, at the national expense. 

Foreign productions destined for the same purpose will be also 
conveyed at the national expense, but only from and to the frontiers. 

Art. 21. All articles must be addressed to the commissioner 
charged with the arrangement of goods at the Exhibition Palace. 

Art. 22. The address of each package intended for the Exhibition 
ought to bear, in legible characters, the place from whence sent, the 
name of the exhibitor, and the 'nature of the articles contained 
within. 

FORM OP ADDRESS. 

Envoi de (name in full of the exhibitor or firm), demeurant , 
a (residence or seat of the establishment), exhibiteur de 
(nature of the articles sent). (Addressed thus) : — 

"A Monsieur le Commissaire du Classement 
de l'Exposition Universelle, 

Au Palais de l'Exposition, Paris." 
Art. 23. Packages containing the goods of several exhibitors 
should bear on the address the names of each of them so sending 
together, and should be accompanied by their respective orders of 
admission. 

Art. 24. Exhibitors are recommended not to send separate pack- 
ages of less than 5 cubic feet, and to put in the same package other 
packages of the same class which are of less dimensions. 

Art. 25. The admission of all goods to the Exhibition will be 
gratuitous. 



1854.] 



The French Exposition o/"1855. 



99 



Art. 26. Exhibitors will not be subject to any payment, under 
any pretence whatever, during the Exhibition. 

Art. 27. The Imperial Commission will provide the fixing, arrang- 
ing, and upholding of the articles In the interior of the Exhibition, 
as well as the work necessary for the machinery in motion. 

Art. 28. The tables and counters, divisions, railings, &c, will be 
furnished gratuitously to the exhibitors. 

Art. 29. Special arrangements and fittings (such as are called in 
English, counter and window fittings), glass cases, drapery, painting, 
and other ornamental work, will be left to the exhibitors, to be done 
at their own expense. 

Art. 30. These fittings must be executed under the superintendence 
of the inspectors, and must conform to the general plan. The 
inspectors will fix the height, projection, and form of the stalls, 
as well as the colours of the draperies and painting. 

Art. 31. Contractors, named or accepted by the Imperial Com- 
mission, will undertake such arrangements for the exhibitors, and 
their charges will be raised by the Commission, if the exhibitor 
desires it. But the exhibitors will be at liberty, with the authori- 
zation of the Commission, to employ such workmen for the purpose 
as they may think proper. 

Art. 32. Exhibitors who propose to send objects of which the 
weight or other circumstances demand extra foundations, or other 
special arrangements, must state their requirements when demanding 
space. 

Art. 33. Also those persons proposing to exhibit machines worked 
by steam, fountains, &c, must declare at a sufficiently early date 
the quantity and pressure of the water or steam which they will 
require. 

Art. 34. The articles will be arranged according to the nation by 
whom they are sent, in the order indicated in Art. 16. Nevertheless, 
the different articles of an individual, a corporation, a department, 
or a colony, may, with the consent of the executive committee, be 
exhibited in special groups, when such an arrangement will not 
essentially injure the general order. 

Art. 35. The Imperial Commission will take all the measures 
necessary for the safe preservation of the objects exhibited. But if 
in spite of these precautions, accidents occur, the Commission will 
not be responsible for any damage that may arise. The • exhibitors 
must take all such risks on themselves, as well as the expense of 
insurance, if they deem this latter step necessary. 

Art. 36. The Commission will equally take care that the articles 
are watched by a numerous and active staff; but they will not be 
responsible for robbery or violence. 

Art. 37. Each exhibitor will be permitted to employ a represen- 
tative to watch the articles exhibited by him. On making a declara- 
tion of the name and business of this representative, a card of 
admission will be given him, which can neither be transferred nor 
lent, under pain of forfeiture. 

Art. 38. The representatives of exhibitors must confine themselves 
to answering the questions which may be put to them, and delivering 
cards, prospectuses, or price currents, if they are demanded ; but 
they are expressly prohibited, under pain of expulsion, to solicit the 
attention of visitors, or to induce them to buy the articles exhibited. 

Art. 39. The price at the epoch of the Exhibition may be openly 
attached to the articles exhibited. The exhibitor who would avail 
himself of this permission must make a declaration to that effect to 
the committee of his locality, ^who^'will 'approve of the prices on 
recognising their truth. The prices thus affixed will be obligatory 
on the seller. In any case where this declaration shall be proved to 



be false, the Imperial Commission will have the power to remove the 
articles and exclude the exhibitor. 

Art. 40. Articles sold cannot be withdrawn until the close of the 
Exhibition. 

FOREIGN PRODUCTIONS — CUSTOMS* REGULATIONS. 

Art. 41. With respect to foieign productions, the Exhibition 
Palace will constitute a bonded warehouse. 

Art. 42. These articles, accompanied by the forms mentioned in 
Art. 19, will enter France by the ports and frontier towns below 
mentioned : — Lille, Valenciennes, Forbach, Wissembourg, Strasbourg, 
St. Louis, Les Verrieres de Joux, Pont de Beauvoisin, Chapareillan, 
St. Laurent du Var, Marseilles, Cette, Port Vendres, Perpignan, 
Bayonne, Bordeaux, Nantes, Le Havre, Boulogne, Calais, and 
Dunkerque. 

Art. 43. The goods sent may be addressed to agents appointed by 
the Commission in each of these ports or towns. These agents, for a 
sum fixed in advance, will undertake to fulfil the formalities requned 
by the customs, and to forward the goods to the Exhibition Palace. 

Art. 44. Foreign goods thus entering France will be received at 
the Exhibition Palace, where they will be taken charge of by the 
customs' officers. 

Art. 45. The removal of the customs' seals, and the opening of the 
cases, will only take place in the interior of the building, in the 
presence of the exhibitor or his representatives, and under the care of 
the customs' officers. 

Art. 46. A copy of the form of entry, considered as a certificate of 
origin, will remain in the hands of the customs; another will be 
remitted to the Commission of Arrangement ; and the third to the 
Secretary of the Imperial Commission. 

Art. 47. Foreign exhibitors, or their representatives, must declare, 
at the close of the Exhibition, if their goods are intended for ex- 
portation or consumption in France. In this latter case they will be 
allowed by the customs, in paying the duties, a deduction on account 
of any deterioration in value which their goods may have sustained 
during then exhibition. 

Art. 48. Prohibited goods will be admitted, as an exception, for 
home consumption, on payment of a duty of 20 per cent, on their real 
value. This will- be the maximum rate chargeable on any of the 
articles sent for exhibition. 

INTERNAL ORGANISATION AND POLICE REGULATIONS OP THE 
EXHIBITION. 

Art. 49. The internal organisation and the police of the Exhibition 
are placed under the authority of an executive committee, composed 
of the managers of the different departments, who will decide upon 
all questions coming within their sphere. 

Art. 50. The regulations, which will be published before the time 
fixed for the reception of goods, will determine all the points relative 
to the internal management, and will indicate the agents charged to 
assist the exhibitors, and to preserve order and security in the 
Exhibition. 

Art. 51. The employes attached to the foreign department ought 
to speak one or more of the languages of the nation to which they are 
attached. Interpreters, officially appointed by the Imperial Com- 
mission, will be, moreover, placed at different points of the foreign 
departments. 

Art. 52. Foreign Governments are requested to accredit to the 
Imperial Commission special commissioners, charged to represent their 
various countries during the period of the reception, classing, and 



100 



The French Exposition of 1855. 



[May, 



arranging of their goods, as well as in all other circumstances where 
their interests are engaged. 

PROTECTION OF INDUSTRIAL DESIGNS AND INVENTIONS. 

Art. 53. Every exhibitor, the inventor or legal proprietor of a 
process, a machine, or of a design, admitted to the Exhibition, and 
neither registered nor patented, who shall make the demand before 
the opening or during the first month of the Exhibition, may obtain 
from the Imperial Commission a certificate descriptive of the article 
exhibited. 

Art. 54. This certificate will ensure to the exhibitor his property, 
and give him the exclusive privilege to carry it out during a year 
from 1st May, 1855, without prejudice to his right to patent it in 
the ordinary manner before the expiry of the year. 

Art. 55. Every demand for a certificate of invention ought to 
be accompanied by an exact description of the object or objects to be 
protected, and, if necessary, by plans of the same. 

Art. 56. These demands, as well as the decisions come to with 
regard to them, will be entered in a provisional register, which will 
be ultimately deposited with the Minister of Agriculture, Commerce, 
and Public Works, in order to serve as proofs, if necessary, during 
the time allowed for the validity of the certificates. 

Art. 57. The delivery of these certificates will be gratuitous. 

CONSTITUTION OF JURIES AND PRIZES. 

Art. 58. The appreciation of and the judgment on the articles 
exhibited will be pronounced by a grand international jury. This 
jury will be composed of members titulary and members supple- 
mentary, which will be divided into 30 special juries, corresponding 
to the 30 classes indicated in Art. 16. 

Art. 59. In the division of Industrial Products, the number of 
members for each special jury is fixed as follows : — 



For each of the classes 3, 10, 20, and 23 


Titulary, 14 


Supplementary, 4 


„ 2, 6, 16, 18, 24 


„ 12 


3 


„ 7,8,12,13,14,17,19,21,25,26 


„ 10 


2 


„ 1, 4, 5, 9, 11, 15, 22, 27 


„ 8 


» 2 



In the division of Works of Art, the 28th class will have 29 titulary 
members ; the 29th class, 14 ; and the 30th class, 8. 

Art. 60. The number of jurymen to be fixed will be for France, 
as well as for foreign countries, proportional to the number of 
exhibitors furnished by each country. 

Art. 61. The official committee of each nation exhibiting will 
choose two persons to form the jury which may be demanded of it. 
The French jurymen will be named for the first 27 classes by the 
Agricultural and Industrial section of the Imperial Commission, and 
for the three last classes by the Fine Arts sections. 

Art. 62. In any case where the committee of one of the exhibiting 
countries shall not have chosen the jurymen who ought to represent 
it, they will be officially chosen by a general assembly of the jurymen 
present. 

Art. 63. The Imperial Commission will divide the members of the 
international jury between the different classes ; it will fix also the 
general rules which will serve as the base for the operations of the 
special juries. 

Art. 64. Each special jury will have a president named by the 
Imperial Commission ; and a vice-president and a reporter, named 
by the jury by an absolute majority. 

Art. 65. In a case where none of the jury obtain an absolute 
majority, it shall be decided by casting lots between those two having 
the greatest number of votes. 



Art. 66. The president of the jury, or, in his absence, the vice- 
president, shall have the casting vote. 

Art. 67. The special juries will be distributed in groups repre- 
senting thos% branches of industry connected together by certain 
points of analogy. These groups will be sixteen in number, con- 
formably to Art. 16. The members of each group will name their 
president and vice-president. 

Art. 68. The decisions arrived at by a special jury will only 
become definitive after they have been approved by the group to 
which they belong. 

Art. 69. Rewards of the first class will only be awarded after being 
revised by a council composed of the presidents and vice-presidents 
of the special juries. The Fine Arts jury is exempt from this 
regulation. 

Art. 70. Each special jury has the power of calling in, under the 
title of associates, or " experts," one or more persons of experience 
upon the subjects submitted to its judgment. These persons may be 
selected either amongst the titulary or supplementary members of 
other classes, or amongst other persons not jurymen. The members 
thus called in will only take part in the deliberations of the class to 
which they are summoned as regards the subject on which their 
opinion is required. They will have only a consulting voice, and not 
a vote. 

Art. 71. Those exhibitors who accept office, either as titulary or 
supplementary jurymen, will be thus rendered incapable of com- 
peting for prizes. The Fine Arts jury is exempt from this regu- 
lation. 

Art. 72. Exhibitors acting as associates, or " experts," will be 
equally excluded from competing in that class in which they thus act. 

Art. 73. Each jury may divide itself into committees ; but a 
decision can only be taken by the entire jury. 

Art. 74. Special commissioners, assisted by the inspectors of each 
section, will be charged to prepare the labours of the juries ; to 
satisfy themselves that no objects have escaped the attention of the 
jury ; to receive the explanations of the exhibitors ; to repair any 
omissions or errors which may arise ; to watch over the observance 
of the established regulations ; and to explain these regulations to 
the juries, whenever the necessity may arise. 

Art. 75. The duties of these Commissioners will be confined to 
verifying facts, explaining the regulations, or presenting the demands 
of exhibitors. 

Art. 76. The nature of the prizes, and the general regulations on 
which their award will be based, will be ulteriorly determined by a 
decree based on the proposition of the Imperial Commission. 

Art. 77. Independently of the honorary distinctions which may be 
awarded, the council of the presidents and vice-presidents will have 
the power of recommending to the Emperor those exhibitors who 
may appear to it deserving of some special marks of public gratitude, 
or of encouragement of another nature, either on account of services 
rendered to civilisation, to humanity, to science or to art, or by 
reason of sacrifices made to some useful end, taking into account the 
position in life of the inventors or producers. 

SPECIAL REGULATIONS FOR THE FINE ARTS. 

Art. 78. A French jury, instituted at Paris, will pronounce upon 
the admission of the works of French artists. 

Art. 79. The members of the French jury who will decide upon 
the admission of works of art, will be named by the Fine Arts 
section of the Imperial Commission. 

Art. 80. This jury will be divided into three sections. The first 



Notes on Designing Steam Machinery. 



1854.] 

will comprise painting, engraving, and lithography; the second, 
sculpture and the engraving of medals ; the third, architecture. 

Each of these sections will decide with regard to the works coming 
within its sphere. 

Art. 81. The Exhibition will be open to receive the productions 
of French or foreign artists alive at the date of the decree insti- 
tuting the Exhibition of Fine Arts, 22nd June, 1853. 

Art. 82. Artists may present at the Universal Exhibition works 
previously exhibited ; only they may not present, 1st. Copies, unless 
these represent a work in a different style ; 2nd. Paintings and other 
objects without frames ; 3rd. Scidptures in clay. 

Art. 83. Articles 1 to 13—15 to 13—35, 36, 40 to 47, 49 to 52, 
and 58 to 77, of the present regulations, are applicable to the exhi- 
bition of works of art. 



GRIFFITHS' PATENT SCREW PROPELLER. 

Illustrated by Plate xxi. 

Having witnessed some of the early trials of this invention in 1851, 
and having formed a favoxu-able opinion of its merits, we have 
watched with some interest its gradual and steady progress towards 
its now recognised position as the best propelling agent at present in 
use. It owes this position entirely to its own merits, for it was 
opposed in many quarters with a bitterness and perseverance con- 
trasting strongly with the modest and unobtrusive appeals to public 
patronage made by the inventor and those interested with him. 

For what we have already published on this subject we may refer 
our readers to vol. 1851, p. 216 ; vol. 1852, pp. 176—219 ; vol. 1853, 
p. 145. In this last article, in speaking of the application of this 
screw to the Great Britain, we suggested that as the peculiar form of 
the blades presented but a small resisting surface in a line with the 
vessel's keel, when they were fixed vertically (in a two-bladed 
screw), it might enable us to dispense with the expensive and com- 
plicated feathering apparatus in use in many vessels where the steam 
power was only used when the state of the wind rendered the sails 
useless. This view is entirely confirmed by the trials since made with 
several vessels, and a benefit is thereby attained which can only be 
properly appreciated by those who have been at sea in a screw steamer, 
with the blades feathered and jammed hard up, without the possi- 
bility of moving them. Neither is the steerage affected in any degree 
by the fixing of the propeller, a point of scarcely less importance. 
Although the numerous trials on the large scale which Mr. Griffiths has 
had ample opportunities of making, have done very little, if anything, 
to improve the broad principle upon which he started, they have led 
him to devise a very convenient arrangement for the construction of 
the screw, which admits of its pitch being varied within certain limits, 
and thus adjusted to give the maximum of effect in relation to 
the lines of the ship, effective power of the engines, &c. 

This arrangement, which has been recently patented, is represented 
in Plate xxi., and has been applied to the Emeu, Black Swan, Menura, 
and Kangaroo, four of the Australian and Pacific Company's fleet. 
Fig. 1 is an elevation of the propeller, with the upper half of the 
spherical centre in section. Fig. 2 is a horizontal section of the boss 
through the line A, b, c. Fig. 3 is an end view, half in section ; and 
fig. 4 is a side view of the screw complete. 

The blade of the propeller having been inserted into the socket, it 
is kept from returning, and, at the same time, adjusted to the required 
pitch, by means of the thrusters a, a, which thrusters are inserted 
through the openings b, b, and are pressed forward to the snags c, c, 
iqjon the propeller shank, and, at the same time, prevented from 
returning through the openings b, b, by the keys d, d, the length of 



101 



the thrusters determining the pitch or angle of the blades ; the keys 
e, e, are for the purpose of keying down the blades firmly into then- 
sockets, and act upon the snags c, c. 

It can scarcely be necessary for us to reiterate, as has been already 
fully explained in this Journal, that Mr. Griffiths' Propeller embraces 
all the points to be desired — a more moderate speed of engine, and a 
smaller diameter of screw than the common form admits of, with 
a total removal of vibration from the vessel, injurious at once to the 
ship and distressing to the passengers. We may now add, that it is 
stronger and more easily reparable. 



NOTES ON DESIGNING STEAM MACHINERY.— No. IV. 

By Navalis. 

ON TAKING THE THRUST OF THE SCREW SHAFT OF MARINE 
ENGINES. 

Through the courtesy of Messrs. Hick and Son, we are now 
able to present the readers of The Artizan with the full particidars 
of their mode of takmg the thrust of a screw shaft, which we briefly 
alluded to in the March " Notes " on Naval Engineering, &c. There 
are several expedients for this purpose possessing some degree of 
merit, and a brief examination of a few of the most eligible of them 
may not be uninteresting to the practical student. 

The fundamental points for consideration, in designing a means of 
taking the thrust of a screw shaft, we take to be as follows : — Never 
to carry the thrust through the cranks of a direct acting engine. To 
keep the friction a minimum. To obviate the tendency to heating at 
the part where the thrust is taken ; and to preserve a simplicity and 
compactness of detail consistent with safety and the conditions 
required of the machine. 

The simplest recourse for the purpose in question is, no doubt, 
that in which one large collar is formed on the shaft and allowed to 
thrust against the first bearing of the engine frame ; the brasses 
having larger flanges than usual, so as to present a considerable area 
for friction surface. For engines of small power, this very simple 
expedient may be found sufficient ; but, in one point of view, it is 
liable to the same objection as that which is urged against the plan of 
allowing the end of the screw shaft to butt against a disc or other flat 
surface, perhaps the most ineligible mode of taking the thrust of a 
screw shaft, as the friction surface is then concentrated within a 
limited area, and throughout which it is sometimes difficult to effect a 
thorough lubrication ; a heated bearing is the consequence, which 
generally means that the parts are grinding each other, or wearing 
down very quickly ; this, it is clear, must take place where there 
is a great thrust upon one single part, and that part containing but a 
small area for friction surface. The application of one broad collar 
is, therefore, only admissible under certain limitations. 

The expedient in most general use— the series of collars on the 
screw shaft — possesses, most undoubtedly, some of the best practical 
features : simplicity of detail and efficiency in operation ; it is some- 
times liable to become heated, but can be made so as to be kept cool. 
A few data, giving the amount of friction surface allowed for a given 
pressure, as practised by a London firm in the example cited, may be 
of some use to the student as a guide to his judgment in designing 
steam machinery. 

In the Donna Maria II, by Messrs. Miller, Ravenhill, Salkeld 
and Co., the thrust of the screw shaft is taken in the manner above 
mentioned, the dimensions of which we have been favoured with by 
Mr. Gregory, Engineer-in-chief. The diameter of the shaft is 9j 
inches ; the diameter over the collars 12 inches, and 7 in number ; 
the total area of friction surface is, therefore, 295'47 square inches. 
The diameter of each piston is 63 inches, and the maximum pressure 



102 



Notes on the Progress of Natal Engineering, fyc. 



[May, 



on both pistons 116,480 lbs. Now, though the absolute thrust of a 
screw shaft will depend upon the nature and dimensions of the screw, 
and the length and diameter of the cylinders of the engines, it will be 
sufficiently near, for practical purposes, to consider the thrust of the 
shaft in direct acting engines the same as the pressure actuating the 
pistons, and in geared engines, reducing the pressure on the pistons, 
by the ratio of the driving to the driven wheel, for the thrust on the 
screw shaft, applying the last rule to the case in point. The geared 
wheels of the Donna Maria II. are 2^ to 1 ; the thrust on the shaft 
will, therefore, be 116,480 H- 2f-, = 42,356 lbs.; and the area of 
friction surface being 295-47 square inches, the pressure on the 
collars of the screw shaft will be 143 - 351bs. per square inch. Having 
now given a few data respecting this mode of taking the thrnst of a 
screw shaft, we will proceed with the expedient introduced by the 
Messrs. Hicks ; at least, it was in their engines that we first noticed 
the application of conical rollers for this purpose. 

The drawings (Plate xxi.) delineate the apparatus so fully and 
clearly that a brief description will suffice. The disc a is keyed on 
to the screw shaft, and prevented from slipping back by the ring 
b, which is shrunk into a recess cut in the shaft ; a corresponding- 
plate fits against the plummer-block of the engine, and is retained 
in its position by the joggles c e c ; between the bottom joggle and 
the straight projecting portion of this plate a wedge is inserted, to 
enable this plate to be adjusted and kept opposite the disc a, as 
the shaft wears down in its bearings. The four conical rollers 
which receive the thrust of the shaft, are mounted in a frame as in 
the live ring of a turntable or swing bridge, the inner ving,.d, of the 
roller frame forms the bearings for the roller pins and is bushed 
with brass, as it works freely upon and independently of the shaft, 
which makes 60 while the live ring only makes 12 revolutions per 
minute. The outer ring e receives the thrust of the conical rollers, 
a brass washer being inserted between the ring and the roller ; the 
joints of the outer ring, it will be observed, overlap each other, 
and the two halves are prevented from separating by the keys f f 
of the same sectional area as the ring, so that the bolts may be said 
to have nothing more to do than to hold the two parts together 
laterally. 

The object sought by this apparatus is obvious : the greater part 
of the thrust of the screw shaft is received by a rolling action, 
which theoretically produces no retarding influence, as the rollers 
are frustra of true cones, the sides of which, if produced, would all 
meet in one common centre at the axis of the screw shaft. The 
thrust of the shaft is, in reality, dispersed in the direction of the 
rollers in a reduced degree, according to the ratio of the height to 
the base of the cone from which the roller is cut; this reduced 
amount of thrust can therefore be resolved in accordance with the 
principle of the wedge. 

The diameter of the pistons of the engines in which this expedient 
is applied is 48 inches, the maximum pressure on ditto 14 lbs. on 
the square inch ; the total pressure on both pistons will therefore 
be 50,667-68 lbs., and the engines being direct acting the thrust 
on the screw shaft may be considered the same; but the power 
of the conical rollers to reduce the pressure in transferring the 
thrust in the direction of their axis is 2| to 1, the reduced pressure 
against the outer ring will then be 50,667-68-^2^=20,267 lbs., and 
for the pressure at each roller 20,267 -M = 5,066-76 lbs. ; and since 
the friction surface at the end of each roller is 9-28 square inches, 
the pressure on each square inch of friction surface would be 
5,086-76-^9-28 = 546 lbs. nearly; this is the maximum pressure to 
which the surface would ever be subjected, in ordinary practice it 
would be considerably less, through obvious causes. 

With respect to the requisite strength for the outer rin» of 



the roller frame, one square inch for about one ton strain appeal* 
to have been allowed; the pressure tending to burst the ring is 
nearly nine tons, and the sectional area of the ring (both sides) 
8 square inches ; this ring is not merely subjected to a tensile strain, 
but has to be sufficiently strong to enable it to retain its circular 
shape, and hence the object in placing it with the edge against 
the rollers. 

Such are, we believe, the three most eligible modes of taking the 
thrust of a screw shaft. We have already mentioned the objection to 
one single broad collar. (Although we have seen this expedient 
applied in the screw colliers without any apparent signs of being 
subject to heating or wearing quickly.) It may therefore be worth 
a consideration, as to whether the broad collar could be repeated at 
every plummer-block throughout the shaft, and having one on each 
side when there is no bearing in the stern post. The plan of over- 
hanging the screw in merchant steamers is now more extensively 
adopted than it appears to have been hitherto. 

With respect to the series of collars and their tendency to heating, 
we believe the best antidotes are, to increase the number of the 
collars, and to let both collars and shaft have a little clearance in the 
bearings sideways. Increasing the number of collars, it will be 
borne in mind, does not increase the friction, as the resistance to 
friction is independent of the extent of the area in contact, and 
dispersing the friction over a greater area lessens the load on each 
unit of surface, and gives the ordinary temperature of the shaft 
more power to counteract the tendency of the friction to generate 
heat. The plan of giving all bearings that are liable to heat a little 
clearance sideways, so as to allow for the expansion of the journal, 
should not be lost sight of by the professional student. We question 
if heated bearings would ever be heard of, if the practice of making 
fine fits of them were totally abandoned. 

Having now supplied such arguments and data as seemed to 
bear upon the cases in point, we leave the student to his judgment 
in the choice of expedients, without giving an unconditional pre- 
ference to any particular plan ; as each one, as we have before 
remarked, possesses some good feature — the one that of simplicity, 
the other of general efficiency and the advantage of being most 
extensively used ; and the plan of the Messrs. Hicks we have shown 
to be founded on correct prmciples, namely, that of receiving three- 
fifths of the thrust of the screw shaft by a rolling action, the re- 
maining two-fifths only being subject to friction. 



NOTES ON THE PROGRESS OF NAVAL 
ENGINEERING, &c. 

By Navalis. 

We have already given a hasty sketch (p. 51) of a few of the prin- 
cipal arrangements of the machinery of the Sardinian frigate-of-war 
Carlo Alberto, by the Messrs. Stephenson and Co., of Newcastle, and 
propose now to continue our notes upon this subject. 

Considerable interest is attached to the Carlo Alberto, as being the 
first screw steam ship-of-war that has been constructed on the Tyne. 
The Messrs. Smith, the builders of the hull, have long been cele- 
brated for their first-class Indiamen, and have now turned out a war- 
frigate which may safely be compared to any of a similar class in the 
British Navy ; with respect to her lines, they seemed to us much 
better adapted for speed, with apparently the same facilities for firing 
fore and aft guns as those in our own navy. 

The Messrs. Smith confine themselves to the building of wooden 
ships, but the sad state of the navigation of the river is a- complete 
bar to their attempting to build vessels of a larger class than those of 
about 2,000 tons. If we are correctly informed, the lines of their 



1854.] 



Notes on the Progress of Naval Engineering, tyc. 



103 






vessels are drawn by one of the heads of the firm, the masting and 
equipment being under the superintendence of Mr. Kipping, favour- 
ably known as the author of one of Weale's rudimentary series, and 
also of a treatise on the elements of sailmaking ; and we observed, on 
our last visit in that direction, that they have covered both their 
dock and slips with galvanised iron roofs. It will, therefore, be seen 
that the " Tyne-siders " are not behind their neighbours in these 
progressive times, of which the Carlo Alberto is a floating testimony. 

Returning to the engines. The cylinders lie side by side, and 
forming the steam-case between the two by the projecting parts cast 
on the cylinders ; in the centre of the steam-case so formed is a par- 
tition plate, and between this plate and each valve an adjustable 
wedge is inserted, to exclude the steam from the backs of the valves. 
Motion is given to the valves by the link motion, each link having 
four eccentrics — that is, instead of one eccentric with a double eye 
at the end of the link, there are two eccentrics with plain eyes, one 
on each side of the link. The links are at the opposite side to the 
steam-cases; the valve-rods being guided under the hot well, 
returning through the links, carried over the shaft by small cross- 
heads, and proceeding on to the valves. In reversing, the links are 
lifted on both sides. 

We have before described the pistons as having four rods passing 
over the shaft and fixed to the air-pump plunger (p. 51). This 
plunger is cast in two parts, that part next to the cranks having two 
vertical diaphragms and four pillars cast throughout its length for 
giving strength to it as it receives the full thrust of the engines in 
giving motion to the crank ; the connecting rod vibrates between the 
two diaphragms, and through the centres of the pillars pass the bolts 
for securing the pedestals or blocks which form the bearing for the 
end of the main connecting rod. The other part of the plunger is 
simply a shell, fixed to the former part with tap-bolts, and having the 
end removable to admit of access to the connecting rod and its 
bearing. 

The foot and delivery valves are a series of small ones of vulcanized 
India rubber, as in Penn's trunk-engines. 

There are four tubular boilers, two on each side, with the stoke- 
hole in the centre and firing athwart-ships, the plan which seems to 
be in most favour at present with British engineers. The means of 
ventilating the stoke-hole and supplying it with fresh air are very 
complete. The fan, which is placed over the donkey against the 
bulkhead, receives its ah' from above and forces it down into a reser- 
voir at the base of a cast-iron column which supports the uptakes of 
the boilers; the outside of this reservoir is perforated all round so as to 
throw the fresh air into every part of the stoke-hole ; air-pipes are also 
led to each ash-pit, so that, if there should be a scarcity of draft, these 
apertures in the ash-pit can be unplugged, the doors of the ash-pit 
closed, and the fires forced with the fan ; and, if it were required, 
very hard anthracite could be used, or a considerable quantity of 
coke mixed with bituminous coal. Then, again, the perforations at 
the base of the column have a ring which drops over and shuts in the 
air; and by so closing up this communication, and also plugging up 
the apertures in the ash-pits, the air from the fau may then be made 
to pass on to the engine-room, that is, if it be required to give the 
engine-room the full supply of fresh air which the fan is capable of 
discharging; this air will circulate in the engine-room and pass into 
the stoke-hole, and be there further used to supply the furnaces ; for, 
when the fires are lighted, a continuous current of air is found to pass 
through the engine-room into the stoke-hole, the only communication 
with the stoke being on that side next the engines. For respiratory 
purposes, the fan will, therefore, probably only be required in tro- 
pical climates, or in cases of very hot weather. 

The plan of raising the screw is that most generally used at pre- 



sent : two chain or rope pullies are fitted in the top of the frame in 
which the screw is suspended, other two pullies are fitted in the trap- 
door of the opening, or else a block is slung on the spanker-boom 
and the fall carried forward to the capstan, and so hove up. A pall 
on each side of the frame drops into a rack as the screw is being 
raised, for fear the rope or chain should break. 

One other feature we must not omit to mention; that is, the mecha- 
nical telegraph for the captain to communicate his signals to the 
engineer. Iu front of the engineer, and also at the captain's gangway, 
is a dial with the signals engraved in full around the outer part of 
the face, and having a pointer to each dial as in an ordinary clock ; 
attached to the captain's dial is a handle by which he turns his 
pointer to the signal required. When the engineer's pointer passes 
the signal " stand by," an alarum is rung, which attracting his atten- 
tion to the dial, he reads off the signal to which the pointer is 
directed. 

Let any one compare this mode of communicating the signals with 
the vulgar system of vocal telegraphing still so extensively practised in 
the mercantile marine. We have often been amused at the absurdity 
of a gentleman (as many captains are) bawling signals to another 
" Stentor " in fustian, who re-bawls them down throush crank- 
gratings, or three or four hatchways. 

Such are, we believe, the principal features of the machinery of the 
Carlo Alberto ; proportionate in detail, and compact in arrangement, 
malgre the air-vessel on the hot well, which we would rather not 
have seen, but in other respects unexceptionable. Since the intro- 
duction of Penn's trunk-engines, not anything, we think, has been 
produced in naval engineering so strikingly original, or better adapted 
for the exigencies of a vessel-of-war. 

The City of Hobart, iron screw steamer," is the pioneer of a fleet of 
seven steamers for the Tasmanian Steam Navigation Company, Van 
Diemen's Land. This vessel is 600 tons burthen, 195 feet long 
between the perpendiculars, 25 feet 9 inches, beam, and 19 feet 
6 inches deep to under side of spar deck ; is fitted with a pair of 
inverted direct acting engines of 100 nominal horse power, giving a 
proportion of tonnage to nominal power of 6 to 1, and the ratio of 
the vessel's length to breadth is 7J to 1 nearly. The cylinders are 
41 inches diameter, and 2 feet 9 inches stroke ; the propeller is 
12 feet 6 inches diameter, and 27 feet pitch, and is fitted, as in 
Beattie's patent, behind the rudder. 

The trial of her speed was made between the Nore and the Mouse 
Light, a distance of eight nautical miles, which was run in 29 minutes 
50 seconds ; and, returning against the tide, the run was accomplished 
in 33 minutes, giving a mean velocity of 15-36 knots or 17 - 69 statute 
miles per hour. This is one of the best residts for a steamer of these 
dimensions that has ever come before our notice. We were much 
struck with the City of Hobart, both for beauty of model and fineness 
of lines, and in her trial trip she has fully ratified the opinion we had 
formed of her. 

This vessel is fitted with a spar deck, according to the plans first 
introduced by Captain Andrews in the City of Norwich, Tonning, and 
other steamers, for the North of Europe Company, which gives first- 
rate passenger accommodation in small steamers. The hull and 
machinery of the City of Hobart were constructed by the Messrs. 
Wingate and Co., of Glasgow, from the plans of Mr. J. Dudgeon, of 
London. The other six vessels for the Tasmanian Steam Navigation 
Company are in process of construction, all from the designs of 
Mi-. Dudgeon, some of which will be 2,000 tons burthen, and pro- 
pelled by engines of 350 horse power. 

Another of the screw steamers originally built for the service 
of the Australasian Pacific Company proceeded on her trial trip 
in the Clyde on the 11th ult, and ran the distance, from the Clock to 



104 



Log of the "Emeu." 



[May, 



the Cumbray, 137 knots, in 66 minutes, and back again, with jib, 
fore, and main-sail set, in 73 minutes. The Black Swan is a sister 
vessel to the Emeu and Kangaroo, all by Mr. Robert Napier, of 
Glasgow. This vessel is 1,620 tons burthen, o. m., and is fitted with 
engines of 300 nominal horse power. The screw, on Griffiths' patent, 
is 12 feet 2 inches diameter, and 16 feet pitch, making 88J revo- 
lutions per minute. The average speed effected during the trial 
was 1 1 - 91 knots per hour, at the same time indicating 1,088 horse 
power ; the slip of the screw, according to these data, would be 14-73 
per cent. The machinery, we understand, worked very satisfactorily, 
the greatest pressure of steam used being 20 lbs. on the square inch, 
and maintaining a good vacuum of 26 inches at 15 lbs. pressure ; 
the consumption of Scotch coals per hour being 30 cwt. 

The coincidence between the results of this trial trip and the 
results shown by the abstract from the log of the Emeu is remarkable, 
and it is with much pleasure we record the results of a trial which 
affords some practical data, which may hereafter be useful in com- 
paring the comparative efficiency of vessels of various models and 
lines, and of screws of various forms and dimensions. As to which is 
the best pitch to give a screw for a vessel of given lines, is a problem 
yet remaining for solution. At present, engineers can do no more 
than give a coarse pitch to a screw in a direct acting engine, a fine 



pitch to a screw in a geared engine, and leave all the rest to the 
chapter of accidents. 

We availed ourselves of the opportunity to inspect the Majestic 
prior to her departure for the Baltic. The machinery was con- 
structed by Messrs. Maudslay, Sons, and Field. The engines are 
somewhat similarly arranged to those that were designed by Mr. Holm 
for the Amphion ,■ but in the Majestic the cylinders lie on the same 
side, and each has two common slide valves lying at an angle, one on 
each side of the centre line of engine. The air-pumps are double 
acting, placed similarly to those of the Amphion, but the piston of the 
air-pump is worked by a rod proceeding from the cylinder piston. 
The Messrs. Maudslay have long used the link motion for working 
the valves, but have a separate apparatus for an expansion gear, 
which in the engines of the Majestic is very simple and ingenious, 
but we could not describe it intelligibly without a sketch. 

As to the hull of the Majestic, little could be seen above the water 
line but a rectangular " box with the corners rounded." We do not 
pretend to question her qualities as a floating battery, but she seemed 
sadly deficient in the properties required by a vessel to run and steer 
well. Next to a washing-tub, we should think, one of the most 
unmanageable things that can be sent afloat is one of these vessels 
of the British Navy. 



ABSTSACT OF THE LOG OF THE AUSTRALASIAN PACIFIC MAIL STEAM PACKET COMPANY'S STEAM SHIP 

" EMEU."— Ed. Stamp, Commander. 

Voyage No. 1, from Kingstown to Malta ; commenced the 2nd day of March, 1854, at 5 p.m., and ended the 11th day of March, 1854, at 

3 a.m. Time occupied, 8 days 10 hours. 

[We are enabled, through the courtesy of Champion Wetton, Esq., Secretary to the Australasian Pacific Mail Steam Packet Company, to 
present our .readers with an abstract of the Log of the Emeu, on her first voyage. In connexion with the Lines (Plate xx.) and Specification, 
it will be found both useful and interesting to our readers ; and it exhibits most satisfactory results. It will be observed that North Latitude 
and West Longitude are expressed by +, and East Longitude by — . Ed.] 







Ship's 
Course. 


Under Weigh. 








Coal consumed. 






Date 


Winds. 






Distance 
Run. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 






Grade of 
Expansion. 










Average per 












only. 


Total. 








Hour. 


Per Day. 






1854. 






Hours. 


Hours. 








Cwt. 


Tons. 




C At 5 p.m. took a departure from the 


Mar. 2 












+ 


+ 






... 


< Kisli floating light, bearing AV.N.W. 
1 2 miles. 


„ 3 


South 


S. 19 W. 


19 


19 


209 


50° 1 


7° 35 


30 


33 


1st 


Strong head wind. 


„ 4 


S.S.E. 


S.16W. 


24 


24 


296 


45° 18 


9° 46 


30 


35 


1st 


Moderate ditto. 


„ 5 


South 


S. 8 W. 


24 


24 


272 


40° 49 


10° 37 


30 


35 


1st 


Ditto do. ; performed Divine service. 


v 6 


S.E. 


Various 


24 


24 


260 


36° 54 


8° 36 


30 


36 


1st 


Ditto do. 


„ 7 


East 


Do. 


24 


24 


206 


36° 07 


4° 55 


30 


37 


1st 


Strong gale. 


„ 8 


Do. 


N. 18 E. 


24 


24 


254 


36° 55 


0°18 


30 


36 


1st 


Moderate head wind ; passed P. & 0. 
Manilla. 


„ 9 


Do. 


N - 81 ) v 

S.79 $ K 
N. 81 E. 


24 


24 


270 


37° 12 


5° 54 


30 


36 


1st 


Ditto do. 


„ 10 


Do. 


24 


24 


270 


37° 10 


12° 30 


30 


36 


1st 


Calm and do. ; passed H.M.S. Vulcan. 


„ 11 


Do. 


Various. 


15 


15 


186 






30 


22 


1st 


Ditto do. 



202 2223 Nautical miles by observation. 306 Tons. 



2249 Ditto patent log. 



Nominal time (under weigh) from the Kish, until anchorage at Malta , 202 hours, or 8 days 10 hours. 

Deduct for difference of longitude 1 hour 20 minutes, and 40 minutes cooling bearings ... 2 „ 2 „ 

Actual time consumed on the trip 200 hours 8 days 8 hours. 

2223 miles ■— 200 hours, gives an average speed of 11-11 nautical miles per hour, deduced from observation ; 30 cwt. of coals being the 
average hourly consumption, or about 36 tons per day, which includes 10 cwt. per day used in producing fresh water by condensing steam. 
The foregoing distance was done under steam only, and with the 1st grade of expansion. 




A true Abstract. 



(Signed) 



Malta, 12th March, 1854. 



Thos. Small, 

Acting Chief Mate, 



1854.] 



Steam Plough of Lord Willoughby de Eresby. 



105 



TEE STEAM PLOUGH OP LOST) WILLOUGHBY DE 

ERESBY. 
We have the pleasure to notice some further improvements in the 
system of steam ploughing adopted by Lord Willoughby de Eresby. 
Our readers will better understand the importance of these altera- 
tions by a reference to The Artizan, July, 1853, where the system 
is fully explained. We then remarked upon the great advantages 
that would accrue from the application of additional ploughs ; the 

PLOUGH POP 



expense of working being so slightly increased in comparison with 
the amount of work performed. In the plans previously submitted 
to our readers, it will be observed that while three ploughs are 
carried, only two furrows are ploughed. The alterations consist in 
making the ploughs a a (figs. 1 and 2) double, and moveable on the 
bars b b, from one side of the frame to the other, the ploughs a a 
having a nut, c c, and screw, d d, provided with handles for reversing 
the position of the ploughs a a at each extremity of the field. 

LIGHT LANDS. 




The mould boards e e e merely require 
turning upon their centres in the opposite 
direction. 

In this arrangement three ploughs are at 
work at the same time, doing about five acres 
of land per day ; whereas in the previous 
arrangement, only two ploughs could work, 
although three were carried. 

Figs. 3 and 4 show a side elevation and 
end view of the lifting apparatus for raising 
the plough out of the furrows. It consists 
of two uprights A a, an inclined cross-piece 
b, on which runs a roller c, carrying the lever 
j> and chain e ; the lever d is raised a suffi- 
cient height by the lifter r, attached to the 
lever d by a staple ; the handles g and h are 
for lifting the apparatus when it is required 
to change its position. 

When the plough is suspended from the 
chain e, so as just to clear the furrows, the 
ploughs a a are reversed in their position, 
the mould boards e e e turned upon their 
centres. The plough is then moved 2 feet 
3 inches down the incline of the lifting 
apparatus on to the surface of the field, and 
the backward journey commences. 

Figs. 5 and 6 show a side elevation and plan 
of a plough for heavy lands — the details and 
construction of which are similar to the light 
land plough, with the exception that in this, 
only two ploughs are used. 

14 



■fe SCALE. 
PLOUGH POP HEAVY LANDS. Eg. 5.-Side Elevation. 




106 



Institution of Civil Engineers. 



INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. 

February 28, 1854. 
James Simpson, Esq., President, in the chair. 

" On the Means of attaining to Uniformity in European Measures, 
Weights, and Coins," by Mr. James Yates, M.A., F.R.S., &c. 
(Continued from p. 79.) 

As the French had not hesitated to adopt British inventions, when 
the advantages were made apparent, it was argued, this country 
should be equally willing to adopt any amelioration, from whatever 
source it might be derived. No nation was better qualified than the 
French to introduce improvements in the theory and practice of 
metrology. If they had not already offered an admirable system to 
the world, all civilised nations would look to them as, perhaps, the 
most able to invent such a system, on account of their acknowledged 
attainments both in theoretical and mathematical science, and their 
dexterity in certain branches of mechanics. No narrow prejudice 
or national antipathy should prevent an international combination 
for the promotion of a scheme fraught with advantage to the 
interests of commerce, of science, and of philanthropy. 

In addition to the objections urged by theorists, there were others, 
equally formidable, arising from habit and popular prejudice. 
These, it was contended, must be overcome by the combined efforts 
cf the Government and the people. The Government had under its 
control infinitely the greatest amount of measuring and weighing, 
and counting of money, in the kingdom, and, consequently, had the 
greatest interest in introducing a system which would be attended, 
in addition to numerous and far greater benefits, with a saving of a 
very large amount, probably a quarter of a million annually, in the 
collection and management of the revenue. But the Government 
could not possibly effect this great change, apart from the people ; 
therefore the people should co-operate with, even if they did not 
commence the work, and it was a question whether it was not best 
that the change should begin at the bottom of the scale. The 
French system was so simple and beautiful that it could be taught, 
in a week, to the children of all schools, for the poor, throughout the 
kingdom, and they would take a pleasure in diffusing the knowledge 
of it among their parents and elders. Decimal methods of computa- 
tion, and the ability to use the French measures, weights, and coins, 
having been propagated among the poor, would necessarily be well 
known to the rich, and would thus soon become familiar and habitual 
among all classes of the people. 

The objection made to the use cf French terms, such as Franc, 
Centime, Metre, &c, was refuted, on various grounds. These terms 
were not in fact French, but rather Greek and Latin, and they were 
on that account at first to some extent repudiated by the French. 
On the other hand, Avoirdupois and Troy (Troyes) weight being 
French, the English were now only asked to exchange old and 
inconvenient French weights for new ones, which were better. But 
the introduction of numerous terms with other fashions and usages 
from France, and their constant recurrence, showed that this objec- 
tion was much overrated. Even if it were a valid objection in 
point of fact, it was one of little moment : for, if the terminology 
was objected to, the system might be taken without it. The Pled- 
montese, for example, used the French monetary system, although 
they called a Franc a "Lira? As the Arabic numerals, which 
were used wherever computation by tens was practised, were the 
signs of numbers, which were called by different names, in different 
countries, and yet were everywhere received in the same sense, so 
the same measures, weights, and coins might be known, in the 
various parts of the world, under different denominations, and yet be 



[May, 

perfectly understood and employed, by common agreement, through- 
out the earth. 

The Author exhibited a scheme of coinage, having the franc for 
its unit, the scale ascending to one hundred francs in the one 
direction, and descending to the one-hundredth part of a franc, 
called a " centime," or " cent." (pars centesima), in the other direc- 
tion. He maintained that the franc, occupying a middle place 
between the highest and the lowest coins, and being of that value, 
which was either on a par with the great majority of purchases and 
payments in this country, or certainly not at all below them, was 
well fitted to be taken as the middle term, and, in this respect, was 
preferable to the pound sterling, or even to the dollar. At the 
same time, nothing could be better adapted to secure facility, promp- 
titude, and correctness, in keeping accounts, than the reckoning by 
francs and centimes. He thought it useful to have a gold coin of 
one hundred francs, and a centime (perhaps of brass, on account of 
its large dimensions), in order to exhibit both extremities of the 
series to the eye, and to make that scries complete. He considered 
the rare occurrence of these smaller coins to be no objection, but 
the contrary ; because it would show that the middle term was fixed 
where it ought to be, — at that point where coins were in most 
constant requisition, for the purposes of trade and daily intercourse. 

Remarks were offered, showing the application of the subject to 
the employments of shopkeepers and retail traders, merchants and 
bankers, stock and; share brokers, and more especially to railway 
companies ; as also its almost indispensable necessity with a view to 
international j>ostage. 

In conclusion, it was suggested that all persons who were interested 
in this question, either on commercial grounds, from the love of 
science, or as the friends of peace and human progress, should use 
every means of co-operating with the Government, and either by 
forming associations, or otherwise, endeavour in every possible 
manner to induce the mass of the people to become acquainted with 
the principles and advantages of the French system, and thus, with 
all convenient speed, to introduce the knowledge and use of it, 
not only in Great Britain and Ireland, but in all the colonies and 
dependencies of the Kingdom, and, through the influence of example, 
eventually to extend it to the United States of America, and other 
independent countries. 

March 7, 1854. 

The evening was devoted to the discussion of Mr. Yates' paper, 
" On the Advantages of Uniformity in European Weights, Measures, 
and Coins." 

After describing the steps taken to induce the attention of the 
Legislature to the subject, and reviewing succinctly the evidence of 
the different witnesses examined before the Select Committee on 
Decimal Coinage, and the report residting from that inquiry, the 
advantages to be anticipated in all matters of money accounts were 
first dilated on, and then the translation of the present diversified 
weights and measures into one uniform, and decimally divided, 
system was insisted on. 

It was urged, that great facilities would be introduced in keeping 
accounts and making calculations ; that the pound sterling being 
adopted as the integer, the whole of the coins in present use might 
be retained, by only stamping their decimal value upon them, and 
thus keeping them in circulation until a new decimal coinage could 
be prepared. The proposed coins were shown to be sufficiently 
small for the purposes of the poor, for whom the quantities of mer- 
chandise would always be adapted to the purchaser's means ; and the 
pound sterling, remaining as the integer, was urged to be all that the 
large bankers and merchants could desire, 



1854.] 



Institution of Civil Engineers. 



107 



It was argued, that there were great objections against endeavour- 
ing to assimilate the coins of this country with those of other 
states, inasmuch as it would be impracticable to get all coimtries to 
agree; despotic monarchs would still continue, as heretofore, to 
debase the value of the coinage, to meet the exigencies of the 
moment, and even republican states had depreciated the value of 
their money ; so that, if all coins were to-day universally of the same 
standard and value, there was nothing to prevent their being all 
wrong to-morrow. Therefore, all that could be done was to deci- 
malize the currency, of this country, without reference to that of 
ether countries, and it was then thought that eventually the same 
adjustment of weights and measures would follow. 

The work of General Sir C. W. Pasley was quoted, to show the 
inappropriateness of the metre and its subdivisions for this country ; 
it was urged that even in France its use had on'y been enforced, 
during the Revolution, by the harshest means, and that even then 
the systerne usuel (feet and inches) had remained in force for nearly 
half a century, and, in spite of decrees, was even now scarcely 
abolished. The further propositions made by the General, for a 
decimal system, based on the existing coins, weights, and measures, 
were carefully examined. 

Professor Airy's evidence before the Committee was dilated on, 
and it was endeavoured to be shown that any attempt to assimilate 
English and foreign coinage must fail, if only from the force of public 
opinion, and the passive resistance of those who had no interest in 
making any change. 

It was a question of immense difficulty how to establish a natural 
basis for a standard ; it had been, in almost all cases, found imnossible 
to establish one correctly, and therefore an arbitrary standard had 
been preferred. The precautions taken for preserving correct types 
of the standards for England were detailed. The introduction of the 
decimal subdivision of the lb. troy for the use of the Bank of 
England and the bullion dealers, was quoted as an example of what 
necessity would do naturally, and was used as an argument to urge 
civil engineers, architects, and builders to introduce some uniform 
scale of decimal measures, to which money values would be brought 
to assimilate more easily on the decimal than on any other system. 

It was shown that the Government could only "enforce" a decimal 
division of the coins of the realm, but it might " permit," eventually, 
such an arrangement of measures and weights as would be found 
most convenient by merchants and traders for the purposes of 
commerce. 

The system of the franc and the penny was strenuously urged, as 
being the simplest, and best adapted for the wants and habits of the 
labouring classes. 

It was contended by others that the proposition of the Committee 
on Decimal Coinage, for adopting the pound sterling as the integer, 
and dividing it into 1,000 mils, was untenable ; inasmuch. as, besides 
unsettling tolls and postage stamps, authorised by Act of Parliament, 
it would alter the prices of produce of all kinds, and only in a few 
cases supply equivalent rates ; nor would it meet exchanges with 
France and other countries, without dividing the cent, into most 
inconvenient fractions. 

It was therefore urged that it would be more convenient to 
adopt a lower integer, proposing either a coin of the value of 
25 pence = 100 farthings, or cents. ; or a coin of the value of 
10 pence = 40 farthings, or cents. The latter was considered to be 
more in harmony with the moneys of France, Holland, America, and 
other countries, where the decimal system had been already adopted. 
The coin of ^,ths of a farthing would equal the centime of France. 
The exchange with other countries would be met within Jth of a 
cent., and manufacturers would have a denomination to suit the 



smallest variation in prices or profits, without using the extreme 
fractions now resorted to. 

If it was admitted that the true arithmetical and scientific division 
of the integer was into 100 parts, or cents., it was contended that no 
difficulty would be experienced in the practical introduction of the 
system into commerce and into retail trade ; that its adoption would 
lead to a more correct method of estimating profits and losses, and 
of keeping books, and that it would facilitate calculation, and the 
receipt and payment of duties, taxes, and moneys of all kinds. 

As early as the year 1832, Mr. Babbage had, in his "Economy of 
Manufactures," drawn attention to the decimal system, as being 
the beGt adapted for facilitating all mercantile calculations, and had 
suggested the conversion of the present currency into a decimal 
series. 

It was stated that at the period of the Grea.t Exhibition in .1851, 
Monsieur de Vinsac, Member of the Academy of Macon (France), 
was deputed by that Society to endeavour to induce the adoption in 
this country of a system of weights, measures, and coins somewhat 
analagous to, if not identical with, those of France. That period, 
however, was not favourable for the consideration of the subject, 
and Monsieur de Vinsac had left with the Secretary of the Institu- 
tion of Civil Engineers certain documents, from which should now 
be culled and translated all that might apply to the question, in order 
to their publication with Mr. Yates' paper. 



March 14 and 28, 1854. 
Jambs Simpson, Esq., President, in the chair. 

The discussion.was taken on D. K. Clark's paper, " On Euthven's t 
Propeller." 

It was contended, that there was no novelty in the system of pro- 
pulsion proposed by Messrs. Euthven. Benjamin Franklin was 
among the first to notice it ; he related, that as a boy, whilst bathing 
in a pool, into which a wooden pump had been thrown to swell the 
timber, he got astride upon it, and commenced pumping ; to his 
astonishment, he found that he was propelling himself across the 
water ; subsequently he investigated the circumstances, and admitted 
the inefficient application of Dower. Sir Isambard Brunei attempted 
propulsion by means of a tube, in which there was a diaphragm, 
pushing the water before it, and acting upon a very light valve on 
the return stroke ; this was only an elongated paddle-wheel with an 
intermittent and inefficient action. 

Mr. Bidder tried the system also, on board a canal-boat, and 
although quite aware of the loss of power incidental to it, he ex- 
pected a compensation from the advantageous application of steam, 
as opposed to animal power. 

Ae to this particular case of Kuthven's and other similar pro- 
pellers, it was argued, that the reasoning in the paper was as totally 
at variance with the actual results of the experiments, as with the 
received laws of hydraulics. 

To show this, it sufficed to state, that according to the paper, 
the useful effect realised was 64 per cent, of the power of the 
engine, stated at 40 H.P. (indicated), which would give 25|- H.P. 
useful effect; but it was stated, in the experiments, that the two 
nozzles were 10 inches diameter each = together 1-^ square foot 
area. The head of water was 8^ feet = to a pressure of nearly 540 
lbs. per foot, or to a total pressure of about 580 lbs., which repre- 
sented, also, the resistance of the vessel at 9| miles per hour, giving, 
therefore, a useful effect of 14f H.P., instead of 25£ H.P., as stated 
in the paper. 

It was an error to state that the maximum of useful effect was 
when the velocity of the issuing water was equal to that of the 
vessel, or when the water dropped vertically from the nozzles; it 



108 



Institution of Civil Engineers. 



[May, 



could be shown, that in that particular condition there was not any 
development of useful effect. The actual operation of the system of 
propulsion was then shown to he analogous to the assumed case of a 
closed vessel of any shape, filled with a fluid of given density, and 
under a given pressure ; it was evident, that so long as the vessel 
remained in that normal state, no propulsive force would be exerted 
in any direction, the whole being in equilibrio ; but on an aperture 
being made, in either of the sides of the vessel, it was obvious that 
the area of the opening being relieved from pressure, the equilibrium 
would be disturbed, exactly by the extent of that aperture, into the 
head, and there would be a corresponding force exerted in the 
opposite direction. 

To apply this to the case under consideration, a vessel must be 
imagined, containing water under a pressure = to 3 feet, which was 
the head due to the velocity of the vessel, in the experiment. By 
making an aperture of about 3J feet area, there would be an un- 
balanced pressure of about 580 lbs., equivalent to that of the former 
statement ; but the velocity of issue would be 14 feet per second, 
and the power used would be about 15 H.P. But if the aperture 
was assumed to be reduced to 1^ square foot = ths area of the two 
nozzles ; then it would require 8-^ths feet head to produce the same 
pressure. The velocity of issue would be 23 feet per second, and the 
power would be about 25 H.P. ; thus the power required was 
exactly in the ratio of the velocity of issue, or inversely as the square 
root of the head. The loss was therefore 60 per cent, instead of 12 
per cent., as stated in the paper. 

But "he fundamental error, in the paper, was the omission of the 
loss of power, arising from picking up the water, in a state of rest, 
and communicating to it the velocity of the vessel. Supposing the 
water to be composed of an infinite number of globules, possessing 
weight, and being in a state of rest, they must all be raised to the 
head due to the velocity of the vessel, and then to the additional 
head, requisite for propulsion. 

In the present case, the quantity of water issuing from the nozzles 
was 25 feet per second ; this required to be raised 3 feet, to be 
equivalent to the velocity of the vessel — demanding therefore the 
exertion of 9, H.P. The results of the experiments would be more 
correctly stated thus : — 

Useful effect ... ... ... ... 14| H.P. 



Power consumed in raising the water to the 
velocity of the vessel ... ... ... = 9 H.P. 

Power used in propelling the water through the 
nozzles . ... ... ... ... — 25 H.P. 



Total power expended, exclusive of the friction 
in the water-ways, and of the engine itself... = 34 H.P. 

The absence of indicator diagrams was regretted, as tending to 
throw a doubt on the results ; but it was admitted, that the boiler 
surface, and the actual consumption of fuel, bore out the statements 
of the paper. 

It was contended, in reply, that though engine loower was con- 
sumed in getting the water up to the speed of the vessel, it did not 
necessarily follow that an equal amount of power was further 
required to expel the water. This single employment of power 
could be arrived at, by properly forming the water passages, so as to 
avoid all concussions of the water, by rectenguigr bends, or by 
sudden enlargements, or alterations of form ; and the desired object 
was stated to be, so to proportion the dimensions of the engine and 
the propeller, that the effluent speed of the water in one direction 
would be equal to that of the vessel in the other* la this case, it 



was stated, 100 per cent, of the engine power, minus fractional 
resistance, would be usefully available. 

That, practically, there were situations in which such a prooeller 
might be found very serviceable. For instance, in crowded rivers, 
where paddle-wheels were objectionable, amidst ice, and in shallow 
water, where the screw was not available, and in many other 
situations, where any great projections from the sides of the hull 
were undesirable. 

As an example, it was stated, that it would be very desirable, for 
the purposes of the Fire. Brigade, to have the means of bringing up 
the large floating-engine, at all times of the tide and under all 
the circumstances of ice, of an encumbered stream, or of shallow 
water, at a speed of ten miles an hour, propelled by its own engines. 
Experiments had already been made upon one of the floating 
engines, which although very imperfect, were sufficient to prove the 
adaptability of the system to the wants of the Fire 3rigade. 

In fine, it was contended, that although there still remained much 
to be done, to demonstrate the practical efficiency of so great an 
innovation, the experiments were sufficiently successful to induce 
further investigations, and which the Author was requested to 
continue and to report to the Institution. 



April 4, 1854. 
James Simpson, Esq., President, in the chair. 

After the reading of the minutes of last meeting, it was observed 
that the statements in the paper on Kuthven's propeller had been 
misunderstood ; as it had been assumed, that the paper stated the 
useful effect realised as 64 per cent, of the whole power of the engine 
at the pistons ; whereas it was really stated to be 50 per cent., and 
that the useful effect was 64 per cent, of the power delivered to the 
wheel-shaft ; which would materially affect the deductions then made. 

That one most important element in the calculation was lost sight 
of, namely, the duplicate pressure of reaction due to the efflux of 
water through the side of a vessel at rest ; the whole unbalanced 
hydraulic pressure being twice the hydrostatic pressure due to the 
height of the column of water. It was contended, that this dupli- 
cate pressure must exist to some extent, so long as the effluent 
velocity of the water exceeded the receding velocity of the vessel ; 
and that it diminished in some ratio with the receding speed of the 
vessel, and vanished only, when the vessel had acquired the effluent 
velocity of the water, — when the simple pressure, due to the head of 
water, remained. Therefore, that some allowance must be made for 
this duplicate pressure ; and that, assuming it to decrease uniformly 
with the difference of speeds, the power would be thus estimated, 
when the speed of the vessel was 62 per cent, of that of the effluent 
water, leaving 38 per cent, of excess : — 
1 x 100 = 100 per cent., when the speed of the vessel was equal to 

that of the effluent water ; 
1"38 x 62 = 85-56 per cent., when the speed of the vessel was 62 per 

cent, of that of the effluent water ; 
Leaving 14.44 per cent, of loss, by excess of speed, as originally 
deduced in the paper. 

It was added, that the proportion of the useful effect would be 
more simply estimated in the ratio of the squares of the speeds, as 
was done in the paper, thus : — 

IOC 3 : 38 2 : : 100 : 14-4 per cent. 

The proposition of the power employed was reduced nearly to 
common algebra, by separating the various causes and effects : the 
useful effect, in proportion to the power employed, was shown to be 
a maximum, when the speed of the boat was equal to the velocity 
of the effluent water, the " vena contracta" being taken into consi- 
deration. The ratio of useful effect to power employed, was shown 






1854.] 



Notes by a Practical Chemist, 



109 



22ST 






to be-— The velocity of the effluent water being to the velo- 

Fxl 
city of the boat as N to 1. 

It also appeared, that taking the sum of the useful effect, that is, 
in driving the boat, added to the effect not so employed, or wasted, 
was in all cases equal to the power employed, it was of no importance, 
theoretically speaking, whether the water was pumped up from the 
bow, the sides, or the bottom. 

The subject was investigated in three different ways, each giving 
the same result. 

It was stated, that in 1848 Mr. Purkis, being engaged in the con- 
struction of a fan-blower, thought the same principle might be 
adapted to the propulsion of a boat, and tried it in a model, about 
4 feet long and 8 inches wide, with a small steam-engine and two 
fans, each 2 inches in diameter ; with this he attained a speed of 3 to 
4 miles per hour. He then built another boat 25 feet long, and 4 feet 
wide, fitted with an engine, with two cylinders 4 inches diameter and 
4£ inches stroke, driving two fans 12 inches diameter of the same 
form as the fans of Appold's pump ; the water issuing from two 
orifices, each of 25 square inches. With this apparatus, the boat 
could only hold her way, against a tide of about 3 miles an hour. On 
the substitution of two fans of 7 inches diameter and the reduction 
of the propelling orifices to 7 - 75 square each, the boat attained an 
estimated speed of nearly 8 miles an hour. It was admitted that 
these experiments were imperfect, but they tended to corroborate 
the statements of the performances of Ruthven's propeller. 

The arrangement of Purkis' boat differed from Ruthven's chiefly 
in there being three holes on each side of the vessel — one to propel 
her ahead, one astern, and one midship to supply the pump, — 
each being supplied with a valve to close the orifices not in action, 
and to act instead of the curved nozzles of the Enterprize, which 
were supposed to be objectional in absorbing power. 



April 11, 1854. 
loysel's hydrostatic percolator. 

After the meeting, there was exhibited in the library a very 
simple and ingenious apparatus, designed by M, Loysel, for extract- 
ing colouring matters from dye-woods, and also for obtaining in- 
fusions, or extracts of vegetable substances, for medicinal or other 
purposes. 

The principle of action was that of direct hydrostatic pressure, 
applied by a simple and inexpensive apparatus. 

The substance to be operated upon was placed within a cylinder, 
whose bottom was finely perforated; a similar pierced diaphragm 
was then placed over it, so as not to produce any pressure ; the liquid, 
either cold or hot, was poured into an upper reservoir, whence it 
descended, by a centre tube, to beneath the lower diaphragm, and was 
forced upwards, by the pressure, through the superposed substance, 
every particle of which it saturated in its passage, expelling the air 
and carrying before it all the finest portions, to the upper strata, 
against the under side of the upper diaphragm. When a sufficient 
quantity of liquid had been passed, or the infusion was completed, a 
cock was opened, which permitted the infusion to return, from above, 
by its own specific gravity, through the substance already operated 
upon, thus completing the abstraction of any colouring or other 
matter not previously taken up, and at the same time filtering the 
liquid. By a second and similar process, anything still remaining in 
the substance could be extracted. 

It was practicable, by varying the height of the column, to give 
any degree of pressure, and by the application of a lamp, or, in 
a large apparatus, of a coke fire, the temperature of the decoction 
could be maintained as might be desirable. By another modification, 



the steam, generated in a small boiler, regulated the action of the 
apparatus. 

The system was described as being adapted to very numerous 
purposes, and the familiar application of it to making coffee was 
exhibited. The apparatus consisted of one vase, either of glass, 
china, or metal, whose cover, on being reversed, formed the reser- 
voir and pressure column, and, in a very few minutes, clear, strong 
coffee was produced. It was stated that in an apparatus adapted 
for a large establishment, four gallons of coffee had been made in 
twenty minutes. The apparatus appeared to possess the merits of 
great simplicity, of facility of management, and of being easily 
cleaned, and the infusion of the substance operated upon was 
perfect. 

NOTES BY A PRACTICAL CHEMIST. 



Examination or Creosote. — In order to determine whether a 
sample of commercial creosote is more or less contaminated with 
carbolic acid, the boiling point (398° F.) should be observed. It 
may also be tested with perchloride of iron and acetic acid. If 
carbolic acid is present, perchloride of iron invariably gives a violet- 
blue colour, and afterwards a white turbidity. Carbolic acid is 
entirely soluble in acetic acid, with the aid of a gentle heat. Genuine 
creosote, prepared from beech- wood tar, is not altered by perchloride 
of iron, and is only in part dissolved by common acetic acid at a 
boiling temperature. It is completely soluble in alcohol and ether, 
but sparingly in water ; yet water shaken with it acquires the taste, 
smell, and even reactions of creosote. It is entirely soluble in sul- 
phuretof carbon and in aqueous ammonia. Concentrated sulphuric 
acid dissolves it, acquiring a violet-blue colour. 

Yellow Colour obtained from the Boot Bark of the Bird 
Cherry. — A peculiar yellow colour is contained in the root bark of 
this shrub, and is extracted by ether. It is a tasteless, non-azotised 
body, soluble in hot water, from which it separates on cooling. It 
dissolves in caustic alkalies with a reddish-purple colour, but on the 
addition of an acid it is again separated from its former yellow colour. 
In strong sulphuric acid it forms a blocd-red solution, from which a 
faint precipitate falls on the addition of water, soluble in alkalies, 
with a purple colour. 

Charcoal as a Disinfectant.— Charcoal, far from being, as 
commonly supposed, antiseptic, promotes the decomposition of bodies 
immersed amongst it; but, by its power of absorbing gases and 
effluvia, it prevents the escape of all noxious matter, and is hence an 
admirable disinfectant. A resp ; rator has, in fact, been made, at the 
suggestion of Dr. Stenhouse, for the use of persons compelled to 
visit fever hospitals and other scenes of infection, in which the air 
inspired is made to pass over powdered charcoal, secured in gauze 
bags. Dr. Stenhouse considers wood charcoal equal, if not superior, 
to animal charcoal in its disinfecting properties. 

Peculiar Reduction or Metals. — It has long been known that 
certain metals are capable of precipitating others more electro- 
negative than themselves from their solutions; but, according to a 
recent observation of Prof. Woehler, a nietal is capable, under 
certain circumstances, of precipitating itself. Copper, inserted into 
a neutral solution of nitrate of copper, becomes covered with reddish- 
brown crystals of suboxide of copper, and afterwards with pointed 
crystals of metallic copper. The original copper red is dissolved, 
principally where it enters the liquid. Solutions of sulphate of 
copper produce the same result to a less extent. In solutions of per- 
chloride of copper, the metal is covered with a crystalline deposit of 
protochloride. If a solution of a salt of zinc is carefully overlaid 
with water, and a rod of zinc inserted, it is covered at its lower end 
with a granular deposit of metallic zinc. Cadmium, lead, bismuth, 
and silver, behave in a similar manner. 

Electro-Decomposition of Water. — Two voltameters traversed 



110 



Notes by a Practical Chemist. 



[May, 



by the same current evolve different quantities of gas, if one contain 
acidulated water with electrodes of platinum wire, and the other only 
pure water with electrodes of considerable size. Foucault, to 
explain this phenomenon, supposes that liquids transmit electricity in 
two manners — by physical conductibility, which is suffered without 
decomposition ; and by chemical conductibility, which separates their 
elements. Jamin finds, in reconsidering the same phenomena, that 
the decomposition of water is a more complex process than is 
ordinarily supposed. The full volume of hydrogen is very rarely 
obtained, and either gas may be obtained in excess by changing the 
size of the electrodes. Electrodes with a large surface, whether 
positive or negative, evolve less gas than fine slender wires. As one 
only of the elements of water is obtained by a dissymmetrical volta- 
meter, it must be admitted that the one which is not disengaged must 
combine with the liquid or become condensed on the plates. Bin- 
oxide of hydrogen is produced when hydrogen alone is evolved, and 
the hydrogenated liquid produced on the evolution of water possesses 
new properties. The decomposition of water never ensues without 
some change in the terminal wires, slow, but continuous. The posi- 
tive terminal becomes yellow, and then orange ; the negative assumes 
a violet colour. These tints by degrees increase and darken, so that 
something is evidently deposited upon the platinum. These deposits 
disappear in the air, especially if the platinum is heated. The 
negative plate becomes clean in nitric acid, and absorbs gaseous 
oxygen ; the positive is cleaned by deoxidizing liquids, and absorbs 
hydrogen. Lastly, if the two terminals are immersed in acidulated 
water and united by a galvanometer, they give rise to a current of 
reaction, which lasts for several days. These properties acquired by 
the plates deserve particular attention, and may be attributed to 
condensation of the two gases on their surface. When the dis- 
coloration has become very intense, the plates continue evolving gas 
long after the current has ceased. 

Oxide o? Copper. — The ordinary method of preparing this sub- 
stance, as used in organic analysis, is to heat the nitrate to redness in 
a crucible, which is attended with much inconvenience, owing to the 
salt melting, frothing, and flowing over the sides of the crucible ; in 
addition to which the crucible usually cracks and permits the liquid 
portion to run through. This may be avoided by using instead a 
vessel made by bending a piece of sheet copper without the use of 
solder. In a vessel of this description, the nitrate may be decomposed 
without any risk of overheating and melting the oxide. 

Detection or Poppy or Nut Oil in Olive Oil. — Marchand gives 
the following process for detecting this common adulteration. When 
four drops of olive, poppy, or nut oil are placed separately upon a 
slab of porcelain, and pure concentrated sulphuric acid added, and 
mixed with the oils by inclining the slab from side to side, the follow- 
ing results appear : — Olive oil acquires, at the points of contact with 



the acid, a yellow colour, passing into orange ; the liquid portion sur- 
rounding the magma rapidly becomes a dirty grey, and then a 
brownish black, while the yellow colour first produced by contact 
with the acid gradually passes into chestnut brown. There is never 
an appearance of blue or lilac shades. Poppy oil immediately takes, 
where it touches the acid, a fine lemon yellow, which darkens rapidly 
in some parts. The liquid part touching the coloured part never 
acquires the dingy grey peculiar to olive oil. In about 10 or 15 
minutes we may observe, at several points of the liquid region bor- 
dering immediately upon the coloured part, a rose shade, which 
quickly passes into bright lilac, increasing in intensity. In half an 
hour the lilac passes into a violet blue, and the original yellow 
gradually becomes a dead brown. Nut oil behaves nearly like olive 
oil, but the yellow matter is more plentiful, forms and turns brown 
more quickly, so that it acquires a chestnut brown in less than 10 
minutes. Sulphuric acid may be more readily mixed with this oil 
than with the two former. The grey border characteristic of olive 
oil is produced here also, but instead of slowly becoming black, it 
passes rapidly into olive green. It never gives a lilac tint. Mixtures 
of olive and poppy oils may be tested by the same reactions. In time 
the colours characteristic of poppy oil — pink, lilac, violet, blue — 
present themselves in succession with an intensity proportioned to 
the quantity of poppy oil present. One-tenth part of poppy oil may, 
according to Marchand, be thus detected. 

Mixtup.es op Olive and Nut Oils. — When the nut oil amounts 
to one-fourth of the whole, sulphuric acid yields a bright orange 
yellow colour with a grey border, the outer margin of which passes 
into olive green. A mixture of equal parts of both oils gives an 
orange yellow, with a distinct grey border, which soon turns greenish 
and brown at the outer edge. If three-fourths nut oil be present, 
there is produced a reddish yellow, with an olive green border paler 
than that produced by pure nut oil. Mixtures of poppy and nut oils 
acquire with sulphuric acid a yellowish colour, and at the borders a 
greyish tint. If one-fourth nut oil be present, an intense lilac is 
afterwards produced, while the yellow passes into chestnut brown. 
When the mixture contains three-fourths nut oil, an orange yellow is 
produced, with grey borders, passing at certain points into olive 
green. Afterwards the yellow becomes a bright chestnut brown. 

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

" Alpha," Leamington. — To detect sulphur, boil the substance with 
strong pure nitric acid for some time. The sulphur is thus con- 
verted into sulphuric acid, which may be detected with chloride of 
barium in the usual way. Or, fuse with potassa in a close vessel ; 
sulphide of potassium is formed, which strikes a beautiful violet red 
with the nitro-prusside of potassium. 

" H. F." — It is a mistake to call aluminium a new metal ; it has 
long been known and described. The only novelty in the present 
discovery is a cheaper method of obtaining it. 



NORTON AND BORIE'S PATENT TUBULAR TlLES. 

— This is an exceedingly simple and useful in- 
vention, the nature of which will be at once 
understood from the engraving. The patentees 
state that " the tiles are non-conductors, the sun's 
rays having little or no power beyond the outer 
surface, the heat being cut off by the presence 
of air in the tubes, running through all the tile." 
Por barns and other places requiring free 
ventilation they are invaluable, as it is im- 
possible for the rain to blow through, as is 
often the case when slates are used for the same 
purpose in rows slightly above and projecting 
over each other. They are stronger, the 
upright partitions giving great strength, and yet 
lighter, for the same covering surface, than 
any other tile we have yet seen; and the 
patentees inform us that they can be made at 
the ordinary prices. 




1854.] 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF ARTS. 



On Water Meters. By Joseph Glynn, F.R.S. 
The essentials of a good water-meter appear to be the following: — 



1. That it should correctly measure and show the quantity of water 
delivered under varying heads or pressures. 2. That it should not be 
liable to get out of order. 3. That it should be easily cleaned, oiled, or 
adjusted. 4. That the cost be not great, so that it may be generally 
used by householders. 

The majority of the water-meters hitherto invented have been deficient 
in one or more of these essentials. 

In the Jury Report of the Great Exhibition it appears that five of 
these contrivances were exhibited, but none of them so far perfected 
as to satisfy the conditions of a good meter. The jury do not even make 
honourable mention of any one, although they state how very much 
such machines are wanted. 

Among so many inventive minds it may be expected that their ideas 
would take various shapes ; but as very few ideas are original, so in the 
attempt to develop that of a water-meter, we find that some other 
machine or contrivance previously known has been taken as the starting 
point in most cases. 

As the cistern of the London dwelling-house already mentioned 
receives and measures the daily supply, and by means of the well-known 
contrivance, called a ball-cock, closes the tap when the cistern is full, 
it was thought that by having two little cisterns with floats in them, 
connected with inlet and outlet valves, to be opened and shut alternately 
by the floats, the cisterns might be filled and emptied by turns. 
Their contents being known, and the ebb and flow of the water registered, 
a very simple and compact meter for water delivered in large quantities 
at a low pressure may thus be made. 

The same idea of twin vessels, and a reciprocating action by means of 
a diaphragm, or flexible partition, has been further elaborated, something 
like the gas-meter upon that principle. 

The reciprocating motion of a piston in a cylinder like that of a 
steam-engine has also been proposed, the water making its entrance and 
exit by means of a slide valve, and a tolerably good water-meter has 
been so made; but there is some friction of the piston, slide valve, 
" tumbling bob," and other mechanism, which requires some force of 
head or pressure to overcome. If the force or head of water be con- 

isiderable, its action is violent ; but with an equable and moderate pressure, 
an efficient, but not a cheap, machine may be constructed on the 
cylinder and piston plan. 
Other forms of the steam-engine have also been proposed for water- 
meters, such as the disc engine, which combines the rotary with the 
reciprocating action. The water-wheel on a small scale, revolving in 
a circular case, has been tried in various ways, and is a favourite scheme, 
but not a successful one. 

The clepsydra, or water-clock, in which water was formerly used to 
measure time, has been tried to measure water. In this a hollow 
drum or wheel, divided into chambers, has them filled and discharged in 
succession, each chamber or division containing an ascertained quan- 
tity of water; the wheel halts until it is filled, and moves when it 
overbalances and empties itself. Machines on this principle, however 
ingenious they may be, must be irregular in their action, and not suited 
for varying heads. 

After this come drums of many shapes, some receiving the water at 
their centre, others at their circumference. Of those taking the water 
at the centre, some resemble a fan blast, some are like Ajipold's pump, 
and one like Barker's mill, which has ingenious contrivances for obviating 
friction, for continual lubrication, for straining the water as it enters, 
and for preventing acceleration of the drum or nill part, so to speak, of 
the machine, for which Mr. Siemens has a patent. There is a machine 
which is well known to sailors, and which has now for many years 
been before the public — Massey's Patent Log, for measuring the distance 
run by a ship. It is shaped something like a screw-propeller, but rather 
more like a fish's tail, when it uses it as a propeller. Suppose this put 
into a pipe, it will register the rate at which the water flows past. This 
is another type, and there are modifications of it in portions of screws, 
drums with spiral vanes, and so forth. Mr. Siemens has a patent of 
this kind, in which two or three spirals, so to speak, revolve in opposite 
ways to prevent acceleration. 

There are other forms also, but, from what has been said, an opinion 
may be formed of the difficulties which attend the production of a perfect 
water-meter at a moderate cost ; yet, as in most waterworks now in 
course of construction a constant supply of water can be delivered at 
high service to the consumer, it is highly desirable that he should be 
able to avail himself of such advantages, by using what he pleases, and 
paying for it by the quantity consumed. It is to be hoped that some 
water-meter will be invented, or some of those before us will be so 
improved as to meet the demand, and satisfy this Society and the public. 

Since my paper was written — indeed, in the course of to-day, upon 
coming here to see the several models sent in to illustrate the subject — 
I found there was one meter not mentioned in my paper, the invention 



Royal Society of Arts. 



Ill 



of Messrs. Hanson and Chadwick, of Salford, near Manchester. This 
invention differs altogether from the meters alluded to in my paper both 
in arrangement and action. It consists of two flat semicircular bags of 
vulcanised India rubber, in which the water is in the first instance 
received, a wire gauze or sieve being introduced between the supply- 
pipe and the two inlet passages. At the other extremities of the bags 
there are openings which allow the water to pass into the meter. The 
water, on entering these bags, sets in motion three conical rollers attached 
to a centre-spindle in connexion with the counting wheels and dial. 
These rollers are kept constantly revolving, each revolution registering 
exactly the contents of the bags. Each bag is kept constantly distended 
with the water it receives, and, as one of the rollers is constantly in 
advance of the outlet valve, whilst another is immediately behind it, the 
quantity discharged is kept up with great regularity. There is one of 
the machines on the table, and I have this afternoon seen one at work at 
the New River Waterworks, where it delivered a steady stream of 
water at various pressures, and registered the quantity so delivered with 
considerable accuracy, and I am told that the difference of the delivery 
at moderate and high pressures is only 5 per cent. 
The next paper read was a 

DESCRIPTION OE TAYLOR'S WATER-METER. 
Br Benjamin Fothergili,. 

The invention of a meter more than thirty years ago for measuring 
gas, was considered to be the achievement of a most important object ; 
they are now almost universally adopted, and there can be no doubt the 
result has been a public benefit. A machine for measuring water subse- 
quently claimed the attention of men of mechanical genius, and a great 
number of patents have been taken out from time to time for water- 
meters, but that which appeared plausible in theory was found ineffi- 
cient in practice. About two years ago the Corporation of Manchester 
advertised for a water-meter ; this was responded to by a large number 
of persons, and meters of all descriptions were sent to the Waterworks 
Committee, for their inspection and approval. The meter in question 
was required to sustain the greatest pressure ; the flow must not be inter- 
fered with by obstruction or friction, so as to hinder its ascent to the 
highest point of its source ; it must measure correctly under every variety 
of pressure, and when subdued to the smallest amount of inlet, must 
indicate the quantity passing through the meter; and durability or non- 
liability to wear and tear must be an important feature, without which 
the machine would be of little value. 

Mr. T. Taylor, of the Patent Saw Mills, Manchester, has had his atten- 
tion directed to the subject for many years. He succeeded about twelve 
years ago in constructing one on the low-pressure principle, which was 
pronounced by Mr. William Fairbairn to be perfect in its kind; in his 
testimonial he said, " I have examined Mr. Taylor's Water Meter, and 
from a careful consideration of the principle upon which it is constructed, 
I am of opinion that it is one of the most efficient discoveries that has 
ever yet been made for measuring out arid duly registering unapportioned 
quantities of water, &c." Other individuals also bore the like testimony. 
Sir. Taylor has invented five meters, all varying in their principle and 
action; four of these were considered to possess considerable merit, but 
failed to overcome all the difficulties previously noticed; the last, however, 
has been pronounced by competent judges to be perfectly satisfactory. 
This he patented Dec. 15, 1852, and it has been before the Manchester 
Corporation. Since that time it has had the most severe tests, varying 
from the highest to the lowest pressure, and the result has been its ap- 
proval by the Waterworks Committee. There are now between one and 
two hundred meters working in various parts of the country ; they have 
been introduced into sixteen or eighteen towns, and have given universal 
satisfaction; there is one with a 12-inch bore pipe now working, and 
it is measuring the water supplied by the Corporation of Manchester to 
the township of Dukinfield to the satisfaction of both parties con- 
cerned. The first meter made on this principle was fixed up at the 
extensive cotton-mills of Messrs. Birley, Manchester, where it has been 
working almost a year and a half, measuring from 35,000 to 36,000 gallons 
per day, and not the slightest disarrangement has occurred since it was 
fixed. Messrs. Birley have most confidently expressed their satisfaction 
in its principle and action. 

The meter (Fig. 1) consists of a cylindrical vessel or cistern, of a size 
proportioned to the bore of the pipe that is to receive and discharge the 
water. Inside the above-mentioned vessel is a drum revolving on its axis 
in a vertical or upright position, and the stream passing through the 
meter is distributed upon the drum at each side of the meter. The regis- 
tration is given by a train of wheels connected with the drum, and 
carried to the indicator, and by a combination of the undermentioned 
mechanical arrangement forms the water-meter patented by Mr. _T. 
Taylor. The patentee claims for himself the undermentioned peculiarities 
connected with his water-meter: — 

1st. The vertical position in which the drum is worked, the said drum 
being constructed of gutta percha, thereby preventing liability to collapse 
or corrosion, the said drum being made to the specific gravity of water. 

2nd. That the quantity of water contained in the meter be sufficient to 
cause the drum to be buoyant, by which arrangement the drum is made 



112 



Royal Society of Arts. 



[May, 



to revolve by the slighest action of the water against the blades or 
buckets of the said drum. 

3rd. The arrangement or construction of thoroughfares or pipes out- 
side the meter, communicating with the inside and round the drum for 
the delivery and exit of the water, and for causing a rotary motion in 
the water, thereby causing the drum, in addition to its buoyancy and 
vertical position, to be more certain of its liability to revolve under the 
slightest pressure of water. The construction of valves from the thorough- 
fares for the ingress of the water, which are so shaped that they bring 
the immediate action of the stream passing through the meter on the 
drum; the equal distribution and division of the stream (however small 
it may be), at each side of the drum, rendering its liability to wear and 
tear very slight ; and whatever the pressure or power of the stream may 
be, by the above arrangement it is rendered neutral in causing more or 
less friction upon the axles or pivots of the drum, that friction being the 
same under any pressure, and only sufficient to keep the drum in its 
position. 

TAYLOR'S WATER-METER.— Fig. 1. 




The above-mentioned valves are constructed after the plan of the 
common clack valve, which closes the aperture of the inlet, excepting a 
small tube fixed in the centre of the clack, and projecting so as to come 
into immediate contact with the buckets of the drum; the clacks are 
closed by a simple arrangement of a self-acting weight or lever above the 
valve, such weight being regulated by drawing it backward or forward 
on the lever (which being once regulated becomes a fixture, and needs 
never be altered), so as to give more or less pressure on the clacks. The 
use or utility of these valves is occasioned by the fact that, although the 
drum may be neutral, yet there is necessarily a slight amount of friction 
to overcome in working the train of wheels to the indicator, which is 
done by the weight closing the clack and causing a compression of the 
stream, so that no water is allowed to pass but what forces through the 
clack tubes. This valve is only brought into requisition when a very 
small quantity of water is passing through the meter, and as the stream 
increases the leverage of the weight decreases, beyond which the valve 
is not required to ensure correct measurement. If, however, on the con- 
trary, the weight should not decrease in its power upon the valves when 
the stream becomes greater, and there was an increased pressure upon 
the clacks (as would be the case if a spring was in place of a weight), 
the result would be that the measurement would be incorrect, which has 
been discovered to be the case after repeated experiments with the spring 
in place of weights. 

Its certainty of registration, its non-liability to wear and tear, and its 
certainty of working under the highest or lowest pressure, is caused by 
the buoyancy of the drum, its vertical position, and the adaptation of 
the inlet pipes and compression valves to bring the stream, however small, 
into immediate contact with the drum, and causing it to revolve. 

The Waterworks Committee have ordered a variety of meters from 
Mr. Taylor, and, no doubt, as the merits of this invention become known 
to water companies, they will be generally adopted, and will be found to 
be a regulator of great economy, and will be estimated by the public as 
a protector of their just rights. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Chadwick wished, in making a few observations on the subject, 
to disclaim in the first instance being the inventor of the meter last 
brought under notice by Mr. Glynn, the design of it having been brought 
to him by a working plumber, George Hanson, of Huddersfield. He (Mr. 
Chadwick) was officially connected with the waterworks at Salford, and 
therefore it was that he had been led to take an interest in the subject, 
the Corporation being especially desirous that the quantity of water used 
should be correctly registered. They had tried various meters, but none 
of them had acted with the regularity and accuracy of that now upon 
the table (Figs. 2 & 3), with which he had been experimenting for the 
last 18 months. Mr. Glynn had very correctly described the construction 
of the meter, which he believed had this advantage over all others, that, 
being air tight, it would register any quantity of water used, however 
small, up to 1000 gallons per hour, which other meters would not do. 



In saying this he did not wish to detract from the merits of Mr. Siemens' 
and Mr. Taylor's inventions, to which he was willing to give all praise. 
The first objection that would be raised by most persons to Hanson and 
Chadwick's meter would be as regarded the durability of the material 
used for the bags through which the water had to pass. He was assured 
by Mr. Mackintosh, the patentee of the vulcanised India rubber, that 
however long it was exposed to the action of the water, it would neither 
decay nor deteriorate ; and as regarded wear and tear, from the form of 
the rollers there would be no friction upon the bags by which they could 
be injured. He had, therefore, no hesitation in saying that it would last 
in perfect order at least seven years — Mr. Mackintosh said twenty years. 

HANSON AND CHADWICK'S WATER-METER.* 
Kg. 2. 




As to an objection that the bags might get unduly inflated, experience 
proved to him that that could never happen, as, when the rollers passed 
over the valves or openings in the bags, they never got an impetus in 
advance of the water; and a pressure of 300 feet had no greater influence 
upon them than a pressure of 3 feet, the rollers always going before the 
water. He might observe that he had not brought the meter under 
notice in his own neighbourhood, and, indeed, the first place in which it 
had been seen out of the workshop was at the works of the New Eiver 

* These woodcuts were made from the drawings attached to the specification. Since the 
patent was taken out, several alterations have been made in the details : the spiral spring 
has been dispensed with ; the bottom of the cylindrical vessel has been made fiat instead of 
inclined; three rollers are used in place of one — and a wire gauze or sieve has been intro- 
duced between the supply-pipe and the inlet-passages. [For the use of the woodcuts 
accompanying this article, we are indebted to the courtesy of the Editor of the "Society of 
Arts Journal."— Ed.] 



1854.] 



Royal Society of Arts. 



113 



Company. He believed that this meter was a good contribution towards 
the production of a perfect water-meter, and if it led to that result he 
should feel himself amply repaid for all the trouble and anxiety he had 
had with regard to it. He believed that no meter had yet been made so 
simple in construction; and having just been asked what would be the 
expense of it, he might observe that a 1-inch meter, such as that on the 
table, would not cost more than £5 or £6, and a 2-inch meter certainly 
not more than double that sum. 

The Chairman could not allow Mr. Chadwick to depart without 
returning the thanks of the Society for his attendance there that 
evening. As regarded the durability of the material of which the bags 
were constructed, he could in some measure confirm the opinion of 
Mr. Mackintosh. He had had something to do with vulcanised India 
rubber, having used it for springs in an invention which he had 
patented, and, though he had had it at work for upwards of twelve 
months, not one of the springs had broken, though they had been 
actually subjected to the action of oil instead of water. 

SIEMENS' PATENT BALANCE METER, WITH HELICAL BLADES, TO WORK 

UNDER PRESSURE. 

Fig. 4. 



vanes that glided edgeways through the moving column, without inter- 
rupting or impeding the same, and that communicated their motion to 
a counter, the difference between the two being, that jn the first 
arrangement the water moved in a direction parallel to the rotating 
axis, and, in the second, from the axis outwards. The water entered 
the meter, Figs. 4 and 5, through a grating, and meeting the sides 
of the inverted cone (6), it was directed towards the axis, from whence 
it spread again outward over the conical block (c). The object of this 
operation was to spread the moving column of water uniformly over 
a measured annular area, after which there remained only to measure 
correctly the distance through which that column moved, and to register 
the same in expressions of gallons or other quantities upon a counter. 
For this purpose two drums (d) and (/) were provided, which were 
geared together, but were quite free to revolve in opposite directions, 
being made hollow, so as to float in the water, and all side strain upon 
the bearings being carefully avoided. The first drum was armed on its 
circumference with a set of right-handed, and the second with a set 

SIEMENS' PATENT BALANCE METER, WITH SPIRAL BLADES, TO WORK; 
UNDER PRESSURE. 

Pig 





§b^SSSSSiS^ 



^^\^\V\\\\\\\^ 



Fig. 5. 



, 




Mr. Fothergill, in explanation of his paper, pointed out upon a plan 
the various portions of Mr. Taylor's meter, and stated that a valve had 
been so arranged as to regulate the stream of water, however small, so 
as to prevent too great diffusion, and thus cause it to impinge directly 
upon the drum. The meter would register 75,000 gallons an hour. 

Mr. Siemens said he had, several years ago, directed his attention 
to the production of an efficient water-meter, and Mr. Glynn having 
mentioned in the paper the result of his labour, he felt called upon 
to offer to the meeting a brief description of the contrivances he had 
adopted with considerable practical success. Fig. 4 was a sectional 
elevation, and Fig. 5 a plan of one variety of his meter, and Figs. 6 and 
7 represented the working parts of another. Although very different 
in appearance, the two constructions, nevertheless, involved the same 
principle of action, namely, — the water acted by its impact upon oblique 

15 



Fig. 7. 




of left-handed screw vanes, of the same pitch, and of correct form, being 
cast of white metal in metallic moulds, specimens of which were placed 
on the table. The water was directed by stationary vanes upon the 
block (c), in a parallel direction against the vanes of the first screw 
drum, which it would turn in the exact ratio of its onward course, 
provided there was no friction. In proportion, however, as there was 
resistance the water would be deflected from its course, and would meet 
the vanes of the left-handed screw drum in a more obtuse angle, which 
tended to drive the same at an increased velocity, and, reacting upon the 
first drum, produced a remarkably uniform rate under the most variable 
circumstances of pressure. The motion of the drums was communi- 
cated to the upright spindle working in the chamber (</), where the 
motion was reduced several thousand times by screw gearing, after 
which it passed into the upper or counter chamber, through a stuffing 



114 



Royal Scottish Society of Arts. 



[May, 



box. The counter consisted of two wheels of 100 and 101 teeth respec- 
tively, both gearing into the driving pinion — the one carrying a dial 
■with 100 divisions, and revolving under a fixed pointer; and the other 
carrying a hand upon the dial. A reduction of from one to ten thousand 
was thus obtained and registered by the two hands. Of these meters a 
great number had been used, and were found to work very correctly for 
from six to fifteen months, after which time, however, the spindles were 
frequently found to be destroyed by the corrosive and gritty nature of 
the water generally supplied to towns. It was, however, necessary that 
a meter should work for years, without requiring the attention generally 
bestowed upon mechanism, although placed under the influence of many 
destructive agencies. These considerations determined him in favour of 
the construction with spiral vanes, as represented in elevation by Fig. 6, 
and in plan by Fig. 7, without the casing and counter, which latter was 
the same as before described. The water entered the revolving drum 
through the inlet (a), and, spreading outward, impinged upon its spiral 
sides, which yielded to the impact, and allowed the water to issue 
through two or more outlets at the circumference. The compensating 
agencies in this meter were two fiys or wings (c c), which were dragged 
with the drum through the water, and which retarded the same in a 
greater measure at high than at low velocities. By this means, and by 
judicious proportions between the inlet and outlets of the drum, a rate 
of motion was obtained which was strictly proportionate to the quantity 
of water passed through, either at a high or low velocity. The principal 
advantage in this meter over the previous one was, that it had but one 
step or bearing, which was effectually protected from the water by 
working in a closed chamber filled with oil. In like manner, the 
chamber containing the reducing gearing was also filled with oil. Of 
these meters from 200 to 300 had been in operation for upwards of twelve 
months, and no deterioration had been observed in their working parts. 
Both these varieties of meters possessed the essential requisite of over- 
coming casual obstructions, being powerful reaction propellers. In his 
experience, he had been struck with the powerful effects of concussions 
in the water-mains, caused by the shutting of sluice-valves. In some 
instances, a thick brass plate, dividing the counter chamber, had been 
bulged upwards, indicating a pressure of several hundred pounds per 
square inch. For this reason he doubted very much the success of a 
piston meter, or, indeed, any meter which intercepted the flow of the 
water. 

(To be continued.) 



KOYAL SCOTTISH SOCIETY OF ARTS. 

Monday, 10th April. 

Professor Kellakd, A.M., &c, President, in the chair. 

The President announced the formation of a Technical Museum at 
the Society of Arts, Adelphi, London, and invited specimens of animal 
produce, which are much desired by Mr. Solly, who is charged with the 
formation of it. 

The first communication made was on the Archimedian Screw and 
Wirtz's Spiral Pump applied in exhausting a receiver, producing an 
air-pump without either valve or piston, by which the exhaustion may 
be carried to any extent ; also a method of exhausting a receiver by 
means of flexible tubes, the instrument having neither piston, valve, nor 
revolving joint. The same engines applied in constructing a suction- 
pump of a similar description. Defects of Wirtz's Pump pointed out, 
and an improved construction suggested by which these may be 
remedied. Other applications and properties of spiral pumps illustrated. 
By John Scott, Esq., assistant to Mr. Moffat, 63, South Bridge. Models 
were exhibited in illustration. — The author stated that the above 
machines depend for their action chiefly on a new property of the Screw 
of Archimedes, which may be thus illustrated. With the upper orifice 
of an Archimedian screw closed, and the lower entirely immersed in a 
liquid, let it be turned in the opposite direction to that by which water 
ascends its threads, and the air which it contains will be gradually 
carried downwards, and discharged from the lower orifice. As the rare- 
faction advances, the liquid will rise to a greater height in the screw, 
and by increasing the length of the screw until its altitude exceeds that 
of a column of the liquid, which would balance the pressure of the 
atmosphere, the exhaustion may be carried to any extent. Wirtz's 
spiral pump, when slightly modified, is equally capable of producing 
the same effect, and that by means of less liquid. In applying the 
preceding principle to construct an air-pump, the tube of which the 



screw is formed, prolonged in the direction of the axis of its cylinder, 
passes into the receiver by means of an air-tight revolving joint ; and 
the lower extremity either terminates in a bulb, or consists of a tube 
with the orifice turned in an upward direction. The height of the 
exhausting apparatus is reduced to any extent by winding on a cylinder 
such a number, of tubes, in the form of a screw, that their aggregate 
height will equal that of the single one already described, the lower 
extremity of the inner being connected to the upper of the second by 
means of a straight tube ; the lower extremity of the second to the 
upper of the third, and in like manner to the last of the series, which 
communicates with the external atmosphere. The ah- withdrawn from 
the receiver is thus delivered to each helix in succession, until finally 
discharged, and the weight of the external atmosphere is balanced by 
the aggregate elevation of the liquid in the helices— the respective 
pressures being transmitted from one helix to another, as the liquid 
columns in Amonton's barometer or in Wirtz's pump. A mercurial 
revolving joint, which acts on the principle just stated, renders perfect !y 
air-tight the connexion between the screw and the receiver. It consists 
of several columns of mercury, in the form of thin cylindrical rings, 
separated by air from each other, and arranged around a tube that 
forms their common axis. By a different construction, an air-pump 
is produced which has all the essential properties of the last, with the 
additional one, that no joint is required to connect it to the receiver, and 
the exhaustion will be effected with less mercury. The improvements 
in Wirtz's pump the author stated to be briefly these : — In the construc- 
tion hitherto followed, the air is discharged into the rising pipe and 
allowed to escape along with the water, thereby occasioning, in most 
cases, a considerable waste of power, depending both on its increased 
elasticity and volume. If, however, this air be employed to raise other 
water than that which has passed through the spiral wheel, and thence 
be conveyed to the outer extremity of the wheel to supply it with air of 
increased elasticity, it will surrender in useful effect all the energy 
which it contained, whilst a continuous stream of water will be dis- 
charged from the upper extremity of the rising pipe. The improvement 
is effected by means of cisterns, and a slight modification of the outer 
extremity of the spiral wheel. After some observations by the members, 
the thanks of the Society were given to Mr. Scott for his interesting 
paper. He stated that Part II. would be read at a future meeting. 

The next paper read was a description of a method of preventing 
water-cocks from bursting during frost, by Mr. John Wilson, 47, 
Portugal Street, Glasgow. The author stated that the cause of the 
bursting of stop-cocks during frost is owing to the water left in the 
water-way of the key when shut. This having no way of egress, when 
overtaken by the frost expansion takes place, which forces the cock out 
of its original shape and leaves it quite leaky. The author stated that 
the improvement consists in having a small excavation in the interior 
of the cock, communicating betwixt the water-way of the key when 
shut and the interior of the cock. By this means the water when 
expanding in the act of freezing is allowed to escape from the cavity of 
the key, and thus prevents it from bursting or being forced out of shape. 
The provision made for this in the plan suggested does not in any 
way injure the cock, and adds nothing to its original cost ; and for all 
stop-cocks in any way exposed to frost it would, in the author's opinion, 
be a decided benefit. — The thanks of the Society were voted to 
Mr. Wilson. 



EEVIEWS. 



The Year Booh of Facts. By John Timbs. Bogue. 
This valuable annual continues its career of usefulness, and must 
prove very acceptable to all who wish to be acquainted with the 
most recent improvements in science and art. All discoveries and 
inventions of importance made within the past year are extracted 
from the various scientific journals, English and foreign, and presented 






1854,] Reviews. 

in a compact and accessible form. The arrangement of the matter, 
however, we cannot help thinking, might be very much improved. 
Thus, an article on the alleged compound nature of the metals is 
placed, not, as might be expected, under the title " Chemistry," but 
under " Mechanical and Useful Arts." A " Singular discovery in the 
production of Silk" (the fact of its varying in colour according to the 
food of the silk-worm) had better have been referred to " Zoology." 
" Artificial Malachite" should have been transferred to "Chemistry." 
Certain articles on oceanic currents, deep-sea soundings, and the 
mean temperature of the year, have been erroneously placed under 
" Natural Philosophy." Various similar instances, some perhaps 
even more glaring, are to be met with, exceedingly annoying to the 
clear thinker, and calculated to obliterate in the public mind the 
distinction between art and science, as well as between the various 
branches of the latter. The sources of information employed are of 
very different degrees of authority; and when a startling assertion is 
taken from an ordinary newspaper, a word of caution should be 
subjoined. 

Faraday's complete exposure of the lamentable delusion of table- 
moving is very judiciously inserted. The work is also furnished 
with a meteorological table for 1853, an obituary list of persons 
eminent in science and art, and a memoir and portrait of the illus- 
trious astronomer Arago. 

Altogether, notwithstanding the errors we have pointed out, we 
can cordially recommend the " Year Book of Facts" to all who wish 
to keep up with the onward stream of discovery. 

Hand Book of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy. By Dionysius 
Lardner. Taylor, Walton, and Maberley. 

This work, we are informed in the preface, is destined for " those 
who desire to obtain a knowledge of the elements of physics without 
pursuing them through their mathematical consequences and details ;" 
as also for the " Medical and Law Student, the Engineer and 
Artizan." To such, we have no doubt, these volumes will be emi- 
nently useful. Without entering too far into detail, they contain a 
vast amount of matter, and are copiously illustrated. The letters 
of reference, however, in some of the engravings are misplaced or 
altogether omitted, which may embarrass the student. As to the 
getting-up, they do not exhibit the common fault of a narrow stream 
of type flowing through acres of margin ; the purchaser being here 
compelled to pay for no more paper than is actually wanted. The 
work commences with a view of the general properties of matter, 
on the atomistic hypothesis. A dynamist might object to the 
following passage : " This (i. e. compressibility) is one of the most 
conclusive proofs that all bodies are porous, or that their constituent 
atoms are not in contact." He would inquire, what proof have we 
that matter is not in itself compressible? There is occasionally 
a looseness of expression which the compiler might easily have 
avoided ; thus we read : " innumerable varieties of such bodies (gases) 
are found existing in the material world, and still greater varieties 
result from the experienced operations of the natural philosopher 
and the chemist." Whether the permanent gases found in nature 
are innumerable might admit of some doubt. The ultimate atoms of 
each element are assumed (p. 19) to be of different figure, and, if 
we understand the passage rightly, similar to the visible crystalline 
form assumed in each case by large masses. But how does this 
doctrine agree with dimorphism? a phenomenon which points to the 
conclusion that the ultimate atoms of all bodies are spherules, of 
which every crystalline form may be easily constructed. 

But the greatest flaw in this otherwise excellent compilation is its 
arrangement. Astronomy appears in the third volume, after physics, 



115 



or if the compiler prefer the expression, natural philosophy. Yet, 
setting aside the abstract laws of force and motion as belonging 
more properly to mathematics, astronomy is the simpler, more general 
and more ancient science. The section treating of light is very 
satisfactory. The rival hypotheses of emission and undulation are 
not, as in some works, brought into a prominence which the unve- 
rified nature common to both does not merit. We may here mention 
in passing, that a third view, the oscillatory, has been brought 
forward by Mr. Macquorne Rankine, who considers it at least equally 
satisfactory with the hypothesis of vibration ; whilst a fourth suppo- 
sition, the dynamical, of somewhat vague nature, is held by Oken 
and some other disciples of Schelling. We regret to find in this 
section of the work no mention of the interesting phenomenon of 
fluorescence. An extensive chapter is devoted to a consideration of 
the eye, which, however well written, is methodologically out of 
place. Whenever, namely, the explanation of an object involves 
considerations drawn from two sciences, it should be placed under 
the more complicated of the two. The eye must be referred to 
physiology aided by optics, not to optics aided by physiology. 

The sections treating of magnetism and electricity might have 
been advantageously extended. The important discovery of dia- 
magnetism appears to have been altogether overlooked. Concerning 
the magnetic poles of the earth, considerable difference of opinion 
prevails : the compiler, on the authority of Gauss, assigns one only 
to each hemisphere, the northern in lat. 70° 5' 17" 3ST., long. 114° 55' 
18" W. Others assume two in each hemisphere, and calculate that 
the weaker north magnetic pole revolves round the earth's axis in 
860 years, the stronger in 1746, the weaker southern in 1304, and 
the stronger in 4609. This view, if correct, points to some remark- 
able coincidences. These numbers closely approximate to 864, 
1246, 1728, 4320, [multiples of 432 (the mystical number of the 
Brahmins) by 2, 3, 4, 10. The sun's mean distance from the earth is 
j§j solar radii, the moon's ^ lunar radii: 432 x 60 = 25920 is the 
smallest number divisible by all the four periods of magnetic revolu- 
tion, and hence the shortest time in which the four magnetic poles could 
complete a cycle, and this exactly coincides with the period in which 
the precession of the equinoxes amounts to a complete circle. If 
there are but two magnetic poles, all these analogies fall to the 
ground, giving us another caution not to lay too much weight upon 
a mere coincidence. Under the head Electricity, the various forms 
of battery, and the practical applications of this agent, especially in 
electrotype and telegraphy, are explained as fully as space will 
permit. The author does not annoy us with personified imponde- 
rables to the same extent as many of his predecessors ; but we cannot 
help wishing that, throwing all " fhuds" aside, he had exhibited ordi- 
nary motion, light, heat, magnetism, and electricity, as mere convertible 
modifications of the one great principle, force. In spite, however, of 
this and all other imperfections, we consider these volumes highly 
valuable, and believe them well adapted to the purpose for which 
they are designed. 

The Book of Nature ; an Elementary Introduction to the Sciences of 
Physics, Astronomy, Chemistry, Mineralogy, Geology, Botany, 
Zoology, and Physiology. By Friedrich Schoedler, Ph.D. Second 
Edition, translated from the 6th German Edition by Henry Med- 
lock, F.C.S. 8vo. London : E,. Griffin and Co. 

To those who wish to acquire a general idea of the various physical 
and natural sciences treated of, we can recommend this work, and 
we have no doubt the perusal will incite many to seek for a further 
acquaintance with these subjects. The volume abounds with well- 
executed illustrations. 



116 



Correspondence. 



[May, 



The Colonists and Emigrants Handbook of the Mechanical Arts. By 
Kobert Scott Burn. 8vo. London : Matthew Soul. 
This volume may justly be described as a mass of practical and useful 
information for colonists and emigrants. The author having himself 
"resided among emigrant farmers, has had many opportunities of 
becoming acquainted with the various operations demanded by the 
exigencies of a colonist's life, of the claims made on his mechanical 
ingenuity and abilities, and the idea was suggested that a treatise, 
illustrated with practical drawings and sketches, bearing on those 
branches of the mechanical arts, the operations of which are in most 
frequent requisition, would be of great value to the emigrating 
public." The work is divided into the following sections : house 
arrangement and conveniences ; house construction ; carpentry ; 
joinery; smith-work; brick-making; exterior and interior finishings ; 
plastering and painting ; mortars, concrete, cements ; enclosure of 
land, fences ; road-making ; well-sinking ; farm and agricultural 
buildings. Mr. Burn is the author of several successful practical 
works, and as the writer of the articles on " Flax and Cotton, and 
their manufacturing Mechanism," which have enriched our pages, 
needs no introduction to the readers of The AbtizaK. This his 
present production is very practical, and calculated to be useful not 
only to colonists and emigrants, but to many of our own farmers and 
householders. The directions given are plain, and the illustrations 
plentiful. • 

CORRESPONDENCE. 



FIRE-PROOF RECORD ROOMS. 
To the Editor of The Artizan. 
Sir, — In your number for April, I am glad to see a statement which 
shows that the American Government have availed themselves of the 
use of my plans in building the Congress library at Washington, " now 
in the course of construction." It will be probably recollected by many 
of your readers, that in 1851, the Congress building of the United States 
was destroyed by fire, and a great mass of the popular records were 
burnt in the library, which, to the best of my recollection, occupied the 
second floor. Having experienced the greatest kindness from the Govern- 
ment of that enlightened and distinguished country during my residence 
in America, a humble sense of public duty prompted me to offer, through 
their ambassador in London, plans for the future security of their public 
records ; but, as their Government despatches were about to be closed, I 
had not time to make a duplicate of my plans and remarks, which I sub- 
mitted for their use as an act which I felt bound to discharge without 
seeking anything in return for my exertion ; and I will here attempt 
to convey to the readers of The Artizan a general description of what 
I proposed, and which is now being carried in part, and probably in 
whole, into operation. 

Instead of placing the record room and library on the second, I sug- 
gested that it should be placed on the ground floor, so that, in the event 
of the building being destroyed by fire, the library might remain unin- 
jured in the midst of the ruins which surrounded it ; and I consequently 
proposed that it should be built and fitted throughout of iron, with a 
marble pavement, if I recollect rightly ; but even here, iron might be 
employed if wished. 

I suggested that the sides and ceiling should be composed of two 
thicknesses of iron, with a space of 4 or 6 inches between them, fitted 
with water from a pipe in the street at the command of the firemen ; 
this water to be subject to continuous change in the hot weather, to keep 
the library cool, and to be heated in the winter to a temperature most 
agreeable to those who- occupied it. 

To prevent the heated water from bursting or breaking the plates, in 
the event of the building taking fire, sufficient room was provided for the 
steam to escape ; or holes a little above the ceiling in the sides of the 



compartments, for the forced water to run out on the back and top of the 
outside plates, which would not only prevent them from being over- 
heated, but help to extinguish the fire surrounding the library. The 
doors and shutters were also to be made of iron, and the glass so 
protected that, should the whole of the building be destroyed, it would 
remain uninjured, the same as the contents of the library ; and, as 
it respects the decoration of the interior, I observed that it might be 
elaborately decorated, seeing that castings in iron can now be made to 
any beautiful and debcate pattern. At the date alluded to, I was also in 
communication with the United States Commissioner, then in London 
attending our National Exhibition in Hyde-park ; and it will be seen, by 
the " Special Report on the New York Industrial Exhibition," pubbshed 
in your last Number, that my suggestions are literally carried out in 
this respect. 

" The whole of the interior fittings are of iron ; the piers supporting 
the book-shelves, and the balustrade of the gallery, which is carried all 
round the room, are of this material, cast in ornamental forms, with 
medallions, also of iron, of Washington, Franklin, and other eminent 
American statesmen. These latter are in high reUef, and arc most 
admirably modelled and cast. The book-shelves are also plates of iron ; 
and whilst the whole is thus rendered fire-proof, it is also highly orna- 
mental." 

The citizens of America need not be told that the common interest of 
all should be consulted, and they are not inclined to neglect improvement 
because it is not brought under public notice by powerful patronage. It 
is enough to know that it is a vabd improvement, and they care not in 
whose name it is brought into notice. 

Our House of Commons, and other public departments, might have 
had fire-proof record rooms for the last thirty-three years, equally 
efficient, if not equally ornamental, as the castings in iron have been since 
greatly improved ; and, if we reflect rightly, it is not much to our credit 
to witness America taking the lead and bringing into practical use 
improvements which have here, for so many years, been kept back 
I am, Sir, 

Your obedient, humble servant, 

J. Poad Dra_ke, 

Naval Architect. 



RUINOUS EFFECTS OF FEATHERING PADDLE WHEELS. 
To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir, — I have read with great interest the able remarks of one of your 
correspondents, Mr. Drake, upon the advantages and disadvantages of 
Steam Navigation, and as a late shareholder in one of the large Steam 
Ship Companies, I feel myself, in common with others, much indebted to 
that gentleman for the light which he has thrown upon the question. 
Having myself given some consideration to steam and its appliances, I 
feel quite convinced that the screw will disappoint those who seek a 
profitable investment for their capital, as it is unable to compete with 
the paddle wheel in speed, or with the sailing vessel in cheapness. In 
more than one letter I perceive that Mr. Drake has exposed the evils 
attending the use of the feathering wheel. On its first introduction, he 
observes, it was made too fragile and was soon destroyed, while now 
that it is made of the necessary strength, he justly remarks, it soon 
destroys the vessel. Of the truth of this I have been for more than two 
years acquainted ; and the facts which were brought out at the London 
Tavern on Thursday, the 13th instant, at the general annual meeting 
of the shareholders of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, fully 
corroborate Mr. Drake's statements in the instance of their vessels, 
particularly the Parana. It has not only been found necessary to 
reduce the size of the wheels, but to give up the costly feathering 
principle, which in the Magdalena was found to considerably improve 
her speed. The weight of the feathering wheel is more than double that 
of the common radiated wheel; the 40 feet feathering wheel being above 
60 tons, to which must be added more than double the ordinary weight 
in the fitting of the sponson bearings to resist the straining eccentric 
action which feathers the paddles, &c. 






1854.] 



Notes and Novelties. 



117 



It would appear that Mr. 'Drake has for many years endeavoured 
to direct the attention of the directors of the public companies to the 
evils attending paddle-wheel propulsion, showing at the same time how 
they may be overcome, by adjusting the paddle wheels to the vessel's 
immersion line, which, if it can be mechanically carried out, as he con- 
fidently states, at once accomplishes the end for which so many ex- 
pensive plans have been adopted to no good purpose. Dr. Beattie and 
Mr. Tufnell merit the best thanks of their fellow shareholders in the 
company above mentioned for drawing out facts too long kept in the 
background, and they cannot do better, in my estimation, than call the 
early attention of the secretary, Captain Chappell, and the managing 
directors to this great improvement in paddle-wheel propulsion, which, 
I understand, is about to be adopted by the Australian Direct Steam 
Navigation Company, and which certainly will give them the supremacy 
over all competitors. By regulating the wheels made on the common 
principle to the required dip, the engines will be greatly relieved and 
economically worked with a gain of two knots an hour, as proved some 
years since in the Admiralty experiments. At present in crossing the 
Atlantic there is on an average a difference of 4| days in favour of the 
paddle wheel when compared with the screw, and by the use of 
Mr. Drake's improvement that difference would probably be increased 
to 6| days. 

In my opinion, Sir, it is a subject worthy the immediate attention 
of the Koyal Mail Steam Packet Company, whose vessels having to run 
a longer distance than from Liverpool to New York, would certainly 
save in the passage 3 days each way. 

Your publication of this letter may be of some service to the share- 
holders, whose interests I wish to see improved. 

I remain, Sir, your obedient servant, 

E. M. F . 

London, 19th April, 1854. 

NOTES AND NOVELTIES. 



Large Boring Machine by Messrs. G. & A. Harvey, Albion Works, 
Glasgow.— We extract the following from the Glastjow Post .— " This 
magnificent tool, which has been made for one of Mr. Kobert Napier's 
engine-shops, weighs 30 tons, and stands 25 feet high. The height of the 
entablature of the frame is 1 5 feet, and the width is 14 feet. The frame- 
work is composed of two upright columns, surmounted by an entablature, 
below which the wheels which give power to the boring tool are supported 
on a cross-beam of great size and strength. This tool, which can work at 
all speeds, from one revolution in 2J minutes to 16 revolutions in one 
minute, is capable of boring a hole in solid iron of 10 inches or a 
cylinder of 7 feet diameter, and can take any feed from l-40th to 
l-8th of an inch per revolution of the spindle, and it is capable of boring 
a hole 7 feet 8 inches in length." 

New Form of Safety Lamp. — M. Chuard has been endeavouring 
to improve the construction of the safety lamp, so as to render it, as far 
as possible, safe ; and although he has not as yet succeeded in reducing 
his plan to practice, he has been so far successful as to induce a com- 
mission of the French Institute to award him a prize of 500 francs as an 
encouragement to proceed with his praiseworthy efforts. He proposes 
that the air should only arrive at the flame after having passed through 
a considerable length of metallic tube, the orifice of which is capable of 
being closed by a piston, kept suspended by a thread in a particular 
way. If the quantity of fire-damp should so increase as to produce an 
explosive mixture, a portion will burn in the interior of the lamp and 
consume the thread, by which the piston will fall and close the air tube 
before the flame can pass through the gauze.— Comptes Eendus de 
I'Academie, 30th Jan., 1854. 

Method oe rendering a Coating oe Glue or Size impervious to 
Water.— If a coating of glue or size be washed over with a decoction of 
1 part of powdered gall nuts in 12 parts of water, boiled down to 8 parts 
and strained, it becomes hard, and as solid and impervious to water as a 
good coating of oil-paint; a kind of leather, in fact, is formed. As the 
tannic acid of the gall nuts can only act upon the moist glue,- the decoc- 
tion must either be used while the former is still fresh, or such a 
quantity of it must be used as to soften the glue. Such a coating would, 
no doubt, be worth trying upon ceilings, to present water penetrating 
from the floor above and staining them; and might also be beneficially 
used in houses as a coating under room-papers, especially in so damp a 
climate as Ireland. AVe suppose catechu would answer as well as gall 
nuts for this purpose.— Pohjtechnische Centrcdhalle, 1853, j>. 592. 



Boasting op Iron Ores with the Assistance op a Jet op Steam. — 
In 1843, Von Nordenskjold recommended some trials to be made in 
roasting magnetic iron ore containing pyrites, with the assistance of a 
jet of steam, at the iron works of Dais Brack, in Russian Finland. The 
roasting was effected in a kind of reverberatory furnace, prepared by 
Count Rumford, and Avas effective, the whole of the sulphuret having 
been completely decomposed. The pig